The Hunchback of Notre-Dame
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame is a French Romantic/Gothic novel by Victor Hugo, published in 1831. The novel's original French title, Notre-Dame de Paris, is a double entendre: it refers to Notre Dame Cathedral, on which the story is centered, Esmeralda, the novel's main character, "our lady of Paris" and the center of the human drama within the story. Frederic Shoberl's 1833 English translation was published as The Hunchback of Notre Dame, which refers to Quasimodo, Notre Dame's bellringer. Victor Hugo began writing Notre-Dame de Paris in 1829 to make his contemporaries more aware of the value of the Gothic architecture, neglected and destroyed to be replaced by new buildings or defaced by replacement of parts of buildings in a newer style. For instance, the medieval stained glass panels of Notre-Dame de Paris had been replaced by white glass to let more light into the church; this explains the large descriptive sections of the book, which far exceed the requirements of the story. A few years earlier, Hugo had published a paper entitled Guerre aux Démolisseurs aimed at saving Paris' medieval architecture.
The agreement with his original publisher, was that the book would be finished that same year, but Hugo was delayed due to the demands of other projects. In the summer of 1830, Gosselin demanded that Hugo complete the book by February 1831. Beginning in September 1830, Hugo worked nonstop on the project thereafter; the book was finished six months later. The story is set in Paris in 1482 during the reign of Louis XI; the gypsy Esmeralda captures the hearts of many men, including those of Captain Phoebus and Pierre Gringoire, but Quasimodo and his guardian Archdeacon Claude Frollo. Frollo is torn between the rules of Notre Dame Cathedral, he orders Quasimodo to kidnap her, but Quasimodo is captured by Phoebus and his guards, who save Esmeralda. Gringoire, who attempted to help Esmeralda but was knocked out by Quasimodo, is about to be hanged by beggars when Esmeralda saves him by agreeing to marry him for four years; the following day, Quasimodo is sentenced to be flogged and turned on the pillory for two hours, followed by another hour's public exposure.
He calls for water. Esmeralda, seeing his thirst, offers him a drink of water, it saves him, she captures his heart. Esmeralda is arrested and charged with the attempted murder of Phoebus, whom Frollo attempted to kill in jealousy after seeing him trying to seduce Esmeralda, she is sentenced to death by hanging. As she is being led to the gallows, Quasimodo swings down by the bell rope of Notre-Dame and carries her off to the cathedral, temporarily protecting her – under the law of sanctuary – from arrest. Frollo informs Gringoire that the Court of Parlement has voted to remove Esmeralda's right to the sanctuary so she can no longer seek shelter in the Cathedral and will be taken away to be killed. Clopin, the leader of the Gypsies, hears the news from Gringoire and rallies the citizens of Paris to charge the cathedral and rescue Esmeralda; when Quasimodo sees the Gypsies, he assumes they are there to hurt Esmeralda, so he drives them off. He thinks the King's men want to rescue her, tries to help them find her.
She is rescued by Gringoire. But after yet another failed attempt to win her love, Frollo betrays Esmeralda by handing her to the troops and watches while she is being hanged; when Frollo laughs during Esmeralda's hanging, Quasimodo pushes him from the height of Notre Dame to his death. Quasimodo goes to the cemetery, hugs Esmeralda's body, dies of starvation with her. Years they are discovered and, while trying to separate them, Quasimodo's bones turn to dust. Esmeralda is a beautiful 16-year-old Gypsy street dancer, compassionate and kind, she is the novel's protagonist. A popular focus of the citizens' attentions, she experiences their changeable attitudes, being first adored as an entertainer hated as a witch, before being lauded again by Quasimodo, she is loved by both Quasimodo and Claude Frollo, but she falls hopelessly in love with Captain Phoebus, a handsome soldier whom she believes will rightly protect her but who wants to seduce her. She is one of the few characters to show Quasimodo a moment of human kindness, as when she gives him water after the hunchback's flogging.
