In sports broadcasting, a sports commentator gives a running commentary of a game or event in real time during a live broadcast, traditionally delivered in the historical present tense. Radio was the first medium for sports broadcasts, radio commentators must describe all aspects of the action to listeners who cannot see it for themselves. In the case of televised sports coverage, commentators are presented as a voiceover, with images of the contest shown on viewers' screens and sounds of the action and spectators heard in the background. Television commentators are shown on screen during an event, though some networks choose to feature their announcers on camera either before or after the contest or during breaks in the action; the main commentator called the play-by-play announcer or commentator in North America, blow-by-blow in combat sports coverage or lap-by-lap for motorsports coverage, is the primary speaker on the broadcast. Broadcasters in this role are valued for their articulateness and for their ability to describe each play or event of an fast-moving sporting event.
The ideal play-by-play voice has a vocal timbre, tolerable to hear over the multiple hours of a sports broadcast and yet dynamic enough to convey and enhance the importance of the in-game activity. Because of their skills, some commentators like Al Michaels in the U. S. David Coleman in the UK and Bruce McAvaney in Australia, may have careers in which they call several different sports at one time or another. Other main commentators may, only call one sport; the vast majority of play-by-play announcers are male. Radio and television play-by-play techniques involve different approaches, it is unusual to have radio and television broadcasts share the same play-by-play commentator for the same event, except in cases of low production budgets or when a broadcaster is renowned. The analyst or color commentator provides expert analysis and background information, such as statistics, strategy on the teams and athletes, anecdotes or light humor, they are former athletes or coaches in their respective sports, although there are some exceptions.
The term "color" refers to insight provided by analyst. The most common format for a sports broadcast is to have an analyst/color commentator work alongside the main/play-by-play announcer. An example is NBC Sunday Night Football in the United States, called by color commentator Cris Collinsworth, a former American football receiver, play-by-play commentator Al Michaels, a professional announcer. In the United Kingdom, there is a much less distinct division between play-by-play and color commentary, although two-man commentary teams feature an enthusiast with formal journalistic training but little or no competitive experience leading the commentary, an expert former competitor following up with analysis or summary. There are however exceptions to this — most of the United Kingdom's leading cricket and snooker commentators are former professionals in their sports, while the former Formula One racing commentator Murray Walker had no formal journalistic training and only limited racing experience of his own.
In the United States, George "Pat" Summerall, a former professional kicker, spent most of his broadcasting career as a play-by-play announcer. Although the combination of a play-by-play announcer and a color commentator is standard as of 2014, in the past it was much more common for a broadcast to have no analysts and just have a single play-by-play announcer to work alone. Vin Scully, longtime announcer for the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team, was one of the few examples of this practice lasting into the 21st century until he retired in 2016. A sideline reporter assists a sports broadcasting crew with sideline coverage of the playing field or court; the sideline reporter makes live updates on injuries and breaking news or conducts player interviews while players are on the field or court because the play-by-play broadcaster and color commentator must remain in their broadcast booth. Sideline reporters are granted inside information about an important update, such as injury, because they have the credentials necessary to do so.
In cases of big events, teams consisting of many sideline reporters are placed strategically so that the main commentator has many sources to turn to. In motorsports, it is typical for there to be multiple pit reporters, covering the event from along pit road, their responsibilities will include covering breaking news trackside, interviewing crew chiefs and other team leaders about strategy, commentating on pit stops from along the pit wall. In British sports broadcasting, the presenter of a sports broadcast is distinct from the commentator, based in a remote broadcast television studio away from the sports venue. In North America, the on-air personality based in the studio is called the studio host. During their shows, the presenter/studio host may be joined by additional analysts or pundits when showing highlights of various other matches. Various sports may have different commentator
Jerry Alan West is an American basketball executive and former player who played professionally for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association. His nicknames included Mr. Clutch, for his ability to make a big play in a clutch situation, such as his famous buzzer-beating 60-foot shot that tied Game 3 of the 1970 NBA Finals against the New York Knicks. West played the small forward position early in his career, he was a standout at East Bank High School and at West Virginia University, where he led the Mountaineers to the 1959 NCAA championship game, he earned the NCAA Final Four Most Outstanding Player honor despite the loss. He embarked on a 14-year career with the Los Angeles Lakers, was the co-captain of the 1960 U. S. Olympic gold medal team, a squad, inducted as a unit into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010. West's NBA career was successful. Playing the guard position, he was voted 12 times into the All-NBA First and Second Teams, was elected into the NBA All-Star Team 14 times, was chosen as the All-Star MVP in 1972, the same year that he won the only title of his career.
