Sebring International Raceway
Sebring International Raceway is a road course auto racing facility in the southeastern United States, located near Sebring, Florida. Sebring Raceway is one of the oldest continuously operating race tracks in the U. S. its first race being run in 1950. Sebring is one of the classic race tracks in North American sports car racing, plays host to the 12 Hours of Sebring; the raceway occupies a portion of Sebring Regional Airport, an active airport for private and commercial traffic, built as Hendricks Army Airfield, a World War II training base for the U. S. Army Air Forces. Sebring Raceway occupies the site of Hendricks Army Airfield, a training base for B-17 pilots in operation from 1941 to 1946. After the war, Russian-American aeronautical engineer Alec Ulmann was seeking sites for converting military aircraft to civilian use when he discovered potential in Hendricks' runways and service roads to stage a sports car endurance race similar to the 24 Hours of Le Mans, a race Ulmann was inspired to somewhat re-create in the United States.
Sebring's first race was held on New Year's Eve of 1950, attracting thirty race cars from across North America. The Sam Collier 6 Hour Memorial race was won by Frits Koster and Ralph Deshon in a Crosley Hot Shot, driven to the track by Victor Sharpe; the first 12 Hours of Sebring was held on March 15, 1952, shortly growing into a major international race. In 1959, the track hosted the U. S.' First Formula One race, held as that year's installment of the historic United States Grand Prix competition. However poor attendance and high costs relocated the next U. S. Grand Prix to Riverside International Raceway in southern California. For much of Sebring's history, the track followed a 5.2-mile layout. After a disastrous 1966 12 Hours with five fatalities, the track was widened and lengthened 50 yards for 1967 with the removal of the Webster Turn between the hairpin and the top of the track and replacement with the faster Green Park Chicane; this was closer to the hairpin and allowed a flat-out run through a fast corner to the top of the track and the runway.
Another dangerous section was the Warehouse straight, where the organizers installed a left-right turn to move the track away from the warehouses and buildings after a crash where during that 1966 12 Hours a privately-entered Porsche went into one of the warehouses and into a crowd, killing four spectators. The circuit was changed and shortened in 1983 to allow simultaneous use of the track and one of the runways, major changes in 1987 allowed use of another runway. Further changes in 1991 accommodated expansion of the airport's facilities, allowing the entire track to be used without interfering with normal airport operations and bringing it close to its current configuration; the hairpin was removed in 1997 due to a lack of run-off, replaced with what became known as the "safety pin". Gendebien Bend was re-profiled to slow the cars' entry to the Ullman straight; the track is owned by IMSA Holdings, LLC through its subsidiary Sebring International Raceway, LLC via its purchase of the Panoz MSG in September 2012.
It is leased by the Sebring International Raceway, LLC, which acquired the facility from Andy Evans in 1997. The track is recognized for its famous, high-speed "Turn 17", a long, fast right hander that can make or break a car's speed down the front straight; the corner can fit up to 3 cars wide. Skip Barber Racing School held numerous programs at the facility, including a scholarship opportunity for young racers; the World Endurance Championship runs a round called the 1000 Miles of Sebring, run concurrently with the famed 12 Hours. This race was first run with Toyota Gazoo Racing winning overall. Sebring International Raceway consist of three tracks: the Full Circuit, the Short Circuit, the Club Circuit; the course of the track itself is 3.74 miles long. It is a seventeen-turn road course with long straights, several high-speed corners, technical slower corners. Many of the turns and points along the track are named for the early drivers. Due to Florida's flat nature there is little elevation change around the track and little camber on the surface, providing a challenging track for drivers when it rains.
Sebring is renowned for its rough and changing surfaces. The course still runs on old sections of World War II-era landing fields that were constructed of concrete sections with large seams; the transitions between sections are quite rough and sparks fly from the undercarriages of the cars as they traverse them. Much of the track has intentionally been left with its original concrete runway surface; the 12 Hours of Sebring is renowned as a race, harder on machinery and drivers than Le Mans, is seen as an ideal preparation run for the famed French race. The track surface has 0.7 miles of concrete. Mario Andretti, a 3-time 12 Hours winner, said that one of the hardest parts about the original Sebring track was "finding the track to begin with." There had been many accounts of drivers retiring due to accidents at night, quite because they got lost on the runway sections and couldn't find the track again. Some drivers got lost during the day because the track was poorly marked down with white lines and cones.
