A dictator is a political leader who wields absolute power. A state ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship, the word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency. Like the term tyrant, and to a lesser degree autocrat, dictator came to be used almost exclusively as a term for oppressive, even abusive rule. The term dictator is comparable to – but not synonymous with – the ancient concept of a tyrant, initially tyrant, like dictator and they may hold left or right-wing views, or may be apolitical. Originally an emergency appointment in the Roman Republic, the term Dictator did not have the negative meaning it has now. A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration, at the end of the term, the Dictators power returned to normal Consular rule whereupon a dictator provided accountability, though not all dictators accepted a return to power sharing. Following Julius assassination, his heir Augustus was offered the title of dictator, successions denied the title of dictator, with the usage of the title soon diminishing among Roman rulers.
As late as the half of the 19th Century, the term Dictator had occasional positive implications. For example, when creating an executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860. Shortly afterwards, during the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, Dictator was the title of four leaders. Past that time, Dictator assumed a negative connotation. In popular usage, dictatorship is often associated with brutality and oppression, as a result, it is often used as a term of abuse for political opponents. The term has come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality and have come to favor increasingly grandiloquent titles, in the movie The Great Dictator, Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Adolf Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself. The association between the dictator and the military is a one, many dictators take great pains to emphasize their connections with the military. In other cases, the association is mere pretense, because of the negative associations, modern leaders very rarely use the term in their formal titles.
The Dictatorial Government of Sicily was an executive government appointed by Giuseppe Garibaldi to rule Sicily. The government ended when Sicilys annexation into the Kingdom of Italy was ratified by plebiscite, Poland Józef Chłopicki was styled Dictator from 5 December 1830 – December 1830 and again in December 1830 –25 January 1831 Jan Tyssowski was Dictator from 24 February 1846 –2 March 1846
In many historical societies, the position of kingship carries a sacral meaning, that is, it is identical with that of a high priest and of judge. The concept of theocracy is related, although a sacred king need not necessarily rule through his religious authority, the concept was identified, or invented, by Sir James George Frazer in The Golden Bough whose title refers to the myth of the Rex Nemorensis. Frazer gives numerous examples, cited below, and is regarded as an exponent of the myth and ritual school. However, the myth and ritual, or myth-ritualist, theory is disputed, many now believe that myth and ritual share common paradigms. According to Frazer, the notion has prehistoric roots and is worldwide, on Java as in sub-Saharan Africa, with shaman-kings credited with rainmaking and assuring fertility. Among the Ashanti, a new king was flogged before being enthroned, from the Bronze Age Near East, the enthronement and anointment of a monarch is a central religious ritual, reflected in the titles Messiah or Christ which became separated from worldly kingship.
Thus, Sargon of Akkad described himself as deputy of Ishtar, the king is styled as a shepherd from earliest times, e. g. the term was applied to Sumerian princes such as Lugalbanda in the 3rd millennium BCE. The image of the shepherd combines the themes of leadership and the responsibility to supply food, as the mediator between the people and the divine, the sacral king was credited with special wisdom or vision. Devaraja, cult of divine kings in Southeast Asia, germanic kingship Holy Roman Emperor Imperial cult The Omukama of Kitara ruled as a heavenly sovereign. The High King of Ireland, according to tradition, married the sovereignty goddess. The Eze Nri, title of the ruler of the defunct Igbo Nri Kingdom in present-day Nigeria and he was addressed as Igwe, meaning heavenly one in the Igbo language, and has the pretender of a contemporary traditional state of the same name as his successor. The Emperor of Japan is known in Japanese as Tennō, heavenly sovereign, the Kende was the sacred king of the Magyars in the 9th century.
The Khagan The Kings of Luba became deities after death, the temporal power of the Papacy Pharaoh, title of Ancient Egyptian rulers. The pharaoh adopted names symbolizing holy might, the school of Pan-Babylonianism derived much of the religion described in the Hebrew Bible from cults of sacral kingship in ancient Babylonia. The so-called British and Scandinavian cult-historical schools maintained that the king personified a god and stood at the center of the national or tribal religion, the English myth and ritual school concentrated on anthropology and folklore, while the Scandinavian Uppsala school emphasized Semitological study. A sacred king, according to the interpretation of mythology developed by Frazer in The Golden Bough, was a king who represented a solar deity in a periodically re-enacted fertility rite. According to Frazer, the king represented the spirit of vegetation. He came into being in the spring, reigned during the summer, the spirit of vegetation was therefore a dying and reviving god
It was during this period that Romes control expanded from the citys immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, by the following century, it included North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation, Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. Over time, the laws that gave exclusive rights to Romes highest offices were repealed or weakened. The leaders of the Republic developed a tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military.
Many of Romes legal and legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states, the exact causes and motivations for Romes military conflicts and expansions during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright aggression and imperialism and they argue that Romes expansion was driven by short-term defensive and inter-state factors, and the new contingencies that these decisions created. In its early history, as Rome successfully defended itself against foreign threats in central and northern Italy, with some important exceptions, successful wars in early republican Rome generally led not to annexation or military occupation, but to the restoration of the way things were. But the defeated city would be weakened and thus able to resist Romanizing influences. It was able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies. It was, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome and this growing coalition expanded the potential enemies that Rome might face, and moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers.