West holds the NBA record for the highest points per game average in a playoff series with 46.3. He was a member of the first five NBA All-Defensive Teams, which were introduced when he was 32 years old. Having played in nine NBA Finals, he is the only player in NBA history to be named Finals MVP despite being on the losing team. West was inducted into the Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame in 1980 and voted as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA history in 1996. After his playing career ended, West took over as head coach of the Lakers for three years, he earned a Western Conference Finals berth once. Working as a player-scout for three years, West was named general manager of the Lakers prior to the 1982–83 NBA season. Under his reign, Los Angeles won six championship rings. In 2002, West became general manager of the Memphis Grizzlies and helped the franchise win their first-ever playoff berths. For his contributions, West won the NBA Executive of the Year Award twice, once as a Lakers manager and as a Grizzlies manager.
West's son, played college basketball for West Virginia. Jerome Alan West was born into a poor household in West Virginia, he was the fifth of six children of Cecil Sue West, a housewife, Howard Stewart West, a coal mine electrician. West was an aggressive child in his youth, until his brother's death in the Korean War aged 21 turned him into a shy and introverted boy when Jerry was 12/13, he was so small and weak that he needed lots of vitamin injections from his doctor and was kept apart from children's sports, to prevent him from getting injured. Growing up, West spent his days hunting and fishing, but his main activity was shooting at a basketball hoop that a neighbor had nailed to his storage shed. West spent days shooting baskets from every possible angle, ignoring mud and snow in the backyard, as well as his mother's whippings when he came home hours late for dinner. West attended East Bank High School in East Bank, West Virginia from 1952 to 1956. During his first year, he was benched by his coach Duke Shaver due to his lack of height.
Shaver emphasized the importance of conditioning and defense, which were lessons that the teenager appreciated. West soon became the captain of the freshman team, during the summer of 1953 he grew to 6 ft 0 in. West became the team's starting small forward, he established himself as one of the finest West Virginia high school players of his generation, he was named All-State from 1953–56 All-American in 1956 when he was West Virginia Player of the Year, becoming the state's first high-school player to score more than 900 points in a season, with an average of 32.2 points per game. West's mid-range jump shot became his trademark and he used it to score while under pressure from opposing defenses. West led East Bank to a state championship on March 24 that year, prompting East Bank High School to change its name to "West Bank High School" every year on March 24 in honor of their basketball prodigy; this practice remained in effect until the school closed in 1999. West graduated from East Bank High School in 1956, more than 60 universities showed interest in him.
He chose to stay in his home state and attend West Virginia University, located in Morgantown. In his freshman year, West was a member of the WVU freshman squad that achieved a perfect record of 17 wins without a loss over the course of the season. In his first varsity year under head coach Fred Schaus, West scored 17.8 points per game and averaged 11.1 rebounds. These performances earned him a multitude of honors, among them an All-American Third Team call-up; the Mountaineers went 26–2 that year, ending the season with a loss to Manhattan College in post-season tournament play. During his junior year, West scored 26.6 points per game
The Memphis Grizzlies are an American professional basketball team based in Memphis, Tennessee. The Grizzlies compete in the National Basketball Association as a member team of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division; the Grizzlies play their home games at FedExForum. The team is owned by Robert Pera; the Grizzlies are the only team in the major professional North American sports leagues based in the city of Memphis. The team was established as the Vancouver Grizzlies, an expansion team that joined the NBA for the 1995–96 season. After the 2000–01 season concluded, the Grizzlies moved to Memphis; the Vancouver Grizzlies were a Canadian professional basketball team based in Vancouver, British Columbia. They were part of the Midwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association; the team was established in 1995, along with the Toronto Raptors, as part of the NBA's expansion into Canada. Following the 2000–01 season, the team relocated to Memphis, United States, were renamed as the Memphis Grizzlies.