Sebring is most notable for hosting the 12 Hours of Sebring, sanctioned by the FIA and IMSA, as part of many major endurance racing series, including the World Sportscar Championship, Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, ALMS, now, the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship. This race is the second of four races in t
Watkins Glen International
Watkins Glen International, nicknamed "The Glen", is an automobile race track located in Watkins Glen, New York, at the southern tip of Seneca Lake. It was long known around the world as the home of the Formula One United States Grand Prix, which it hosted for twenty consecutive years, but the site has been home to road racing of nearly every class, including the World Sportscar Championship, Trans-Am, Can-Am, Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the International Motor Sports Association and the IndyCar Series. Public roads in the village were used for the race course. In 1956 a permanent circuit for the race was built. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours; the circuit's current layout has more or less been the same since 1971. A chicane was installed at the uphill Esses in 1975 to slow cars through these corners, where a driver died during practice at the 1973 United States Grand Prix, removed in 1985. Another chicane called the "Inner Loop" was installed in 1992 after a fatal accident during the previous year's NASCAR Winston Cup event.
The circuit is known as the Mecca of North American road racing and is a popular venue among fans and drivers. The facility is owned by International Speedway Corporation; the circuit has been the site of music concerts: the 1973 Summer Jam, featuring The Allman Brothers Band, the Grateful Dead and The Band and attended by 600,000 fans, two Phish festivals: Super Ball IX in 2011 and Magnaball in 2015. The Watkins Glen International race course has undergone several changes over the years, with five general layouts recognized over its history. Two distinct layouts are used—the "Boot" layout and the "NASCAR" layout; the first races in Watkins Glen were organized by Cameron Argetsinger, whose family had a summer home in the area. With local Chamber of Commerce approval and SCCA sanction, the first Watkins Glen Grand Prix took place in 1948 on a 6.6-mile course over local public roads. For the first few years, the races passed through the heart of the town with spectators lining the sidewalks, but after a car driven by Fred Wacker left the road in the 1952 race, killing seven-year-old Frank Fazzari and injuring several others, the race was moved to a new location on a wooded hilltop southwest of town.
The original 6.6-mile course is listed in the New York State register and National Register of Historic Places as the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Course, 1948-1952. The second layout 4.6-mile began use in 1953 and used existing roads. The Watkins Glen Grand Prix Corporation was formed to manage spectators and concessions; this arrangement lasted three years. The first permanent course was constructed on 550 acres, overlapping part of the previous street course, it was designed by engineering professors from Cornell University. The layout measured 2.35-mile. This course was used from 1956–1970. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours; the circuit underwent a major overhaul for the 1971 season. The "Big Bend" and the turns leading up to it were eliminated, replaced with a new pit straight; the pits and start/finish line were moved to this new straightaway. "The 90" now became Turn 1 instead of Turn 8. When the 1971 Six Hours of Watkins Glen arrived in July 1971, the overall circuit renovations were still unfinished.
The short course had been finished, but the Boot segments were not complete, nor was the new pit area. The 1971 Six Hours race was run on the short course layout, that layout colloquially became known as the 1971 Six Hours Course. In addition, for 1971 only, the cars used the old pits; when NASCAR returned to the track in 1986, they chose to use the short course layout. IMSA used the "Boot", but that series began using the shorter 1971 layout; the short course was lengthened in 1992. The most significant change to the track, a new segment known as "The Boot", was finished in time for the Formula One race; the start-finish line was moved to the new pit straight as planned. At the end of the backstretch, after the Loop-Chute, cars swept left into a new four-turn complex that departed from the old layout, curling left-hand downhill through the woods; the track followed the edge of the hillside to two uphill right-hand turns, over an exciting blind crest into a right-hand turn, down and up into a left-hand turn rejoining the old track.
