Courken George Deukmejian Jr. was an American politician, the 35th Governor of California from 1983 to 1991 and Attorney General of California from 1979 to 1983. Deukmejian was the first and so far the only governor of Armenian descent of a U. S. state. Deukmejian was born Courken George Deukmejian Jr. in New York. His parents were Armenians who emigrated from the Ottoman Empire in the early 1900s to escape the Armenian Genocide, his father, George Deukmejian, who lost his sister during the Genocide, was a rug merchant born in Gaziantep. Deukmejian's mother, Alice Gairden, was born in Erzurum and worked for Montgomery Ward and for New York State. Deukmejian graduated with a B. A. in Sociology from Siena College in 1949. He earned a Juris Doctor from St. John's University in 1952. From 1953 to 1955, he served in the U. S. Army, assigned to the Judge Advocate General's Corps. Deukmejian moved to California in 1955 where his sister, Anna Ashjian, introduced him to his future wife Gloria Saatjian, a bank teller whose parents were immigrants from Armenia.
They married on February 16, 1957 and had three children: two daughters, born in 1964 and 1969. Deukmejian entered politics in California after a short period of private practice in Long Beach alongside Malcolm M. Lucas. In 1962, was elected to represent Long Beach in the State Assembly. In 1966, he was elected as a state senator, serving from 1967 to 1979, he was a high-profile advocate for capital punishment. By 1969, he was the Majority Leader of the California State Senate, he first ran for Attorney General of California in 1970. He won the election for Attorney General in 1978 and served from 1979 to 1983. During this time, he led a high-profile campaign against cannabis in northern California. Additionally, he led a veto override against Governor Jerry Brown who had vetoed legislation to authorize the death penalty. Deukmejian was elected in 1982 to his first term as Governor of California, defeating Lieutenant Governor Mike Curb, a recording company owner, in the Republican primary. One of his early primary backers was former gubernatorial candidate Joe Shell of Bakersfield, California, a conservative who had opposed Richard M. Nixon in the 1962 primary.
Upon his victory, The New York Times published, "The image that comes across of Mr. Deukmejian - a devoted family man, an Episcopal churchman, an ice cream lover - led one reporter to write,"California may have accidentally elected Iowa's Governor."" In the general election, Deukmejian ran as a conservative supporter of public safety and balanced budgets. In addition, he was critical of outgoing Governor Jerry Brown and promised to run a different administration, he strongly criticized the Supreme Court of California, dominated by Brown appointees, notably controversial Chief Justice Rose Bird. Deukmejian narrowly defeated Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley in the general election. Deukmejian won the election by about 1.2 percent of the 7.5 million votes cast. The victory came despite opinion polls leading up to the election that showed Bradley with a lead, despite exit polling conducted after voting closed that led some news organizations on the night of the election to make early projections of a Bradley victory.
The discrepancy between the polling numbers and the election's ultimate results would come to be termed the "Bradley effect", which refers to a hypothesized tendency of white voters to tell interviewers or pollsters that they are undecided or to vote for a black candidate, but actually vote for his opponent. Altogether Deukmejian's governorship was a departure from that of Jerry Brown, he vowed not to raise taxes saying that he was "business friendly". In addition, he presented himself as a law and order candidate, proposing new efforts to fight crime, he faced a Democrat-dominated California State Legislature during his two terms as governor. He was the sole Republican statewide officeholder until Thomas W. Hayes was appointed California State Treasurer, following the death of Treasurer Jesse Unruh. In 1983, Deukmejian abolished the Caltrans Office of Bicycle Facilities and reduced state spending for bicycle projects from $5 million to the statutory minimum of $360,000 per year. In 1984, he vetoed A.
B. 1, the first bill to ban discrimination against gays and lesbians, which passed the Legislature. In 1986, Bradley sought Deukmejian defeated him by a 61 % to 37 % percent margin, he was regarded as a moderate-to-conservative Republican. The Deukmejian administration entered office during a national economic recession, he first halted the hiring of new state employees and banned out of state travel for those in government. He rejected the legislature's demands for tax hikes, pared $1.1 billion from its budget by selectively vetoing spending items. One year further cuts, along with a nationwide economic rebound that benefited the state, created a billion dollar surplus for 1985, his 1985 budget increased spending in highway construction, but cut into the education, health and environmental budgets. For this he was roundly criticized, the cuts led to his low polling numbers at the end of his tenure as governor. Three years Deukmejian faced his own billion dollar deficit, he supported a raise in the state minimum wage in 1989.