She is revealed to not be a gypsy, but to have been kidnapped by them and replaced by the deformed Quasimodo. Claude Frollo, the novel's main antagonist, is the Archdeacon of Notre Dame, his dour attitude and his alchemical experiments have alienated him from the Parisians, who believe him a sorcerer. His parents having died of plague when he was a young man, he is without family save for Quasimodo, for whom he cares, his dissolute younger brother Jehan, whom he unsuccessfully attempts to reform towards a better life. Frollo's numerous sins include failed alchemy and other listed vices, his mad attraction to Esmeralda sets off a chain of events, including her attempted abduction, leading to Quasimodo's sentence to be lashed in the square, Frollo murdering Phoebus in a jealous rage, leading to Esmeralda's execution. Quasimodo, is a deformed 20-year-old hunchback, the bell ringer of Notre Dame, he is half blind and deaf, this because of all the years ringing the bells of the church. Abandoned by his mother as a baby, he was adopted by Claude Frollo.
Quasimodo's life within the confines of the cathedral and his only two outlets —ringing the bells and his love and devotion for Frollo—are described
Marlon Brando Jr. was an American actor and film director. With a career spanning 60 years, he is well-regarded for his cultural influence on 20th-century film. Brando's Academy Award-winning performances include that of Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront and Don Vito Corleone in The Godfather. Brando was an activist for many causes, notably the civil rights movement and various Native American movements, he is credited with helping to popularize the Stanislavski system of acting, having studied with Stella Adler in the 1940s. He is regarded as one of the first actors to bring Method Acting to mainstream audiences, he gained acclaim and an Academy Award nomination for reprising the role of Stanley Kowalski in the 1951 film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' play A Streetcar Named Desire, a role that he originated on Broadway. He received further praise for his performance as Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront, his portrayal of the rebellious motorcycle gang leader Johnny Strabler in The Wild One proved to be a lasting image in popular culture.
Brando received Academy Award nominations for playing Emiliano Zapata in Viva Zapata!. Brando was included in a list of Top Ten Money Making Stars three times in the 1950s, coming in at number 10 in 1954, number 6 in 1955, number 4 in 1958; the 1960s saw. He directed and starred in the cult western film One-Eyed Jacks, a critical and commercial flop, after which he delivered a series of box-office failures, beginning with the 1962 film adaptation of the novel Mutiny on the Bounty. After 10 years, during which he did not appear in a successful film, he won his second Academy Award for playing Vito Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather, a role critics consider among his greatest; the Godfather was one of the most commercially successful films of all time. With that and his Oscar-nominated performance in Last Tango in Paris, Brando re-established himself in the ranks of top box-office stars, placing sixth and tenth in the Money Making Stars poll in 1972 and 1973, respectively. Brando took a four-year hiatus before appearing in The Missouri Breaks.
After this, he was content with being a paid character actor in cameo roles, such as in Superman and The Formula, before taking a nine-year break from motion pictures. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Brando was paid a record $3.7 million and 11.75% of the gross profits for 13 days' work on Superman. He finished out the 1970s with his controversial performance as Colonel Kurtz in another Coppola film, Apocalypse Now, a box-office hit for which he was paid and which helped finance his career layoff during the 1980s. Brando was ranked by the American Film Institute as the fourth-greatest movie star among male movie stars whose screen debuts occurred in or before 1950, he was one of six professional actors, along with Charlie Chaplin, U. S. President Ronald Reagan, Lucille Ball, Frank Sinatra, Marilyn Monroe, named in 1999 by Time magazine as one of its 100 Most Important People of the Century. Brando was born on April 3, 1924, in Omaha, Nebraska, to Marlon Brando, Sr. a pesticide and chemical feed manufacturer, Dorothy Julia.