The new layout measured 3.377 miles. With its intrinsic link to the Formula One race, it became known colloquially as the Grand Prix Circuit. For 1972, the Six Hours sports car race began using the full "Boot" layout. By that time, nearly all facility improvements were completed, the pits and start/finish line were permanently moved to the new pit straight. In 1975, a fast right-left chicane was added in the turn 3-4 Esses section to slow speeds through the series of corners; this chicane was eliminated in the 1980s. In the early 1990s, the IMSA sports cars began bypassing the "Boot" in favor of the short course. To date, NASCAR events have never used the Boot layout; the "Long/Boot" course was lengthened in 1992. In the mid-2000s, the Boot segment, which had seen little use in many years, was repaved and upgraded; when the IndyCar Series returned to Watkins Glen starting in 2005, they elected to use the Boot segment. A full repaving of the course took place in 2015, in recent years, there has been a renewed interest and appreciation of the full Grand Prix Course layout.
Consideration had been made for NASCAR to start using the Boot. After a succession of serious crashes took place at the "Loop" at the end of the backs
John Fitch (racing driver)
John Cooper Fitch was an American racing driver and inventor. He was the first American to race automobiles in Europe in the post-war era. In the course of a driving career which spanned 18 years, Fitch won such notable sports car races as the Gran Premio de Eva Duarte Perón – Sport, 1953 12 Hours of Sebring, 1955 Mille Miglia, the 1955 RAC Tourist Trophy, as well as numerous SCCA National Sports Car Championship races, he involved in Briggs Cunningham’s ambitious Le Mans projects in the early 1950s, was a member of the Mercedes-Benz sport car team. He competed in two World Championship Grands Prix. After retirement in 1964, Fitch was the manager of Lime Rock circuit, a former team boss of Chevrolet's Corvette racing team, his biggest legacy is motor sport safety, as well as pioneering work to improve road car safety, this has helped save countless lives. He had worked on advanced driver safety capsule systems, he was a track design consultant, as well as inventing many other automotive devices.
Into his 90s, Fitch was still a consultant, appeared at historic events. John Fitch was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1917, he was a descendent of the inventor of John Fitch. Fitch's stepfather was an executive with the Stutz Motor Company, which introduced him to cars and racing at an early age. In the late thirties, Fitch attended Kentucky Military Institute studied civil engineering at Lehigh University. While in 1939, he travelled to Europe and saw the last car race at Brooklands before the outbreak of World War II, he returned to the United States, sailed around the Gulf of Mexico in a 32-foot schooner from Sarasota to New Orleans. His first passion was not cars, it was airplanes, so it was not surprising that when war broke out, he volunteered to become a pilot, whilst in England on an extended trip around the world. In spring of 1941, he volunteered for the United States Army Air Corps, his service took him to North Africa, where he flew the A-20 Havoc and on to England. By 1944, Captain Fitch was a P-51 Mustang pilot with the Fourth Fighter Group on bomber escort missions, became one of the Americans to shoot down a German Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter.
Just two months before the end of the war, he was shot down himself while making an ill-advised third strafing pass on an Axis train and spent the rest of the war as a prisoner of war. When Fitch returned to the U. S. he was among many young pilots. Fitch opened an MG car dealership and began racing an MG-TC at tracks like Bridgehampton and Watkins Glen. Unlike many of his contemporaries, Fitch was good. So good in fact, he caught the attention of the wealthy racing enthusiast, Briggs Cunningham, who encouraged Fitch to start the 1951 season racing in Argentina. In 1950, Fitch raced his Ford Flathead engined Fiat 1100, which he soon modified into the "Fitch Model B", ended the year by driving a Jaguar XK120 in the Sebring Grand Prix of Endurance Six Hours. In 1951, in addition to campaigning in his Fitch-Whitmore, he boosted his early reputation by winning the Gran Premio de Eva Duarte Perón – Sport in his Allard-Cadillac J2; as a result of that win, Juan Perón generously awarded him membership in the Justicialist Party, whilst the trophy and a kiss were given by Eva Perón.