The Grizzlies played their home games at General Motors Place for the entirety of their six seasons in Vancouver. The Vancouver Grizzlies applied to the NBA to relocate to Memphis on March 26, 2001, granted on July 3; as a result, the Grizzlies became the first major professional sports team from the "big four" major leagues to permanently play its home games in Memphis, as well as leaving the Toronto Raptors to be the only Canadian basketball team in the NBA. Memphis became the easternmost city in the Western Conference. In their first three seasons in Memphis, the Grizzlies played their home games at the Pyramid Arena. In the 2001 NBA draft, the Atlanta Hawks chose Pau Gasol as the third overall pick, traded to the Grizzlies. Forward Shane Battier was selected with the sixth pick in the same draft by the Vancouver Grizzlies, they acquired Jason Williams from the Sacramento Kings in exchange for Mike Bibby that same year. After the Grizzlies' first season in Memphis, Gasol won the NBA Rookie of the Year Award.
However, despite the strong draft class, general manager Billy Knight was let go. After Knight's departure and the season, the team hired former Los Angeles Laker and Hall of Famer Jerry West as general manager in 2002, who received the 2003–04 NBA Executive of the Year Award. After West's arrival the team was changed a great deal from Knight's team, with the removal of Sidney Lowe as head coach after 0–8 start to the season and a great deal of player movement, with players such as Mike Miller and James Posey becoming vital to the team's success. During the 2002–03 season, Hubie Brown was hired to coach the Grizzlies. Brown won the NBA Coach of the Year Award during the next season when the Grizzlies made the NBA playoffs for the first time in team history in 2004 as the sixth seed in the Western Conference in a drastic change from being perennially one of the worst teams in the NBA, they won a record 50 games under Gasol and Williams. In the playoffs they faced the San Antonio Spurs. Brown stepped down as head coach during the 2004–05 season.
At the time of his resignation, the Grizzlies had a losing record but West hired TNT analyst and former coach Mike Fratello to replace Brown. The Grizzlies' record improved and the team advanced to the postseason for the second consecutive season. However, the Grizzlies were swept out in the first round again, this time by the Phoenix Suns. After the season, which ended with anger between Fratello and many of the players, namely Bonzi Wells and Jason Williams, the team had an active 2005 off-season in which they revamped the team and added veterans. While the Grizzlies lost Wells, Stromile Swift, James Posey, they acquired Damon Stoudamire, Bobby Jackson, Hakim Warrick, Eddie Jones, they made the playoffs for the third consecutive year as well. With their record they had the fifth seed in the Western Conference playoffs and would face the Dallas Mavericks, who swept the Grizzlies in four games. Following the 2006 NBA draft, Jerry West traded Shane Battier to the Houston Rockets for their first round pick Rudy Gay and Stromile Swift.
Before the 2006–07 season, they suffered a blow when Gasol broke his left foot while playing for Spain in the World Championships. The Grizzlies started the season 5–17 without Gasol, went 1–7 while he was limited to about 25 minutes per game. At that point, Fratello was replaced by Tony Barone, Sr. as interim coach. Barone was the team's player personnel director and had never coached an NBA game though he had coached at the collegiate level for both Creighton and Texas A&M being named coach of the year in their conferences three times during his tenure; the Grizzlies finished the 2006–07 season with a league-worst 22–60 record, Jerry West announced his resignation from his position as the team's general manager shortly after the end of the regular season. The team hired Marc Iavaroni, with the Phoenix Suns as an assistant coach, to be the team's new head coach. Despite the last-place finish, the Grizzlies, who held the best chance of landing the first pick, ended up with the fourth pick in the 2007 NBA draft, with which the Grizzlies selected Mike Conley, Jr.