Brando had Jocelyn Brando and Frances. His ancestry was German, Dutch and Irish, his patrilineal immigrant ancestor, Johann Wilhelm Brandau, arrived in New York in the early 1700s from the Palatinate in Germany. Brando was raised a Christian Scientist, his mother, known as Dodie, was unconventional for her time. An actress herself and a theatre administrator, she helped Henry Fonda begin his acting career. However, she was an alcoholic and had to be brought home from Chicago bars by her husband. In his autobiography, Songs My Mother Taught Me, Brando expressed sadness when writing about his mother: "The anguish that her drinking produced was that she preferred getting drunk to caring for us." Dodie and Brando's father joined Alcoholics Anonymous. Brando harbored far more enmity for his father, stating, "I was his namesake, but nothing I did pleased or interested him, he enjoyed telling me I couldn't do anything right. He had a habit of telling me I would never amount to anything." Brando's parents moved to Evanston, when his father's work took him to Chicago, but separated when Brando was 11 years old.
His mother took the three children to Santa Ana, where they lived with her mother. In 1937, Brando's parents reconciled and moved together to Libertyville, Illinois, a small town north of Chicago. In 1939 and 1941, he worked as an usher at The Liberty. Brando, whose childhood nickname was "Bud", was a mimic from his youth, he developed an ability to absorb the mannerisms of children he played with and display them while staying in character. He was introduced to neighborhood boy Wally Cox and the two were unlikely closest friends until Cox's death in 1973. In the 2007 TCM biopic, Brando: The Documentary, childhood friend George Englund recalls Brando's earliest acting as imitating the cows and horses on the family farm as a way to distract his mother from drinking, his sister Jocelyn was the first to pursue an acting career, going to study at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City. She appeared on Broadway films and television. Brando's sister Frances left college in California to study art in New York.
Brando had been held back a year i
WNBC, virtual channel 4, is the flagship station of the NBC television network, licensed to New York City and serving the New York metropolitan area. It is owned by the NBC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of NBCUniversal and operates as part of a television duopoly with WNJU. WNBC's studios are co-located with NBC's corporate headquarters at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in Midtown Manhattan and its transmitter is located at One World Trade Center. WNBC holds the distinction as the oldest continuously operating commercial television station in the United States. In the few areas of the eastern United States where an NBC station is not receivable over-the-air, WNBC is available on satellite via DirecTV, it is carried on Dish Network and certain cable providers in markets where an NBC affiliate is unavailable. The station is carried via WKAQ-DT3 in San Juan, Puerto Rico. DirecTV allows subscribers in Greater Los Angeles to receive WNBC for an additional monthly fee. What is now WNBC traces its history to experimental station W2XBS, founded by the Radio Corporation of America, in 1928, just two years after NBC was founded as the first nationwide radio network.
A test bed for the experimental RCA Photophone theater television system, W2XBS used the low-definition mechanical television scanning system, was used for reception and interference tests. The call letters W2XBS meant W2XB-south, with W2XB being the call letters of the first experimental station, started a few months earlier at General Electric's main factory in Schenectady, New York, which evolved into today's WRGB. GE was the parent company of both RCA and NBC, technical research was done at the Schenectady plant; the station broadcast on the frequencies of 2.0 to 2.1 megahertz. In 1929, W2XBS upgraded its transmitter and broadcast facilities to handle transmissions of sixty vertical lines at twenty frames per second, on the frequencies of 2.75 to 2.85 megahertz. In 1928, Felix the Cat was one of the first images broadcast by television when RCA chose a papier-mâché Felix doll for an experimental broadcast on W2XBS; the doll was chosen for its tonal contrast and its ability to withstand the intense lights needed in early television and was placed on a rotating phonograph turntable and televised for about two hours each day.
The doll remained on the turntable for nearly a decade as RCA fine-tuned the picture's definition, converted to electronic television. The station left the air sometime in 1933 as RCA turned its attention to all-electronic cathode ray tube television research at its Camden, New Jersey facility, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir K. Zworykin. In 1935, the all-electronic CRT system was authorized as a "field test" project and NBC converted a radio studio in the RCA Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center for television use. In mid-1936, small-scale, irregularly scheduled programming began to air to an audience of some 75 receivers in the homes of high-level RCA staff, a dozen or so sets in a closed circuit viewing room in 52nd-floor offices of the RCA Building; the viewing room hosted visiting organizations or corporate guests, who saw a live program produced in the studios many floors below. Viewership of early NBC broadcasts was restricted to those authorized by the company, whose installed set base reached about 200.