He clinched the support of Cunningham, whose financial clout allowed Fitch to race. He was drove a Cunningham C-2 for the Cunningham team at several races, including the 1951 24 Hours of Le Mans, scoring a number of impressive victories in the early ‘50s at then-fledgling road courses like Elkhart Lake and Watkins Glen, was crowned the first SCCA National Sports Car Champion. In 1951, John raced an Effyh Formula Three car, winning at Bridgehampton and a class win at Giants Despair. In 1952, Fitch continued to race the Fitch-Whitmore as well as a Chrysler-engined Cunningham C4-R for the Cunningham team at several races, a works Sunbeam at the Alpine Rally. Seven years after shooting at Germans, he was racing their cars - a Porsche 356 at a race at the legendary Nürburgring, a Mercedes-Benz 300 SL prototype in the Carrera Panamericana, it was at Le Mans that Fitch came close to making Cunningham’s dream of an all-American Le Mans victory come true, after setting the fastest lap in his C4-R, he was forced to retire late in the race as a result of ‘bad fuel’.
During the race, Fitch was impressed by the new Mercedes-Benz 300 SLs, while Mercedes’ team chief engineer, Rudolf Uhlenhaut, impressed by Fitch’s performance, offered Fitch the opportunity to test the car at Nürburgring. Advised by Mercedes’s team manager, Alfred Neubauer, to take it easy, Fitch’s agenda was more aggressive as he saw this as an audition to join the Daimler outfit, he drove his allotted two laps as. Neubauer's response was to have Fitch do one more lap to prove. Fitch shaved a few seconds off his previous lap and the session ended with the proverbial, "We’ll be in touch if something comes up." He decided to make "something" happen, persuaded Neubauer to send a team of 300 SLs to Mexico for the Carrera Panamaricana, a race that the German team weren’t going to enter. Fitch’s persistence won, he was invited to Mexico City to pilot one of the team’s trio of cars and drivers Hermann Lang and Karl Kling, two coupes of the Germans and a new, but untried, roadster for Fitch. Fitch’s car kept throwing the treads off its tyres and he experienced a high-speed blowout that took out one of the shock absorber mounts, which affected the front suspension.
With Kling and Lang finishing first and second, putting Mercedes-Benz back on the ma
Wellington is a village just west of West Palm Beach in central Palm Beach County, United States. As of 2017, the city had a population of 64,848 according to the U. S. Census Bureau, making it the most populous village in the state, it is the fifth largest municipality in Palm Beach County by population. Wellington is part of the Miami metropolitan area. Wellington was named Money Magazine's "Top 100" Best Places to Live in 2010. Although Wellington is not a village under any standard definition of the term village in the US, it is referred to as the "Village of Wellington"; the area is home to The Mall at Wellington Green and a shopping plaza surrounding it. In the 1950s, Charles Oliver Wellington, an accountant from Massachusetts, purchased about 18,000 acres of central Palm Beach County swampland located south of Florida State Road 80 and west of U. S. Route 441. Mr. Wellington named the property Flying Cow Ranch, due to his other occupation as an aviator and his initials spelling the word "cow".
The ranch became protected against floodwaters from the Everglades after the United States Army Corps of Engineers constructed a levee to south of the property between 1952 and 1953. Following Mr. Wellington's death in 1959, his son Roger inherited the property; the family decided to sell 1,200 acres at $300 per acre to Arthur William "Bink" Glisson, Charles' agent. Glisson sold the land for $1,000 per acre within the following several months. Many other farmers began leasing portions of the Flying Cow Ranch in the 1960s. About 2,000 acres were used for growing strawberries at one point, claimed to be the largest strawberry patch in the world. After Roger Wellington sold 7,200 acres of land to developer Jim Nall of Fort Lauderdale in 1972, the Palm Beach County Board of Commissioners unanimously approved a proposal by the Acme Drainage District for the area to become a planned unit development. Among the first projects included the development of 150 acre Lake Wellington and the construction of a golf course, a country club, residential neighborhoods.