On June 18, 2007, the Grizzlies named former Boston Celtics general manager Chris Wallace as the team's general manager and vice president of basketball operations, replacing the retired West. A few days they hired former Philadelphia 76ers and Orlando Magic head coach Johnny Davis, longtime NBA assistant coach Gordon Chiesa, the head coach of the 2007 NBA Development League champion Dakota Wizards, David Joerger, as the team's new assistant coaches. Gene Bartow was named the Grizzlies' president of basketb
Bradley Braves men's basketball
The Bradley Braves men's basketball team represents Bradley University, located in Peoria, Illinois, in NCAA Division I basketball competition. They compete as a member of the Missouri Valley Conference; the Braves are coached by Brian Wardle and play their home games at Carver Arena. Bradley has appeared in nine NCAA Tournaments, including two Final Fours, finishing as the national runner-up in 1950 and 1954, they last appeared in the NCAA Tournament in 2019, last reached the NCAA Sweet Sixteen in 2006. The Braves have appeared in the National Invitation Tournament 21 times with an all-time NIT record of 26–18 and have won four NIT championships, second only to St. John's in appearances and titles; until the introduction of the Vegas 16 Tournament in 2016, the program held the distinction of being invited to the initial offering of every national postseason tournament. The Braves began playing basketball in 1902. Alfred J. Robertson was named coach of the Braves football and basketball teams in 1920.
Robertson coached both teams until 1948. He is Bradley's all-time winningest coach with 316 wins over 26 seasons. Robertson died in 1948. Following Robertson's death, the school hired Forrest "Forddy" Anderson from Drake. In 1948, the school joined the Missouri Valley Conference for the first time. In 1950, the Braves won the MVC, earning a bid to the NCAA Tournament; the Braves advanced to the National Championship game against CCNY, which accomplished the greatest feat in basketball history, winning the National Invitation and the NCAA tournaments in the same season. However, in 1951, a point-shaving scandal rocked CCNY New York, college basketball as a whole; the scandal affected Bradley as Bradley players Gene Melchiorre, Bill Mann, Bud Grover, Aaron Preece, Jim Kelly admitted to taking bribes from gamblers to hold down scores against St. Joseph's in Philadelphia in 1951 and against Oregon State in Chicago. Melchiorre and George Chianakos pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor, but avoided jail time.
The others were not charged. In 1952, the Braves went 32–6 and lost in the final of the National Campus Basketball Tournament, held in response to the point-shaving scandals centered around New York. After the season, the Braves became independent again. In 1954, though only going 19–13, the Braves again advanced to the NCAA Tournament's championship game, this time falling short to La Salle. Anderson was hired away from Peoria to coach Michigan State after the season. Bob Vanatta coached the Braves for two seasons, they returned to the MVC in 1955. Chuck Orsborn, a Bradley alum and basketball player in the 1930s, took over in 1956 after being an assistant from 1947 to 1956. In 1957, his first year as head coach, the Braves won the NIT championship over Memphis State, the school's first NIT title; the school returned to the NIT in 1958 and to the NIT championship game in 1959, losing to St. John's. In 1960, the Braves won their second NIT championship; the Braves lost in the NIT's first round. A return to the NIT in 1964 resulted in the Braves' third NIT championship in eight years.
After another trip to the NIT in 1965, Orsborn took the position of Bradley's director of athletics and served in that function until 1978. From 1956 to 1965, he compiled a record of 194–56. During this nine-year span as head coach, the Braves earned six Associated Press top 20 finishes, Orsborn was named MVC coach of the year in 1960 and 1962. Orsborn has the distinction of recording his first 100 victories in 120 games, sixth on the all-time list for college coaches; the Braves again turned to a Bradley alum as Joe Stowell, an assistant coach under Orsborn, became Bradley's ninth head coach in 1965. In his 13 years as head coach, the Braves made only two postseason appearances: the 1968 NIT and the 1974 National Commissioners Invitational Tournament, he was fired as head coach in 1978. Stowell finished with the second most in Brave history. Bradley turned to Jim Les, to take over for Molinari. Les was a senior on the 1986 Braves squad that went 32–3 before losing in the Second Round of the NCAA Tournament.