Deukmejian made his career by being tough on crime. When he was in the legislature, he wrote California's capital punishment law; as a candidate for reelection, in 1986 he opposed the retention election of three Brown-appointed justices of the Supreme Court of California due to their consistent opposition to the death penalty in any and all ci
Your Honour and Your Honor redirect here. For a list of English honorifics, see Style. For other uses, see Your Honour A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges; the powers, method of appointment and training of judges vary across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and in an open court; the judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might be an examining magistrate; the ultimate task of a judge is to settle a legal dispute in a final and public manner, thus affirm the rule of law. Judges exercise significant governmental power, they can order police, military or judicial officials to execute searches, imprisonments, distrainments, seizures and similar actions.
However, judges supervise that trial procedures are followed, in order to ensure consistency and impartiality and avoid arbitrariness. The powers of a judge are checked by higher courts such as supreme courts. Before the trial, a pre-trial investigation collecting the facts has been conducted by police officials, such as police officers and coroners, prosecutors or public procurators; the court has three main trained court officials: the judge, the prosecutor and the defence attorney. The role of a judge varies between legal systems. In an adversarial system, as in effect in the U. S. and England, the judge functions as an impartial referee ensuring correct procedure, while the prosecution and the defense present their case to a jury selected from common citizens. The main factfinder is the jury, the judge will finalize sentencing. In smaller cases judges can issue summary judgments without proceeding to a jury trial. In an inquisitorial system, as in effect in continental Europe, there is no jury and the main factfinder is the judge, who will do the presiding and sentencing on his own.
As such, the judge is expected to apply the law directly, as in the French expression Le juge est la bouche de la loi. Furthermore, in some system investigation may be conducted by the judge, functioning as an examining magistrate. Judges may work alone in smaller cases, but in criminal and other significant cases, they work in a panel. In some civil law systems, this panel may include lay judges. Unlike professional judges, lay judges are not trained, but unlike jurors, lay judges are volunteers and may be politically appointed. Judges are assisted by law clerks and notaries in legal cases and by bailiffs or similar with security. There are professional judges. A volunteer judge, such as an English magistrate, is not required to have legal training and is unpaid. Whereas, a professional judge is required to be educated. S. this requires a degree of Juris Doctor. Furthermore, significant professional experience is required. S. judges are appointed from experienced attorneys. Judges are appointed by the head of state.
In some U. S. jurisdictions, judges are elected in a political election. Impartiality is considered important for rule of law. Thus, in many jurisdictions judges may be appointed for life, so that they cannot be removed by the executive. However, in non-democratic systems, the appointment of judges may be politicized and they receive instructions on how to judge, may be removed if their conduct doesn't please the political leadership. Judges must be able to research and process extensive lengths of documents and other case material, understand complex cases and possess a thorough understanding of the law and legal procedure, which requires excellent skills in logical reasoning and decision-making. Excellent writing skills are a necessity, given the finality and authority of the documents written. Judges work with people all the time. Judges are required to have good moral character, i.e. there must be no history of crime. Professional judges enjoy a high salary, in the U. S. the median salary of judges is $101,690 per annum, federal judges earn $208,000–$267,000 per annum.
A variety of traditions have become associated with the occupation. Gavels are used by judges in many countries, to the point that the gavel has become a symbol of a judge. In many parts of the world, judges sit on an elevated platform during trials. American judges wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs and contempt of court power as their main devices to maintain decorum in the courtroom. However, in some of the Western United States, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing. Today, some members of state supreme courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress. In Italy and Portugal, both judges and lawyers wear particular black robes. In some countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges wear wigs; the long wig associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was par
John L. Sehon
John Leicester Sehon was an American Democratic politician from California. Sehon was born c. 1863 in Georgia. He served in the army as a Captain. Sehon was set an independent course as a council member. In 1905 an "anti-boss" mood with San Diego voters caused them to defeat the Republican candidate and elect retired Captain Sehon, of the Democratic and Independent coalition, as mayor of San Diego, which he served until 1907; this defeated the "City Boss" organization of Charles S. Hardy, a successful merchant and leader of the city's most powerful political organization ever. During his campaign he emphasized the idea that the public owned the water supply and was a leader in a reform movement in his previous service in the city council. A controversy rose during the campaign about whether a retired army officer could run for a civil office. Just to make sure there wouldn't be a problem Capt. Sehon disappeared after being elected so court papers couldn't be served on him, just before midnight when his term began he stole into the mayor's office and proclaimed himself mayor.