Following acquisition of the project in the late 1970s by Gould Florida Inc. the company built the International Polo Club Palm Beach and the Aero Club, a neighborhood with a private airpark. The area's first official population count occurred during the 1980 Census, when Wellington was defined as a Census-designated place. A total of 4,622 people lived there at the time. Wellington functioned as a sprawling bedroom community with few shopping centers or restaurants until the 1990s. A vote for incorporation of the village of Wellington was held on November 7, 1995, with 3,851 votes in support and 3,713 votes in opposition, a margin of just 138 votes. Wellington became a village on December 31, 1995, as a state revenue sharing program required it to exist in 1995 in order to be eligible for funding in 1996; the village became Palm Beach County's 37th municipality and the ninth most populous city in the county at the time, with 28,000 residents. The first village council elections were held on March 12, 1996.
None of the candidates for any of the five seats secured a majority of the votes, forcing runoffs to be held on March 26. The first elected village council members were Paul Adams, Michael McDonough, Tom Wenham, Carmine Priore, Kathy Foster. Two days the council held its first meeting and selected Foster for mayor, Priore for vice mayor, Colin Baenziger for village manager, it has now become known as an international center for equestrian sports. Wellington is located at 26°39′18″N 80°15′15″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 31.4 square miles, of which 31.0 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. As of 2010, there were 22,685 households, with 13.3% being vacant. In 2000, there were 12,938 households out of which 69.7% were married couples, 47.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.4% were non-families. 13.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.25. In 2000, the village the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. As of 2015, the median income for a household in the village was $77,233; the per capita income for the village was $40,726. About 2.9% of families and 4.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.2% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, 83.52% of residents spoke English as a first language, while 12.18% spoke Spanish, French accounted for 0.98%, French Creole for 0.79%, Italian made up 0.61%, Vietnamese was the mother tongue of 0.47% of the population. As of 2000, Wellington had the eighty-fifth highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, with 3.27% of the village's population.
The Village of Wellington has the following parks: Wellington provides a number of ball fields. Beach activities are around a half hour's drive time, due east, to the Palm Beaches. For variety, from Wellington one can access Fort Lauderdale less than one hour away or travel to South Beach a one and half hour's drive. Wellington is known for its equestrian community and hosting equestrian events, notably show jumping, hunting and polo. Wellington is host to the Winter Equestrian Festival, the largest and longe
Sports Car Club of America
The Sports Car Club of America is an American automobile club and sanctioning body supporting road racing and autocross in the United States. Formed in 1944, it runs many programs for both amateur and professional racers; the SCCA traces its roots to the Automobile Racing Club of America. ARCA was founded in 1933 by brothers Miles and Sam Collier, dissolved in 1941 at the outbreak of World War II; the SCCA was formed in 1944 as an enthusiast group. The SCCA began sanctioning road racing in 1948 with the inaugural Watkins Glen Grand Prix. Cameron Argetsinger, an SCCA member and local enthusiast who would become Director of Pro Racing and Executive Director of the SCCA, helped organize the event for the SCCA. In 1951, the SCCA National Sports Car Championship was formed from existing marquee events around the nation, including Watkins Glen, Pebble Beach, Elkhart Lake. Many early SCCA events were held on disused air force bases, organized with the help of Air Force General Curtis LeMay, a renowned enthusiast of sports car racing.
LeMay loaned out facilities of Strategic Air Command bases for the SCCA's use. By 1962, the SCCA was tasked with managing the U. S. World Sportscar Championship rounds at Daytona, Sebring and Watkins Glen; the club was involved in the Formula 1 U. S. Grand Prix. SCCA Executive Director John Bishop helped to create the United States Road Racing Championship series for Group 7 sports cars to recover races, taken by rival USAC Road Racing Championship. Bishop was instrumental in founding the SCCA Trans-Am Series and the SCCA/CASC Can-Am series. In 1969, tension and infighting over Pro Racing's autonomy caused Bishop to resign and help form the International Motor Sports Association; the SCCA began sanctioning professional racing. In 1963, the United States Road Racing Championship was formed. In 1966 the Canadian-American Challenge Cup was created for Group 7 open-top sportscars; the Trans-Am Series for pony cars began in 1966. Today, Trans-Am uses GT-1 class regulations. A professional series for open-wheel racing cars was introduced in 1967 as the SCCA Grand Prix Championship.