The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership within that confederacy. While there were exceptions to this, it was not until after the Second Punic War that these alliances started to harden into something more like an empire and this shift mainly took place in parts of the west, such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal. In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of alliance-seeking, in the 2nd century BC, Roman involvement in the Greek east remained a matter of alliance-seeking, but this time in the face of major powers that could rival Rome. This had some important similarities to the events in Italy centuries earlier, with some major exceptions of outright military rule, the Roman Republic remained an alliance of independent city-states and kingdoms until it transitioned into the Roman Empire. It was not until the time of the Roman Empire that the entire Roman world was organized into provinces under explicit Roman control
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history, often when a given Roman is described as becoming emperor in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific, early Emperors used the title princeps. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps Senatus, the first emperors reigned alone, emperors would sometimes rule with co-Emperors and divide administration of the Empire between them. The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king, the first emperor, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successor, nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman Emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, a great effort was made to emphasize that the Emperors were the leaders of a Republic.
Elements of the Republican institutional framework were preserved until the end of the Western Empire. The Eastern emperors ultimately adopted the title of Basileus, which had meant king in Greek, but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor, other kings were referred to as rēgas. In addition to their office, some emperors were given divine status after death. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century, Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the west after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim to the title until his death in 480. Constantine XI was the last Byzantine Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, a Byzantine group of claimant Roman Emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461. In western Europe the title of Roman Emperor was revived by Germanic rulers, the Holy Roman Emperors, in 800, at the end of the Roman Republic no new, and certainly no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power.
Insofar as emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator, Julius Caesar had been an emperor, Julius Caesar, unlike those after him, did so without the Senates vote and approval. Julius Caesar held the Republican offices of four times and dictator five times, was appointed dictator in perpetuity in 45 BC and had been pontifex maximus for a long period. He gained these positions by senatorial consent, by the time of his assassination, he was the most powerful man in the Roman world. In his will, Caesar appointed his adopted son Octavian as his heir, a decade after Caesars death, Octavians victory over his erstwhile ally Mark Antony at Actium put an end to any effective opposition and confirmed Octavians supremacy. His restoration of powers to the Senate and the people of Rome was a demonstration of his auctoritas, some historians such as Tacitus would say that even at Augustus death, the true restoration of the Republic might have been possible. Instead, Augustus actively prepared his adopted son Tiberius to be his successor, the Senate disputed the issue but eventually confirmed Tiberius as princeps
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
Ides of March
The Ides of March is a day on the Roman calendar that corresponds to March 15. It was marked by several religious observances and became notorious as the date of the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, although March was the third month of the Julian calendar, in the oldest Roman calendar it was the first month of the year. The holidays observed by the Romans from the first through the Ides often reflect their origin as new-year celebrations, the Romans did not number days of a month sequentially from the first through the last day. Instead, they counted back from three fixed points of the month, the Nones, the Ides, and the Kalends, the Ides occurred near the midpoint, on the 13th for most months, but on the 15th for March, May and October. The Ides were supposed to be determined by the full moon, on the earliest calendar, the Ides of March would have been the first full moon of the new year. The Ides of each month were sacred to Jupiter, the Romans supreme deity, the Flamen Dialis, Jupiters high priest, led the Ides sheep in procession along the Via Sacra to the arx, where it was sacrificed.
In addition to the sacrifice, the Ides of March was the occasion of the Feast of Anna Perenna. The day was celebrated among the common people with picnics, drinking. One source from late antiquity places the Mamuralia on the Ides of March and this observance, which has aspects of scapegoat or ancient Greek pharmakos ritual, involved beating an old man dressed in animal skins and perhaps driving him from the city. The ritual may have been a new year festival representing the expulsion of the old year, in the Imperial period, the Ides began a holy week of festivals for Cybele and Attis. The Ides was the day of Canna intrat, when Attis was born and he was discovered—depending on the version of the myth—by either shepherds or the goddess Cybele, who was known as the Magna Mater. A week later, on 22 March, the day of Arbor intrat commemorated the death of Attis under a pine tree. A college of priests called dendrophoroi cut down a tree, suspended from it an image of Attis, the day was formalized as part of the official Roman calendar under Claudius.
A three-day period of mourning followed, culminating with the rebirth of Attis on 25 March, in modern times, the Ides of March is best known as the date on which Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC. Caesar was stabbed to death at a meeting of the Senate, as many as 60 conspirators, led by Brutus and Cassius, were involved. According to Plutarch, a seer had warned that harm would come to Caesar no than the Ides of March and this meeting is famously dramatised in William Shakespeares play Julius Caesar, when Caesar is warned by the soothsayer to beware the Ides of March. The Roman biographer Suetonius identifies the seer as a haruspex named Spurinna, Caesars death was a closing event in the crisis of the Roman Republic, and triggered the civil war that would result in the rise to sole power of his adopted heir Octavian. Writing under Augustus, Ovid portrays the murder as a sacrilege, since Caesar was the Pontifex Maximus of Rome, the executions were one of a series of actions taken by Octavian to avenge Caesars death