However, the Braves failed to finish above.500 in Les's first three years as head coach. In 2006, the Braves, led by sophomore center Patrick O'Bryant, won their final five games of the season to finish in a tie for fifth place in MVC play; the Braves surprised in the MVC Tournament, reaching the championship game before losing to Southern Illinois. The Braves received an at-large bid to the NCAA Tournament as a No. 13 seed, their first trip to the Tournament since 1996. In the Tournament, the Braves upset No. 4-ranked Kansas in the First Round and upset No. 5-ranked Pittsburgh to advance to the Sweet Sixteen for the first time since 1955. In the Sweet Sixteen, the Braves' Cinderella run came to an end as No. 1-seeded Memphis blew out the Braves. O'Bryant left Bradley after the season for the NBA Draft; each of Les's next three Brave teams appeared in postseason play, losing in the second round of the 2007 NIT, finishing as runners-up in the 2008 College Basketball Invitational and 2009 CollegeInsider.com Tournament.
After a disappointing 2010 and a 20-loss 2011, the Braves fired Les. Kent State head coach Geno Ford was hired to replace Les. Ford's teams struggled under his leadership, failing to win more than seven games in conference play and finishing in last place in his first and final years at Bradley; the Braves did receive an invite to the College Basketball Invitational in 2013, where they advanced to the quarterfinals. In his final year, the Br
The Việt Cộng known as the National Liberation Front, was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War emerging on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of Vietnam, the regular North Vietnamese army. During the war and anti-war activists insisted the Việt Cộng was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U. S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of Hanoi. Although the terminology distinguishes northerners from the southerners, communist forces were under a single command structure set up in 1958; the headquarters of the Viet Cong based at Memot came to be known as Central Office for South Vietnam or COSVN by its Military Assistance Command and South Vietnamese counterparts, a near-mythical "bamboo Pentagon" from which the Việt Cộng's entire war effort was being directed.
For nearly a decade the fabled COSVN headquarters, which directed the entire war effort of the Viet Cong was the target of the RVN/US war effort, which would have collapsed the insurgency war effort. US and South Vietnamese Special Forces sent to capture them were killed quickly or returned with heavy casualties to the point that teams refused to go. Daily B-52 bombings had failed to kill any of the leadership during Operation Menu despite flattening the entire area, as Soviet trawlers were able to forewarn COSVN, whom used the data on speed and direction to move perpendicular and to move underground. North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front on December 20, 1960, to foment insurgency in the South. Many of the Việt Cộng's core members were volunteer "regroupees", southern Việt Minh who had resettled in the North after the Geneva Accord. Hanoi gave the regroupees military training and sent them back to the South along the Hồ Chí Minh trail in the early 1960s; the NLF called for southern Vietnamese to "overthrow the camouflaged colonial regime of the American imperialists" and to make "efforts toward the peaceful unification".
The PLAF's best-known action was the Tết Offensive, a gigantic assault on more than 100 South Vietnamese urban centers in 1968, including an attack on the U. S. embassy in Saigon. The offensive riveted the attention of the world's media for weeks, but overextended the Việt Cộng. Two further offensives were conducted in the mini-Tet and August Offensive. In 1969 the Việt Cộng would establish the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, a shadow-country in South Vietnam intended to represent the organisation on the world stage and was recognised by the communist bloc and maintained diplomatic links with many nations in the Non-Aligned Movement. Communist offensives were conducted predominantly by newly mechanised PAVN forces, as the ability of the Việt Cộng to recruit among the South Vietnamese became much more limited; the Việt Cộng remained an active political front. The organisation was dissolved in 1976 when North and South Vietnam were unified under a communist government.
Political and military organization of the Việt Cộng was complex, with a series of well-constructed, overlapping networks and organisations, see strategy and structure. Material aid was provided through the well-established, ingenious Hồ Chí Minh trail which withstood the most sustained bombing campaign in history while expanding the war effort, see logistics and equipment, they had further developed a complex insurgency warfare method capable of countering overwhelmingly superior numbers and technology, retaining the strategic initiative during much of the war. According to the Pentagon Papers, 90% of large firefights were initiated by the PAVN/VC and 80% were well-planned VC operations throughout most of the war and as early as 1966 US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara expressed doubt about the US ability to win the war; the term Việt Cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956. It is a contraction of Việt Nam Cộng-sản, or alternatively Việt gian cộng sản; the earliest citation for Việt Cộng in English is from 1957.