This series was held under various names through to the 1976 SCCA/USAC Formula 5000 Championship. Current SCCA-sanctioned series include Trans Am, the Pirelli World Challenge for GT and touring cars, the Global MX-5 Cup, F2000 Championship Series, F1600 Championship Series and the Atlantic Championship Series. SCCA Pro Racing has sanctioned professional series for some amateur classes such as Spec Racer Ford Pro and Formula Enterprises Pro. SCCA Pro Racing sanctioned the Volkswagen Jetta TDI Cup during its time; the Club Racing program is a road racing division where drivers race on either dedicated race tracks or on temporary street circuits. Competitors require a national racing license. Both modified production cars and designed-from-scratch "formula" and "sports racer" cars can be used in Club Racing. Most of the participants in the Club Racing program are unpaid amateurs, but some go on to professional racing careers; the club is the source for race workers in all specialties. The annual national championship for Club Racing is called the SCCA National Championship Runoffs and has been held at Riverside International Raceway, Daytona International Speedway, Road Atlanta, Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course, Heartland Park Topeka, Road America, Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca, Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
In 2018, the Runoffs will go back west to Sonoma Raceway. In 2019, the race will be held at Virginia International Raceway a track where the race has never been held, it was announced on June 15, 2018 that the Runoffs would go back to Road America in the year 2020. The current SCCA record holder is Jerry Hansen, with twenty-seven national championships; the eight classes of the formula group are Formula Atlantic, Formula 1000, Formula SCCA, Formula Continental, Formula Mazda, Formula F, Formula 500 and Formula Vee The autocross program is branded as "Solo". Up to four cars at a time run on a course laid out with traffic cones on a large paved surface, such as a parking lot or airport runway, without interfering with one another. Competitions are held at the regional and national levels; each division crowns a divisional champion in each class, determined at a single event. A national champion in each class is determined at the national championship held in September. In 2009, Solo Nationals moved to the Lincoln Airpark in Nebraska.
Individual national-level events called "Championship Tours" and "Match Tours" are held throughout the racing season. The SCCA holds national-level events in an alternate format called "ProSolo". In ProSolo, two cars compete at the same time on mirror-image courses with drag racing-style starts, complete with reaction and 60-foot times. Class winners and other qualifiers compete in a handicapped elimination round called the "Challenge". Points are awarded in both class and Challenge competition, an annual champion is crowned each September at
MG, the initials of Morris Garages, is a British automotive marque registered by the now defunct MG Car Company Limited, a British sports car manufacturer begun in the 1920s as a sales promotion sideline within W. R. Morris's Oxford city retail sales and service business by the business's manager, Cecil Kimber. Best known for its two-seat open sports cars, MG produced saloons and coupés. Kimber was an employee of William Morris; the MG business was Morris's personal property until 1 July 1935 when he sold MG to his holding company, Morris Motors Limited, restructuring his holdings before issuing shares in Morris Motors to the public in 1936. MG underwent many changes in ownership starting with Morris merging with Austin in The British Motor Corporation Limited in 1952. MG became the MG Division of BMC in 1967 and so a component of the 1968 merger that created British Leyland Motor Corporation. By the start of 2000 MG was part of the MG Rover Group, which entered receivership in 2005; the assets and MG brand were purchased by Nanjing Automobile Group for GB£53 million.
