Virginia State Route 80
State Route 80 is a primary state highway in the southwest part of the U. S. state of Virginia. It runs from the Kentucky state line at Breaks Interstate Park east to U. S. Route 11 near Meadowview. Kentucky Route 80 and Missouri's Route 80 continue the number west to Missouri; the entire length of SR 80 is part of U. S. Bicycle Route 76. Kentucky Route 80 runs alongside the Russell Fork from Millard to just shy of the Virginia state line. There it turns northeasterly along the west bank of Grassy Creek, which lies inside Virginia and forms the line between Buchanan and Dickenson Counties, in order to avoid the deep gorge through Breaks Interstate Park. Route 80 soon crosses into Virginia, continues to parallel Grassy Creek until the split with Hunts Creek, where it turns southeast to follow that creek. About halfway to the community of Breaks, SR 80 crosses the county line. SR 80 passes the community of Breaks, leaving Hunts Creek there and running past the entrance to Breaks Interstate Park, it runs south through Camp Branch Gap, continues in a general southerly direction alongside small creeks and over two summits to State Route 83 east of Haysi.
SR 80 and SR 83 overlap west alongside Russell Prater Creek into Haysi, where they meet State Route 63 at the point where Russell Prater Creek empties into the Russell Fork. The two routes turn south. SR 80 continues southeasterly along the Russell Fork past Martha Gap and Birchleaf to the point where the Russell Fork turns east. SR 80 and the Russell Fork continue past Council; the fork ends as the road approaches Sandy Ridge and the Tennessee Valley Divide, which it climbs Big A Mountain via a series of hairpin curves. SR 80 descends from Big A Mountain into a flat area, where it runs cross-country and next to small creeks via Honaker, the junction vith State Route 67, a bridge over the Clinch River at Blackford to U. S. Route 19 at Rosedale. There it turns southwest with US 19, alongside Elk Garden Creek, to Smithfield, where it splits to the south. SR 80 again runs cross-country past Rockdell, where it begins to climb Clinch Mountain, which it crosses at Hayters Gap. SR 80 descends from Hayters Gap to the East Fork Wolf Creek.
There it turns southwest, following the creek to the community of Hayters Gap, following Wolf Creek through a gap in Little Mountain to the North Fork Holston River at the community of River Bridge. It follows Logan Creek uphill to Lindell, where the land levels out, it continues to follow Logan Creek past Yellow Springs and Giesley Mill crossing a low summit to Meadow View. SR 80 crosses Interstate 81 at a Diamond interchange southeast of Meadowview, providing access on I-81, ends at U. S. Route 11 at Cedarville. State Route 803 part of SR 80, continues southeast from Cedarville to Lodi; the road from Lodi to Cedarville, now State Route 803, was planned as part of State Route 12, the predecessor to U. S. Route 58, in 1923; the next year, however, SR 12 was realigned to pass through Damascus, the road from State Route 10 at Cedarville towards Lodi for five miles was added to the state highway system as State Route 125, a spur of SR 12. The next year it was extended southeast the rest of the way to SR 12 at Lodi and northwest 1.1 miles to Meadowview.
Five miles of road northwest from Meadowview and three miles southeast from State Route 11 near Rosedale were added to the state highway system in 1928 as State Route 111, SR 125 was renumbered as part of SR 111 that same year. The gap was closed in 1930 and 1931. Virginia Highways Project: VA 80
George Washington and Jefferson National Forests
The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests are U. S. National Forests that combine to form one of the largest areas of public land in the Eastern United States, they cover 1.8 million acres of land in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky. 1 million acres of the forest are remote and undeveloped and 139,461 acres have been designated as wilderness areas, which eliminates future development. George Washington National Forest was established on May 1918 as the Shenandoah National Forest; the forest was renamed after the first President on June 28, 1932. Natural Bridge National Forest was added on July 22, 1933. Jefferson National Forest was formed on April 21, 1936 by combining portions of the Unaka and George Washington National Forests with other land. In 1995, the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests were administratively combined; the border between the two forests follows the James River. The combined forest is administered from its headquarters in Virginia.
The northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway, separately administered by the National Park Service, runs through the Forest. Over 2,000 miles of hiking trails, including segments of the Appalachian Trail, go through the forest. Virginia's highest point, Mount Rogers, is located in the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area, part of the forest. Other notable mountains include Elliott Knob, which has one of the last remaining fire lookout towers in the eastern U. S. and Whitetop Mountain. 230,000 acres of old-growth forests. The ghost town of Lignite, Virginia lies within the forest; the deepest gorge east of the Mississippi River, Breaks Interstate Park, is located in the forest. Roaring Run Furnace is the only site on the National Register of Historic Places owned by the Jefferson National Forest; the Forests' vast and mountainous terrain harbors a great variety of plant life—over 50 species of trees and over 2,000 species of shrubs and herbaceous plants. The Forests contain some 230,000 acres of old growth forests, representing all of the major forest communities found within them.
Locations of old growth include Peters Mountain, Mount Pleasant National Scenic Area, Rich Hole Wilderness, Flannery Ridge, Pick Breeches Ridge, Laurel Fork Gorge, Pickem Mountain, Mount Rogers National Recreation Area. The Ramsey's Draft and Kimberling Creek Wildernesses in particular are old-growth; the black bear is common, enough so that there is a short hunting season to prevent overpopulation. White-tailed deer, bald eagles, weasel and marten are known to inhabit the Forests; the forests are popular hiking, mountain biking, hunting destinations. The Appalachian Trail extends for 330 miles from the southern end of Shenandoah National Park through the forest and along the Blue Ridge Parkway; the forest is within a two-hour drive for over ten million people and thus receives large numbers of visitors in the region closest to Shenandoah National Park. The George Washington National Forest is a popular destination for trail runners, it is the location for several Ultramarathons, including the Massanutten Mountain Trails 100 miler, the Old Dominion 100 miler, the Old Dominion Memorial 100 miler.
George Washington Forest is the venue for Nature Camp, a natural science education-oriented summer camp for youth. The camp is located on national forest land near the town of Virginia, it has operated at this location since the summer of 1953. Note that Jefferson National Forest is located in 22 separate counties, more than any other National Forest except Mark Twain National Forest in Missouri, which lies in 29 counties. Note that Botetourt and Rockbridge counties, at the dividing line between the two forests, include parts of both forests. Thirdly, note that the state of Kentucky has little area, with its two counties bringing up the tail end of Jefferson National Forest. Ranger offices are the Forest Service's public service offices. Maps and other information about the forests can be obtained at these locations; these offices are open Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. The Supervisor's Office in Roanoke is not located in the forest and is an administrative location. District offices are listed from north to south.
Counties are in Virginia. There are 139,461 acres of federally designated wilderness areas in the two forests under the United States National Wilderness Preservation System. All are except as indicated; the largest of these is the Mountain Lake Wilderness, at 16,511 acres. There are 17 wildernesses in Jefferson National Forest, second only to Tongass National Forest, which has 19; the first camp of the Civilian Conservation Corps NF-1, Camp Roosevelt, was established in the George Washington National Forest near Luray, Virginia. It is now the site of the Camp Roosevelt Recreation Area. Great North Mountain Massanutten Mountain Shenandoah Mountain Monongahela National Forest—adjoining forest in West Virginia George Washington and Jefferson National Forests U. S. Forest Service, George Washington National Forest, Dry River District Collection at James Madison University's Special Collections
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Virginia's 9th congressional district
Virginia's ninth congressional district is a United States congressional district in the Commonwealth of Virginia, covering much of the southwestern part of the state. The 9th is Virginia's second-largest district in area. Since 2011 it has been represented by Morgan Griffith, who took office after defeating Rick Boucher, the district's representative for 1983-2011; the white district was aligned with the Democratic Party well into the 20th century, when Virginia was among the Solid South states and African Americans were disenfranchised. Since the 1990s its voters have cast ballots for Republican presidential candidates, it last supported a Democrat for president in 1996, has supported a Democrat in only two statewide contests since then. Republican presidential candidate John McCain received 59% of the vote in the 9th district in 2008, his best performance in any of Virginia's eleven congressional districts; the 9th District is the only district in Virginia that cast more votes for Hillary Clinton than Barack Obama in the 2008 Democratic Presidential Primary.