Media worldwide referred to them as "Vietcong". American soldiers referred to them as Victor Charlie or V-C. "Victor" and "Charlie" are both letters in the NATO phonetic alphabet. "Charlie" referred to communist forces in both Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese. The official Vietnamese history gives the group's name as the Liberation Army of South Vietnam or the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. Many writers shorten this to National Liberation Front. In 1969, the Việt Cộng created the "Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam", abbreviated PRG. Although the NLF was not abolished until 1977, the Việt Cộng no longer used the name after PRG was created. Members referred to the Việt Cộng as "the Front". Today's Vietnamese media most refers to the group as the "People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam". By the terms of the Geneva Accord, which ended the Indochina War and the Việt Minh agreed to a truce and to a separation of forces; the Việt Minh had become the government o
St. Joseph High School (Kenosha, Wisconsin)
St. Joseph Catholic Academy named St. Joseph High School, is a Catholic Preschool-12 school located in Kenosha, United States; the school was begun on July 1, 2010 as a result of combining three schools: St. Mark Elementary School, St. Joseph Interparish Jr. High, St. Joseph High School. St. Joseph Catholic Academy is a preschool through high school system. Accreditation is through AdvancED, which consists of North Central Association Commission on Accreditation and School Improvement, Northwest Accreditation Commission and Southern Association of Colleges and School Council on Accreditation and School Improvement. St. Joseph Catholic Academy is operated by the Archdiocese of Milwaukee and supported by all Kenosha area parishes; the school receives support from all 10 Catholic parishes in Kenosha and Pleasant Prairie: Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Our Lady of the Holy Rosary of Pompeii, St. Anne Catholic Church, St. Anthony of Padua, St. Elizabeth Catholic Church, St. James the Apostle, St. Mary Catholic Church, St. Mark the Evangelist, St. Peter Parish, St. Therese of Lisieux.
References: St. Joseph Catholic Academy, SJCA, St. Joe’s Founded: July 1, 2010 Colors: Blue and Yellow Mascot: Lancer SJCA has over 800 students from the southeastern Wisconsin and northern Illinois regions. Along with many Honors classes, nine Advanced Placement classes are offered. AP classes allow students to acquire skills. More than 90% of four-year colleges in the U. S. give students advanced placement or both on the basis of AP Exam scores. The One-to-One Laptop program is a digital tool that teaches students how to acquire information and learn in a technologically demanding world. Across all grade levels, students use tablets, or Chromebooks; the Campus Ministry program supplements the theological development in each student that takes place in the home and church through worship and service. Students attend Mass and are involved in both local and international service projects. 100% graduation rate Just under $5 million awarded in post-secondary scholarships SJCA emphasizes service to others as a necessary component of personal development, global responsibility and citizenship.
Meaningful, independent student service is required for graduation. Annually, SJCA students participate in over 10,000 hours of student-led local and international service projects, in preparation for lives of purpose and excellence. Students at SJCA participate in wide array of competitive sports and organizations. Several theatrical and band/choir performances are held throughout the year. Laura Kaeppeler, Miss America 2012 James Rygiel, three-time Oscar winner for visual effects, Lord of the Rings series Nick Van Exel, former NBA star
Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University is a private Roman Catholic four-year research university with campuses in St. Louis, United States and Madrid, Spain. Founded in 1818 by Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg, It is the oldest university west of the Mississippi River and the second-oldest Jesuit university in the United States, it is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Universities. The university is accredited by the North Central Association of Secondary Schools. SLU's athletic teams are a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference, it has an enrollment of 12,649 students, including 7,984 undergraduate students and 4,665 graduate students that represents all 50 states and more than 70 foreign countries. Its average class size is 23.8 and the student-faculty ratio is 9:1. For nearly 50 years the university has maintained a campus in Spain; the Madrid campus was the first freestanding campus operated by an American university in Europe and the first American institution to be recognized by Spain's higher education authority as an official foreign university.