Production restarted in 2007 in China. The first all-new model from MG in the UK for 16 years, the MG 6 launched on 26 June 2011; the original MG marque was in continuous use, except for the duration of the Second World War, for 56 years following its inception in 1924. The production of predominantly two-seater sports cars was concentrated at a factory in Abingdon, some 10 miles south of Oxford; the British Motor Corporation competition department was based at the Abingdon plant, producing many winning rally and race cars, until the Abingdon factory closed and MGB production ceased in the Autumn of 1980. Between 1982 and 1991, the MG marque used to badge-engineer sportier versions of Austin Rover's Metro and Montego ranges; the MG marque was not revived in its own right until 1992, with the MG RV8 – an updated MGB Roadster with a Rover V8 engine, previewed at the 1992 Birmingham Motor Show, with low-volume production commencing in 1993. A second revival came in the summer of 1995, when the high-volume MG F two-seater roadster was launched.
The MG marque, along with the Rover marque, went to the MG Rover group in May 2000, when BMW "broke up" the Rover Group. This arrangement had the return of MG badges on sportier Rover-based cars such as the MG ZT in 2001, along with a revised MG F model, known as the MG TF, launched in 2002; the assets of MG Rover were bought by Chinese carmaker Nanjing Automobile in July 2005, subsequently bought by SAIC in December 2007, which now operate a UK subsidiary, MG Motor. The company's name originated from the initials of Morris Garages, W R Morris's original retail sales and service business in Longwall Street, when the business's manager, Cecil Kimber, began promoting sales by producing his own versions. Kimber had joined the company as its sales manager in 1921, he was promoted to general manager in 1922, a position he held until 1941, when he fell out with Lord Nuffield over procuring wartime work. Kimber died in 1945 in a railway accident; the site of the garages was redeveloped in 1980, retaining the original frontage, is now used as student accommodation by New College.
Debate remains as to when the MG Car Company started, although the first cars bore both Morris and MG badges, in addition to reference to MG with the octagon badge appears in an Oxford newspaper from November 1923, the MG Octagon was registered as a trademark by Morris Garages on 1 May 1924, with its 90th anniversary being celebrated in 2014. Others dispute this and believe that MG only properly began trading in 1925; the first cars, known as "Kimber Specials", were rebodied Morris models that used coachwork from Carbodies of Coventry. Morris Garages built them in premises in Oxford. Demand soon caused a move to larger premises in Bainton Road in September 1925, sharing space with the Morris radiator works. Continuing expansion meant another move in 1927 to a separate factory in Edmund Road, Oxford, near the main Morris factory and for the first time it was possible to include a production line. In 1928, the company had become large enough to warrant an identity separate from the original Morris Garages and the M.
G. Car Company Limited was established in March of that year, in October for the first time a stand was taken at the London Motor Show. Space soon ran out again, a search for a permanent home led to the lease of part an old leather factory in Abingdon, Oxfordshire in 1929 taking over more space until production ended there in 1980; the MG Car Club was founded in 1930 for enthusiasts of MG cars. William Morris owned MG and in a re-arrangement of his various personal holdings he sold MG in 1935 to Morris Motors, a change, to have serious consequences for MG its motor-sport activities. MG was absorbed with Morris into The British Motor Corporation Limited, created in 1952 to merge Morris Motors Limited and The Austin Motor Company Limited. Long-time service manager John Thornley took over as general manager, guiding the company through its best years until his retirement in 1969. Under BMC, several MG models were no more than badge-engineered versions of other marques, with the main exception being the small MG sports cars.
BMC took over Jaguar Cars in September 1966 and that December BMC changed its name to British Motor Holdings. BMH joined with Leyland Motor Corporation in 1968 to form British Leyland Motor Corporation. Following partial nationalisation in 1975, BLMC became Britis
The Chevrolet Corvette, known as the Vette or Chevy Corvette, is a front engine, rear drive, two-door, two-passenger sports car manufactured and marketed by Chevrolet across more than sixty years of production and seven design generations. As Chevrolet's halo vehicle, the Corvette is noted for its performance and distinctive plastic — either fiberglass or composite — bodywork. In 1953, when GM executives were looking to name the new Chevrolet sports car, assistant director for the Public Relations department Myron Scott suggested Corvette after the small maneuverable warship — and the name was approved; the first model, a convertible, was introduced at the GM Motorama in 1953 as a concept and was followed ten years in the 1963 second generation, in coupe and convertible styles. Manufactured in Flint, Michigan as well as St. Louis, the Corvette has been manufactured since 1981 in Bowling Green, Kentucky; the Corvette has since become known as "America's Sports Car." Automotive News said that after'starring' in the early 1960s television show Route 66, the Corvette became synonymous with freedom and adventure," becoming both "the most successful concept car in history and the most popular sports car in history.