Technical standards for television broadcasting were in flux as well. Between the time experimental transmissions began in 1935 and the beginning of commercial television service in 1941, picture definition increased from 343 to 441 lines, to the 525-line standard used for analog television from the start of full commercial service until the end of analog broadcasts in mid-2009; the sound signal was changed from AM to FM, the spacing of sound and vision carriers was changed several times. Shortly after NBC began a semi-regular television transmission schedule in 1938, DuMont Laboratories announced TV sets for sale to the public, a move that RCA was saving for the opening of the World's Fair on April 30, 1939, the day that scheduled television programming was to begin in New York on NBC with much fanfare. In response, NBC ceased all TV broadcasting for several weeks until RCA sets went on sale and regular NBC telecasts commenced the day the fair opened; as W2XBS broadcasting on "Channel 1", the station scored numerous "firsts", including the first televised Broadway drama, live news event covered by mobile unit, live telecast of a Presidential speech, the first live telecasts of college and Major League Baseball, the first telecast of a National Football League game, the first telecast of a National Hockey League game, the first network telecast of a political convention seen on W3XE Philadelphia and W2XB Schenectady, NY, the broadcast of the feature film The Crooked Circle on June 18, 1940.
But in August 1940, W2XBS transmissions were temporarily put on hold, as "Channel 1" was reassigned by the FCC to 50-56 MHz and technical adjustments needed to be made for the conversion. The station returned to the air in October, just in time to broadcast Franklin D. Roosevelt's second and final appearance on live television, when his speech at Madison Square Garden on October 28, 1940 was telecast over W2XBS. On June 24, 1941, W2XBS received a commercial license under the calls WNBT, thus becoming one
House on Haunted Hill (1999 film)
House on Haunted Hill is a 1999 American supernatural horror film directed by William Malone and starring Geoffrey Rush, Famke Janssen, Taye Diggs, Ali Larter, Chris Kattan, Bridgette Wilson, Peter Gallagher, Jeffrey Combs. The plot follows a group of strangers who are invited to a party at an abandoned insane asylum, where they are offered $1 million each by an amusement park mogul if they are able to survive the night. Produced by Robert Zemeckis and Joel Silver, it is a remake of the 1959 film of the same title directed by William Castle, features special effects by famed make-up artists Gregory Nicotero and Dick Smith. House on Haunted Hill marked the producing debut of Dark Castle Entertainment, a production company that went on to produce numerous other horror films, including additional remakes. House on Haunted Hill premiered on Halloween weekend in 1999. In the tradition of William Castle's theater gimmicks, Warner Bros. supplied promotional scratchcards to cinemas showing the film, offering ticket buyers a chance to win a money prize, similar to the movie's characters.
The film received middling reviews from major critics, but was a commercial success, opening number one at the box office and grossing over $40 million domestically. In 2007, the film was followed by a direct-to-DVD sequel, Return to House on Haunted Hill, released in both rated and unrated editions. In 1931, the patients at the Vannacutt Psychiatric Institute for the Criminally Insane revolt against the staff headed by the sadistic Dr. Richard B. Vannacutt; the patients start a fire which engulfs the building, killing all of the inmates and all but five of Vannacutt’s staff. In 1999, Evelyn Stockard-Price is in a disintegrating marriage with Steven Price, an amusement park mogul. At Evelyn's insistence, Price stages her birthday party at the long-abandoned hospital; the building's owner, Watson Pritchett, is convinced it is evil, having lived there as a child when it was converted to a private residence. Five guests arrive for the party: film producer Jennifer Jenzen; the guests are not the ones Price invited and neither of the Prices know who they are.