The campus has 826 students, a faculty of 110, an average class size of 15 and a student-faculty ratio of 7:1. Saint Louis University traces its origins to the Saint Louis Academy, founded on November 16, 1818 by the Most Reverend Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg, Bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas, placed under the charge of the Reverend François Niel and others of the secular clergy attached to the Saint Louis Cathedral, its first location was in a private residence near the Mississippi River in an area now occupied by the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial within the Archdiocese of St. Louis. Having a two-story building for the 65 students using Bishop Dubourg's personal library of 8,000 volumes for its printed materials, the name Saint Louis Academy was changed in 1820 to Saint Louis College. In 1827 Bishop Dubourg placed Saint Louis College in the care of the Society of Jesus. Not long after that, it received its charter as a university by act of the Missouri Legislature. In 1829 it moved to Washington Avenue and Ninth at the site of today's America's Center by the Edward Jones Dome.
In 1852 the university and its teaching priests were the subject of a viciously anti-Catholic novel, The Mysteries of St. Louis, written by newspaper editor Henry Boernstein whose popular paper, the Anzeiger des Westens was a foe of the university. In 1867 after the American Civil War the University purchased "Lindell's Grove" to be the site of its current campus. Lindell's Grove was the site of the Civil War "Camp Jackson Affair". On May 10, 1861 U. S. Regulars and Federally enrolled Missouri Volunteers arrested the Missouri Volunteer Militia after the militia received a secret shipment of siege artillery, infantry weapons and ammunition from the Confederate Government. While the Militia was arrested without violence, angry local citizens rushed to the site, rioting broke out, in which 28 people were killed; the Camp Jackson Affair lead to open conflict within the state, culminating with a successful Federal offensive in mid-June 1861 which expelled the state's pro-secession governor Claiborne Fox Jackson from the state capitol.
Jackson led a Missouri Confederate government-in-exile, dying of cancer in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1862. The first building on campus, DuBourg Hall, began construction in 1888, the college moved to its new location in 1889. St. Francis Xavier College Church moved to its current location with the completion of the lower church in 1884, it was completed in 1898. During the early 1940s, many local priests the Jesuits, began to challenge the segregationist policies at the city's Catholic colleges and parochial schools. After the Pittsburgh Courier, an African-American newspaper, ran a 1944 exposé on St. Louis Archbishop John J. Glennon's interference with the admittance of a black student at the local Webster College, Fr. Claude Heithaus, SJ, professor of Classical Archaeology at Saint Louis University, delivered an angry homily accusing his own institution of immoral behavior in its segregation policies. By summer of 1944, Saint Louis University had opened its doors to African Americans, after its president, Father Patrick Holloran, secured Glennon's reluctant approval.
1818 – First institution of higher learning west of the Mississippi River 1832 – First graduate programs west of the Mississippi River 1836 – First medical school west of the Mississippi River 1843 – First in the West to open a school of law 1906 – First forward pass in football history 1910 – First business school west of the Mississippi River 1925 – First department of geophysics in the Western Hemisphere 1927 – First federally licensed school of aviation 1944 – First university in Missouri to establish an official policy admitting African-American students, integrating its student body 1959 - First dual credit program west of the Mississippi, named the 1818 Project and now known as the 1818 Advanced College Credit Program 1967 – First major Catholic institution in the world with an integrated lay and religious board of trustees 1972 – First human heart transplant in Missouri 2000 – First Doctor of Philosophy degree in aviation in the world awarded In 1967, Saint Louis University became one of the first Catholic universities to increase layperson decision making power.
At the time board chairman Fr. Paul Reinert, SJ, stepped aside to be replaced by layman Daniel Schlafly; the board shifted to an 18 to 10 majority of laypeople. This was instituted due to the landmark Maryland Court of Appeals case, Horace Mann vs. the Board of Public Works of Maryland, in