Clinton won more than 60% of the vote. As of 2017, the 9th District had the highest poverty rate of any Virginia Congressional District, at 18.7 percent. It covers all or part of the following political subdivisions: The entirety of: Lee Wise Dickenson Buchanan Scott Russell Tazewell Washington Smyth Bland Giles Grayson Wythe Pulaski Montgomery Carroll Craig Floyd PatrickPortions of: Alleghany Roanoke Henry Bristol Covington Galax Martinsville Norton Radford Salem In the November 6, 2018 general election, incumbent Morgan Griffith is opposed by Democrat Anthony Flaccavento, a farmer, community leader, small business owner from Abingdon, Virginia. Virginia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
U.S. Bicycle Route 76
U. S. Bicycle Route 76 is a cross-country bicycle route east of Kansas in the United States, it is one of the two original U. S. Bicycle Routes, the other being U. S. Bicycle Route 1. U. S. Bicycle Route 76 runs from the Midwestern state of Missouri to the eastern seaboard state of Virginia, it is known as the TransAmerica Bike Route. A spur, U. S. Bicycle Route 176, was established in Virginia in 2016. Bicycle Route 76 originated as the Bikecentennial, the route for a large bike tour organized for the 1976 celebration of the United States Bicentennial; the Adventure Cycling Association was at that time known as the "Bikecentennial."Bicycle Route 76 was established in 1982 as an original U. S. Bicycle Route, along with U. S. Bicycle Route 1 from Florida to Virginia. Bicycle traffic along a good deal of Bicycle Route 76 has been sparse to non-existent for several years. However, a 2003 conference encouraged the establishment of new interstate bicycle routes, as well as proposing the extension the two existing ones, 76's western terminus being conjectured on the Oregon coast.
Since 2014, the annual Trans Am Bike Race has used the route. In Kansas, U. S. Bicycle Route 76 runs from the Colorado state line at K-96 near Towner, Colorado, to the Missouri state line at K-126 near Pittsburg, Kansas. In the state of Missouri, U. S. Bicycle Route 76 is signed; the route begins at the Kansas border 28 miles west of Golden City, continuing east across 348.5 miles of the state before reaching the Mississippi River just west of Chester, Illinois. The route passes through the following counties: Ste. Genevieve County St. Francois County Iron County Reynolds County Shannon County Texas County Wright County Webster County Greene County Dade County Jasper County Barton County In the state of Illinois, U. S. Bicycle Route 76 intersects the Tunnel Hill State Trail in southern Illinois and passes through the following counties: Randolph County Jackson County Williamson County Johnson County Pope County Hardin County In the state of Kentucky, U. S. Bicycle Route 76 is signed, a map is available as part of a state bicycle tours publication.
In the state of Virginia, part of U. S. Bicycle Route 76 is signed, a map is available as part of a state bicycling publication; the route passes along the following roads and through the following counties and communities: State Route 80 from Elkhorn City, Kentucky to Meadowview, Virginia in Washington County Buchanan County Dickenson County Russell County Washington County Meadowview to Damascus U. S. Route 58 from Damascus, where the route crosses the Virginia Creeper Trail and the Appalachian Trail to County Route 603 through Smyth County to Troutdale in Grayson County Smyth County Grayson County State Route 16 from Troutdale to Sugar Grove in Smyth County Smyth County Wythe County Pulaski County City of Radford Montgomery County County Routes 787, 664, 600, 666 from Radford to Christiansburg Ellett Road from Cambria in Christiansburg to Ellett just east of Blacksburg passing under the Wilson Creek Bridge, second tallest bridge in Virginia, part of the Virginia Smart Road Lusters Gate Road from Ellett to Lusters Gate passing through Ellett Valley with the North Fork of the Roanoke River to the east and the Eastern Continental Divide a few miles to the west Catawba Road from Lusters Gate to the Roanoke County line passing through Catawba Valley Roanoke County Blacksburg Road from the Montgomery County line to Catawba passing out of the Roanoke River watershed and into the Chesapeake Bay watershed County Route 779 from Catawba to the Botetourt County line Botetourt County Rockbridge County City of Lexington Rockbridge County Augusta County and Nelson County Just south of Waynesboro near Afton Mountain, the route runs along the Blue Ridge Parkway for about 25 miles, overlooking the Shenandoah Valley to the west and Nelson County's Rockfish Valley to the east.