The first generation of Corvette was introduced late in the 1953 model year. Designed as a show car for the 1953 Motorama display at the New York Auto Show, it generated enough interest to induce GM to make a production version to sell to the public. First production was on June 30, 1953; this generation was referred to as the "solid-axle" models. Three hundred hand-built polo white Corvette convertibles were produced for the 1953 model year; the 1954 model year vehicles could be ordered in Sportsman Red, Black, or Polo White. The 1955 model offered a 265 cu in V8 engine as an option. With a large inventory of unsold 1954 models, GM limited production to 700 for 1955. With the new V8, the 0–60 mph time improved by 1.5 seconds. A new body was introduced for the 1956 model featuring side coves. An optional "Ramjet" fuel injection system was made available in the middle of the 1957 model year, it was one of the first mass-produced engines in history to reach 1 bhp per cubic inch and Chevrolet's advertising agency used a "one hp per cubic inch" slogan for advertising the 283 bhp 283 cu in Small-Block engine.
Other options included power windows, hydraulically operated power convertible top, heavy duty brakes and suspension, four speed manual transmission. Delco Radio transistorized signal-seeking "hybrid" car radio, which used both vacuum tubes and transistors in its radio's circuitry; the 1958 Corvette received a body and interior freshening which included a longer front end with quad headlamps, bumper exiting exhaust tips, a new steering wheel, a dashboard with all gauges mounted directly in front of the driver. Exclusive to the 1958 model were twin trunk spears; the 1959–60 model years had few changes except a decreased amount of body chrome and more powerful engine offerings. In 1961, the rear of the car was redesigned with the addition of a "duck tail" with four round lights; the light treatment would continue for all following model year Corvettes until 2014. In 1962, the Chevrolet 283 cu in Small-Block was enlarged to 327 cu in. In standard form it produced 250 bhp. For an extra 12% over list price, the fuel-injected version produced 360 bhp, making it the fastest of the C1 generation.
1962 was the last year for the wrap around windshield, solid rear axle, convertible-only body style. The trunk lid and exposed headlamps did not reappear for many decades; the second generation Corvette, which introduced Sting Ray to the model, continued with fiberglass body panels, overall, was smaller than the first generation. The C2 was referred to as mid-years; the car was designed by Larry Shinoda with major inspiration from a previous concept design called the "Q Corvette,", created by Peter Brock and Chuck Pohlmann under the styling direction of Bill Mitchell. Earlier, Mitchell had sponsored a car known as the "Mitchell Sting Ray" in 1959 because Chevrolet no longer participated in factory racing; this vehicle had the largest impact on the styling of this generation, although it had no top and did not give away what the final version of the C2 would look like. The third inspiration was a Mako Shark Mitchell. Production started for the 1963 model year and ended in 1967. Introducing a new name, "Sting Ray", the 1963 model was the first year for a Corvette coupé and it featured a distinctive tapering rear deck with, for 1963 only, a split rear window.
The Sting Ray featured hidden headlamps, non-functional hood vents, an independent rear suspension. Corvette chief engineer Zora Arkus-Duntov never liked the split rear window because it blocked rear vision, but Mitchell thought it to be a key part of the entire design. Maximum power for 1963 was 360 bhp and was raised to 375 bhp in 1964. Options included electronic ignition, the breakerless magnetic pulse-triggered Delcotronic first offered on some 1963 Pontiac models. On 1964 models the decorative hood vents were eliminated and Duntov, the Corvette's chief engineer, got his way with the split rear window changed to a full width window. Four-wheel disc brakes were introduced in 1965, as was a "big block" engine option: the 396 cu in V8. Side exhaust pipes were