Court proceedings took place after the fact, where the Superior Court decided against the mayor, but was overruled by the Court of Appeals and California Supreme Court. While mayor, Sehon vetoed a proposal to give the Southern California Mountain Water Company a monopoly to supply water to San Diego. John D. Spreckels, of Spreckels Sugar Company, poured money into city council races to overturn the veto. Sehon was Superintendent of Police in the early 1910s. After a public campaign against prostitution by many prominent citizens, Sehon gave the order on November 1912 to close the "Stingaree District." He is buried at Mount Hope Cemetery. "Political Affairs and Municipal Campaigns," part 5, chapter 2,'History of San Diego 1542-1908 by William E. Smythe
Grant Conard was an American Republican politician from California. Grant Conard was born c. 1867 in Illinois. He was a real estate developer, he was mayor of San Diego during 1909–1911 and from 1913–1916 he served in the California State Assembly. Conard died November 5, 1919 in San Diego aged 52 years
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
William H. Carlson
William H. "Billy" Carlson was an American land developer and Independent politician from California. He served two terms as Mayor of San Diego, he was the first developer of the San Diego neighborhood of Ocean Beach. William "Billy" Carlson was born 1864 in Sweden, he immigrated to the U. S. by 1870 and grew up in San Francisco. Carlson, a fast-talker, would often deny he was an immigrant. By 1885 he had moved to San Diego. On October 3, 1887 Carlson married Carmen Ferrer, of the wealthy Estudillo family. In San Diego he became editor for the San Diego Sun. With San Francisco associate Frank Higgins, he opened a real estate firm, Carlson & Higgins, just when the real estate boom of 1886–88 took off. Carlson and Higgins developed Ocean Beach in 1887, they gave it the name Ocean Beach. They laid out and named the streets, sold lots, constructed a fancy Victorian-style hotel called the Cliff House, they sold 2,200 lots in the first few weeks. To lure buyers they promised to build a rail line to downtown, since the development was 2½ hours from downtown by carriage.
Carlson and Higgins did develop a short rail line from Roseville, a then-independent town on the San Diego Bay side of Point Loma, to Ocean Beach in 1888. They attempted to build a rail line from Old Town to Roseville, but the project foundered in legal troubles after less than a mile of construction. Meanwhile San Diego's real estate boom had ended and the development was in financial trouble; the Cliff House Hotel burned down in 1898. His partner Higgins committed suicide in 1889. Carlson sold the Ocean Beach development to an Eastern financier, its development would wait until 1909, when D. C. Collier built a permanent railroad line. Carlson became quite well known because of the failed development, politically successful, he was first elected as a City Trustee around 1888. He lost. Next, he passed the bar, he was elected to the California State Assembly in 1893. After the legislature adjourned, he ran for mayor in March 1893 as an independent, a last-minute candidate in a five-way race. Carlson was a tall, lanky, good-natured young man with no political connections or party affiliation.
He won with less than 34% of the vote. At 28, Carlson is still the youngest person elected mayor in San Diego, he was elected and reelected on the promise to provide all sorts of civic improvements, although he did not deliver all or most of what he promised. His biggest promise unfulfilled, was to build a railroad east of San Diego. Many people voted for him "just to see what he would do."Carlson served as mayor of San Diego during 1893–1896. He pledged to remove unneeded city jobs, but the council resisted, setting a pattern of conflict for the rest of the term. Many of Carlson's public works. Carlson raised funds for a railroad to Arizona, he raised funds from thousands, but only had enough to lay 10 miles of track. Not until John D. Spreckels' San Diego and Arizona Eastern Railway was this plan realized 25 years later. Towards the end of his Mayoral term, Carlson ran unsuccessfully for Congress, promising a new Post Office in every town. Sure he would win, he had his friend David C. Reed run for mayor, but after he lost the race for Congress, he kept his name on the mayoral ballot.
However, Carlson lost and his friend Reed won in a 3-way race. After losing, Carlson staged his own mock political funeral. Carlson's successes as mayor include obtaining federal funds for a jetty at the entrance to San Diego Bay, first interesting the Navy in San Diego, obtaining state funds for a Normal School, getting a Mexican right-of-way for a railroad to Yuma, mentioned earlier, which Spreckels would exploit. After his defeat, Carlson left town for several real estate and railroad schemes in Los Angeles and Cuba. In 1917 Carlson was caught in a scheme where he sold desert land multiple times to different people and was convicted of mail fraud, he served half of his sentenced time in federal prison, gaining an early release in 1920. Carlson died 1937 in Los Angeles while in the middle of another shady real estate deal. A man is honest as long. Biography by Robert W. Bogue "Political Affairs and Municipal Campaigns", History of San Diego by Smythe