Despite this, Price continues the party's advertised theme, offering $1 million to each guest who remains in the house until morning. The building's security system is mysteriously tripped, locking everyone inside – a stunt which Price blames on Evelyn. Jennifer and Pritchett search the basement for the control panel. While exploring the labyrinthine basement, Jennifer confesses to Eddie that her real name is Sara Wolfe, the fired assistant to the real Jennifer, she impersonated Jennifer hoping to win the prize money. Shortly after, Sara is nearly drowned in a tank of blood by a ghost impersonating Eddie, but the real Eddie arrives in time to save her. Melissa subsequently disappears. Price visits his assistant Schechter, supposed to be managing the party stunts, but finds him horribly mutilated. On the surveillance monitor he sees the ghost of Dr. Vannacutt walking around with a bloody saw. Evelyn dies in front of the others, strapped to an electroshock therapy table. Price pulls a gun on the guests, demanding to know.
Eddie knocks him out and they lock Price in the "Saturation Chamber", an archaic zoetrope device that Vannacutt used to treat schizophrenics. Blackburn volunteers to guard Price; when the others leave, he turns the chamber on, leaving Price to be tortured by the moving images and ghostly hallucinations. In Vannacutt's office and Eddie find a portrait of the hospital's head staff and realize that the party guests are descendants of the five survivors of the 1931 fire. Pritchett deduces; the only exception is Blackburn. Blackburn is revealed as Evelyn's lover, they have faked Evelyn's death, plotting to frame Price for the murders, hoping one of the guests will kill him in self-defense. Evelyn heartlessly kills Blackburn, adding another victim releases a delirious Price from the chamber. Sara finds Price, covered in blood and with Blackburn's severed head nearby, shoots him. Eddie and Pritchett bring Sara upstairs, after which Evelyn approaches Price to gloat. Price, protected by a bulletproof vest and posing as dead, attacks Evelyn.
As they scuffle, Evelyn is thrown through a decaying door, revealing the evil core of the house – The Darkness. The shape-shifting creature, composed of the spirits in the house, consumes Evelyn, adding her spirit to its mass. Pritchett is killed by The Darkness. Price tells Eddie that the only escape is through the attic; the Darkness seeps through the house, following them. Price opens a window in the attic sacrifices himself to give the others time to escape. Sara gets out; as The Darkness prepares to assimilate Eddie, Eddie reveals he is adopted, not a true descendant of the original staff. Pritchett's ghost opens the iron gate; the Darkness is distracted by Pritchett long enough for Eddie to escape. Pritchett's ghost and The Darkness fade away as Eddie watch the sun rise, they find. In a post-credits scene, a black and white film is shown, depicting the spirits of the 1931 patients torturing the Prices for eternity. Rush's name "Price" as well as Rush's appearance is a nod to actor Vincent Price, who played the similar lead role named Frederick Loren in the original film.
House on Haunted Hill was the first film pr
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, was an English actor and director who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson, Peggy Ashcroft and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. He worked in films throughout his career, playing more than fifty cinema roles. Late in his career, he had considerable success in television roles, his family had no theatrical connections, but Olivier's father, a clergyman, decided that his son should become an actor. After attending a drama school in London, Olivier learned his craft in a succession of acting jobs during the late 1920s. In 1930 he had his first important West End success in Noël Coward's Private Lives, he appeared in his first film. In 1935 he played in a celebrated production of Romeo and Juliet alongside Gielgud and Ashcroft, by the end of the decade he was an established star. In the 1940s, together with Richardson and John Burrell, Olivier was the co-director of the Old Vic, building it into a respected company.
There his most celebrated roles included Sophocles's Oedipus. In the 1950s Olivier was an independent actor-manager, but his stage career was in the doldrums until he joined the avant garde English Stage Company in 1957 to play the title role in The Entertainer, a part he played on film. From 1963 to 1973 he was the founding director of Britain's National Theatre, running a resident company that fostered many future stars, his own parts there included the title role in Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. Among Olivier's films are Wuthering Heights, a trilogy of Shakespeare films as actor-director: Henry V, Richard III, his films included The Shoes of the Fisherman, Marathon Man, The Boys from Brazil. His television appearances included an adaptation of The Moon and Sixpence, Long Day's Journey into Night, Love Among the Ruins, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Brideshead Revisited and King Lear. Olivier's honours included a life peerage and the Order of Merit. For his on-screen work he received four Academy Awards, two British Academy Film Awards, five Emmy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards.