Albemarle County City of Charlottesville Fluvanna County Goochland County Louisa County Hanover County Henrico County Charles City County James City County Along the Colonial Parkway to Yorktown City of Williamsburg York County YorktownTotal miles: 560.1 U. S. Bicycle Route 176 is a 17 miles connector route that connecting USBR 1 and USBR 76 at a point a little further south than where the routes cross, it travels along the Virginia Capital Trail for 15.7 miles. Media related to U. S. Bicycle Route 76 at Wikimedia Commons Adventure Cycling - TransAmerica Trail
Haysi is a town in Dickenson County, United States. The population was 498 at the 2010 census, up from 186 at the 2000 census, over which time period the town's area tripled; the pronunciation of the final syllable is that of "sigh". Haysi is located at the confluence of Russell Prater Creek, the McClure River, the Russell Fork river; the area where Haysi is located used to be known as "The Mouth of McClure". As late as 1911, Haysi was only sparsely populated and was referred to as a laurel bed; the first store was constructed within the present town limits of Haysi by Paris Charles for workers of the Yellow Popular Lumber Company. Haysi began to grow with the construction of the Clinchfield Railroad between 1912 and 1915 as stores sprang up to serve the railroad workers; the railroad was constructed to export natural resources such as timber and coal from the area, thus growth of the town centered on workers for the coal mines which began operating around 1916. However, businesses in the town accommodated travelers, as the rail system was a popular form of transportation at the time, Haysi was located on a line of the Clinchfield that linked eastern Kentucky with northeast Tennessee, western North Carolina, South Carolina.
Notable early businesses included Inc. and the Haysi Supply Company. By 1920 Haysi businesses included a hotel, hardware store, various other retail merchants. By 1930 Main Street was lined with businesses, the town was incorporated on February 17, 1936. Local folklore says that in the pioneer days, prior to the establishment of bridges, a ferry boat operator named Si shuttled people across the water in that area, it is said that when one arrived at the river and found the ferry on the opposite bank, it was common to shout "Hey Si!" to capture his attention and request passage. Thus, the town which grew around the location of this ferry service became known as "Haysi"; the myth concerning the town's origins is popular and accepted among area residents, but local historians dispute this explanation. The name Haysi is said to have originated from a post office established at a general store owned by Charles M. Hayter and Otis L. Sifers; the owners chose Haysi as a blend of their own surnames when it was necessary to provide a name to the U.
S. Post Office. Haysi is located in northeastern Dickenson County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.7 square miles, of which 3.6 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 3.10%, is water. The town's area was 0.89 square miles in 2000. The climate in this area is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate System describes the weather as humid subtropical, uses the abbreviation Cfa. As of the census of 2000, there were 186 people, 80 households, 56 families residing in the town; the population density was 210.4 people per square mile. There were 99 housing units at an average density of 112.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.85% White, 2.15% African American. There were 80 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families.
30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.84. In the town, the population was spread out with 18.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 26.9% from 45 to 64, 19.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $25,781, the median income for a family was $31,750. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $15,625 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,155. About 3.6% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 10.8% of those sixty five or over. Birch Knob Breaks Interstate Park John W. Flannagan Dam Russell Fork River The Ralph Stanley Museum Veterans Memorial Walk of Honor Haysi Kiwanis Park The Haysi area is served by Ridgeview High School and Sandlick Elementary School in the nearby community of Birchleaf, Virginia.
Bus service is provided to various locations in Buchanan, Dickenson and Tazewell counties by Four County Transit. Citations SourcesSutherland, E. J. Meet Virginia's Baby: A Brief Pictorial History of Dickenson County, from Its Formation in 1880 to 1955. A Clintwood, Virginia Diamond Jubilee Publication published in 1955. Reference article: "Other Towns and Villages: Haysi", pages 43–44. Sutherland, E. J. Pioneer Recollections of Southwest Virginia. Interviews collected and edited by E. J. Sutherland beginning in the 1920s and continuing for over 30 years. Collection published by Hetty Swindall Sutherland, Gregory Lynn Vanover, Joan Short Vanover in 1984. Reference article: "Interview with John. B. Wright", pages 449-451. Reedy and Diana, Virginia: Community and Family History. Self-published in 1998. Reference article: "Haysi-The Early Years", pages 1–6. Reedy, Mountain People and Places: Dickenson County, Virginia. Published by Mountain People and Places in 1994. Reference article: "A History of Trammel, Virginia", by Clyde Sutherland and Dennis Reedy, page 259.
Reedy, Dennis and Community H