The National Theatre's largest auditorium is named in his honour, he is commemorated in the Laurence Olivier Awards, given annually by the Society of London Theatre. He was married three times, to the actresses Jill Esmond from 1930 to 1940, Vivien Leigh from 1940 to 1960, Joan Plowright from 1961 until his death. Olivier was born in Dorking, the youngest of the three children of the Reverend Gerard Kerr Olivier and his wife Agnes Louise, née Crookenden, their elder children were Sybille and Gerard Dacres "Dickie". His great-great-grandfather was of French Huguenot descent, Olivier came from a long line of Protestant clergymen. Gerard Olivier had begun a career as a schoolmaster, but in his thirties he discovered a strong religious vocation and was ordained as a priest of the Church of England, he practised high church, ritualist Anglicanism and liked to be addressed as "Father Olivier". This made him unacceptable to most Anglican congregations, the only church posts he was offered were temporary deputising for regular incumbents in their absence.
This meant a nomadic existence, for Laurence's first few years, he never lived in one place long enough to make friends. In 1912, when Olivier was five, his father secured a permanent appointment as assistant rector at St Saviour's, Pimlico, he held the post for six years, a stable family life was at last possible. Olivier was devoted to his mother, but not to his father, whom he found a remote parent, he learned a great deal of the art of performing from him. As a young man Gerard Olivier had considered a stage career and was a dramatic and effective preacher. Olivier wrote that his father knew "when to drop the voice, when to bellow about the perils of hellfire, when to slip in a gag, when to wax sentimental... The quick changes of mood and manner absorbed me, I have never forgotten them." In 1916, after attending a series of preparatory schools, Olivier passed the singing examination for admission to the choir school of All Saints, Margaret Street, in central London. His elder brother was a pupil, Olivier settled in, though he felt himself to be something of an outsider.
The church's style of worship was Anglo-Catholic, with emphasis on ritual and incense. The theatricality of the services appealed to Olivier, the vicar encouraged the students to develop a taste for secular as well as religious drama. In a school production of Julius Caesar in 1917, the ten-year-old Olivier's performance as Brutus impressed an audience that included Lady Tree, the young Sybil Thorndike, Ellen Terry, who wrote in her diary, "The small boy who played Brutus is a great actor." He won praise in other schoolboy productions, as Maria in Twelfth Night and Katherine in The Taming of the Shrew. From All Saints, Olivier went on to St Edward's School, from 1920 to 1924, he made little mark until his final year, when he played Puck in the school's production of A Midsummer Night's Dream. In January 1924, his brother left England to work in India as a rubber planter. Olivier missed him and asked his father how soon he could follow, he recalled in his memoirs that his father replied, "Don't be such a fool, you're not going to India, you're going on the stage."
In 1924 Gerard Olivier, a habitually fru
Larchmont, New York
Larchmont is a village located within the Town of Mamaroneck in Westchester County, New York 18 miles northeast of Midtown Manhattan. The population of the village was 5,864 at the 2010 census. In March 2018, Bloomberg ranked Larchmont as the 24th wealthiest place in the United States, the fourth wealthiest in New York. In July 2005, CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Larchmont 11th on its list of the 100 Best Places to Live in the United States. Inhabited by the Siwanoy, Larchmont was explored by the Dutch in 1614. In 1661, John Richbell, a merchant from Hampshire, traded a minimal amount of goods and trinkets with the Siwanoy in exchange for land, today known as the Town of Mamaroneck; the purchase included three peninsulas of land that lay between the Mamaroneck River to the east, Pelham Manor to the west. The east neck is now known as Orienta; the third neck was sold and is now known as Davenport Neck in New Rochelle. The purchase was contested by Thomas Revell who, one month following Richbell's purchase, bought the land from the Siwanoy at a higher price.
Richbell petitioned Governor Stuyvesant, Director General of the Colonies of the New Netherland, Richbell was issued the land patent in 1662. In 1664 Great Britain took control of the colonies and Richbell received an English title for his lands in 1668 whereupon he began to encourage settlement. In 1675 Richbell leased his "Middle Neck" to his brother however when he died in 1684 none of his original property remained in his name. In 1700, Samuel Palmer, elected the Town's first supervisor in 1697, obtained the original leases on the "Middle Neck", in 1722 the Palmer family obtained full title to the land which included what is now the Incorporated Village of Larchmont. Larchmont's oldest and most historic home, the "Manor House" on Elm Avenue, was built in 1797 by Peter Jay Munro. Munro was the nephew of John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, was adopted by Jay. At the beginning of the 19th Century, Munro was active in the abolitionist movement, helping to found the New York State Manumission Society, along with his uncle and Alexander Hamilton.
In 1795 Munro had purchased much of the land owned by Samuel Palmer and by 1828 he owned all of the "Middle Neck" south of the Post Road and much of the land north of the Post Road as well. Munro became a lawyer with Aaron Burr's law firm and built a home in Larchmont Manor known as the Manor House. Munro's house faced towards the Boston Post Road, which tended to generate a lot of dust in summer months. To combat this, his gardener imported a Scottish species of larch trees that were known to be fast growing; these were planted along the front of the property giving the village its name. When Munro died in 1833, his son Henry inherited the property which he subsequently lost and sold at auction in 1845 to Edward Knight Collins, owner of a steamship line. By the end of the Civil War in 1865, Collins had gone bankrupt and his estate was put up for auction and purchased by Thompson J. S. Flint. Flint divided the estate into building lots and called his development company the Larchmont Manor Company.
Flint converted the Munro Mansion into an inn for prospective buyers and reserved some waterfront land for use as a park for the future residents of the Manor. After 1872 the area became a popular summer resort for wealthy New Yorkers; the arrival of the New York & New Haven Railroad replaced the stagecoach and steamboat as the main mode of transportation to and from New York City, making it much easier to commute and thus, modernizing travel which helped develop much of Westchester from farmland into suburbs by the 1900s. Larchmont is a French name; the New York legislature created Mamaroneck as a town in 1788, which includes a part of the Village of Mamaroneck, The Village of Larchmont, the unincorporated area in the Town of Mamaroneck. This three part division occurred in the 1890s to meet the growing demand for municipal services which the town could not provide. At the time, a town was defined as only being able to provide basic government functions leaving residents of Larchmont in need of adequate water supply, sewage disposal, garbage collection, police and fire protection.
In 1891 the residents of Larchmont Manor obtained a charter from the legislature in which they incorporated that section of Town into a village. In order to comply with a law requiring incorporated villages to have at least 300 inhabitants per square mile, the boundaries of the newly incorporated Larchmont village were expanded beyond the Manor's 288 acres to include land to its north and south of the railroad, east to Weaver Street. After the advent of the automobile, Larchmont transitioned from a resort community into one of the earliest suburbs in the United States, catering to wealthy individuals commuting to and from New York City for work on a daily basis. Many of the Victorian "cottages" and a grand hotels remain to this day, though these have been converted to other uses such as private residences; the Larchmont Yacht Club hosts an annual Race Week competition. It is adjacent to Manor Park, designed by Jeremiah Towle, an early summer resident of Larchmont Manor and an engineer; the Larchmont Shore Club hosts an annual Swim Across America challenge, across Long Island Sound.
Larchmont and neighboring Mamaroneck and New Rochelle are noted for their significant French American populace due to the French-American School of New York. Larchmont is located at 40°55′34″N 73°45′11″W (
The Godfather is a 1972 American crime film directed by Francis Ford Coppola and produced by Albert S. Ruddy, based on Mario Puzo's best-selling novel of the same name, it stars Marlon Al Pacino as the leaders of a fictional New York crime family. The story, spanning 1945 to 1955, chronicles the family under the patriarch Vito Corleone, focusing on the transformation of Michael Corleone from reluctant family outsider to ruthless mafia boss. Paramount Pictures obtained the rights to the novel for the price of $80,000, before it gained popularity. Studio executives had trouble finding a director, they and Coppola disagreed over who would play several characters, in particular and Michael. Filming took place on location around New York and in Sicily, was completed ahead of schedule; the musical score was principally composed with additional pieces by Carmine Coppola. The film was the highest-grossing film of 1972 and was for a time the highest-grossing film made, it won the Oscars for Best Actor and Best Adapted Screenplay.
Its seven other Oscar nominations included Pacino, James Caan, Robert Duvall, Coppola for Best Director. The Godfather is regarded as one of the greatest films in world cinema and one of the most influential in the gangster genre, it was selected for preservation in the U. S. National Film Registry of the Library of Congress in 1990, being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" and is ranked the second-greatest film in American cinema by the American Film Institute, it was followed by sequels The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III. In 1945, at his daughter Connie's wedding to Carlo Rizzi, Don Vito Corleone hears requests in his role as head of a New York crime family, his youngest son, a Marine during World War II, introduces his girlfriend, Kay Adams, to his family at the reception. Johnny Fontane, a famous singer and Vito's godson, seeks Vito's help in securing a movie role. Woltz refuses. Shortly before Christmas, drug baron Virgil "The Turk" Sollozzo, backed by the Tattaglia crime family, asks Vito for investment in his narcotics business and protection through his political connections.
Wary of involvement in a dangerous new trade that risks alienating political insiders, Vito declines. Suspicious, Vito sends Luca Brasi, to spy on them. Brasi is garroted during his first meeting with Bruno Sollozzo. Sollozzo has Vito gunned down in the street kidnaps Hagen. With Corleone first-born Sonny in command, Sollozzo pressures Hagen to persuade Sonny to accept Sollozzo's deal releases him; the family receives fish wrapped in Brasi's bullet-proof vest, indicating that Luca "sleeps with the fishes." Vito survives, at the hospital Michael thwarts another attempt on his father. Sonny retaliates with a hit on Bruno Tattaglia. Michael plots to murder Sollozzo and McCluskey: on the deception of settling the dispute, Michael meets them in a Bronx restaurant. There, retrieving a planted handgun, he kills both men. Despite a clampdown by the authorities, the Five Families erupt in open warfare and Vito fears for his sons' safety. Michael takes refuge in Fredo is sheltered by Moe Greene in Las Vegas.
Sonny attacks Carlo on the street for abusing Connie, threatens to kill him if it happens again. When it does, Sonny speeds to their home, but is ambushed at a highway toll booth and riddled with submachine gun fire. While in Sicily, Michael meets and marries Apollonia Vitelli, but a car bomb intended for him takes her life. Devastated by Sonny's death and realizing that the Tattaglias are controlled by the now-dominant Don Emilio Barzini, Vito attempts to end the feud, he assures the Five Families that he will withdraw his opposition to their heroin business and forgo avenging Sonny's murder. His safety guaranteed, Michael returns home to enter the family business and marry Kay, promising her that the business will be legitimate within five years. Kay gives birth to two children by the early 1950s, with his father at the end of his career and his brother too weak, Michael takes the family reins, he insists Hagen relocate to Las Vegas and relinquish his role to Vito because Tom is not a "wartime consigliere".
Michael travels to Las Vegas to buy out Greene's stake in the family's casinos. Michael is dismayed to see. In 1955, Vito suffers a fatal heart attack. At the funeral, Tessio, a Corleone capo, asks Michael to meet with Don Barzini, signalling the betrayal that Vito had forewarned; the meeting is set for the same day as the baptism of Connie's baby. While Michael stands at the altar as the child's godfather, Corleone assassins murder the other New York dons and Moe Greene. Tessio is executed for his treachery and Michael extracts Carlo's confession to his complicity in setting up Sonny's murder for Barzini. A Corleone capo, garrotes Carlo with a wire. Connie accuses Michael of the murder. Kay is relieved when Michael denies it, but when the capos arrive, they address her husband as Don Corleone and she watches as they close the door on her; the Corleone FamilyMarlon Brando as Vito Corleone patriarch of the family, born Vito Andolini in Sicil