The Water-Babies, A Fairy Tale for a Land Baby
The Water-Babies, A Fairy Tale for a Land Baby is a children's novel by Charles Kingsley. Written in 1862–63 as a serial for Macmillan's Magazine, it was first published in its entirety in 1863, it was written as part satire in support of Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species. The book was popular in England, was a mainstay of British children's literature for many decades, but fell out of favour in part due to its prejudices against Irish, Catholics and the poor; the protagonist is Tom, a young chimney sweep, who falls into a river after encountering an upper-class girl named Ellie and being chased out of her house. There he appears to drown and is transformed into a "water-baby", as he is told by a caddisfly—an insect that sheds its skin—and begins his moral education; the story is thematically concerned with Christian redemption, though Kingsley uses the book to argue that England treats its poor badly, to question child labour, among other themes. Tom embarks on a series of adventures and lessons, enjoys the community of other water-babies once he proves himself a moral creature.
The major spiritual leaders in his new world are the fairies Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby, Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid, Mother Carey. Weekly, Tom is allowed the company of Ellie. Grimes, his old master, drowns as well, in his final adventure, Tom travels to the end of the world to attempt to help the man where he is being punished for his misdeeds. Tom helps Grimes to find repentance, Grimes will be given a second chance if he can perform a final penance. By proving his willingness to do things he does not like, if they are the right things to do, Tom earns himself a return to human form, becomes "a great man of science" who "can plan railways, steam-engines, electric telegraphs, rifled guns, so forth", he and Ellie are united, although the book states that they never marry, claiming that in fairy tales, no one beneath the rank of prince and princess marries. The book ends with the caveat that it is only a fairy tale, the reader is to believe none of it, "even if it is true." In the style of Victorian-era novels, The Water-Babies is a didactic moral fable.
In it, Kingsley expresses many of the common prejudices of that time period, the book includes dismissive or insulting references to Americans, Jews and Catholics the Irish. These views may have played a role in the book's gradual fall from popularity; the book had been intended in part as a satire, a tract against child labour, as well as a serious critique of the closed-minded approaches of many scientists of the day in their response to Charles Darwin's ideas on evolution, which Kingsley had been one of the first to praise. He had been sent an advance review copy of On the Origin of Species, wrote in his response of 18 November 1859 that he had "long since, from watching the crossing of domesticated animals and plants, learnt to disbelieve the dogma of the permanence of species," and had "gradually learnt to see that it is just as noble a conception of Deity, to believe that He created primal forms capable of self development into all forms needful pro tempore and pro loco, as to believe that He required a fresh act of intervention to supply the lacunas which He Himself had made", asking "whether the former be not the loftier thought."In the book, for example, Kingsley argues that no person is qualified to say that something that they have never seen does not exist.
How do you know that? Have you been there to see? And if you had been there to see, had seen none, that would not prove that there were none... And no one has a right to say that no water babies exist till they have seen no water babies existing, quite a different thing, from not seeing water babies. In his Origin of Species, Darwin mentions that, like many others at the time, he thought that changed habits produce an inherited effect, a concept now known as Lamarckism. In The Water Babies, Kingsley tells of a group of humans called the Doasyoulikes who are allowed to do "whatever they like" so lose the power of speech, degenerate into gorillas, are shot by the African explorer Paul Du Chaillu, he refers to the movement to end slavery in mentioning that one of the gorillas shot by Du Chaillu "remembered that his ancestors had once been men, tried to say,'Am I Not A Man And A Brother?', but had forgotten how to use his tongue." The Water Babies alludes to debates among biologists of its day, satirising what Kingsley had dubbed the Great Hippocampus Question as the "Great hippopotamus test."
At various times the text refers to "Sir Roderick Murchison, Professor Owen, Professor Huxley, Mr. Darwin", thus they become explicitly part of the story. In the accompanying illustrations by Linley Sambourne and Owen are caricatured, studying a captured water baby. In 1892 Thomas Henry Huxley's five-year-old grandson Julian saw this engraving and wrote his grandfather a letter asking: Dear Grandpater – Have you seen a Waterbaby? Did you put it in a bottle? Did it wonder if it could get out? Could I see it some day? – Your loving Julian. Huxley wrote back a letter: My dear Julian – I could never make sure about that Water Baby. I have seen Babies in Babies in bottles. My friend who wrote the story of the Water Baby was a kind man and clever, he thought I could see as much in the water as he did – There
The Georgics is a poem by Latin poet Virgil published in 29 BC. As the name suggests the subject of the poem is agriculture; the Georgics is considered Virgil's second major work, following his Eclogues and preceding the Aeneid. The poem draws on a variety of prior sources and has influenced many authors from antiquity to the present; the work consists of 2,188 hexametric verses divided into four books. The yearly timings by the rising and setting of particular stars were valid for the precession epoch of Virgil's time, so are not always valid now. Virgil begins his poem with a summary of the four books, followed by a prayer to various agricultural deities as well as Augustus himself, it differs from it in important ways. Numerous technical passages fill out the first half of Book 1. In the succession of ages, whose model is Hesiod, the age of Jupiter and its relation to the golden age and the current age of man are crafted with deliberate tension. Of chief importance is the contribution of labor to the success or failure of mankind's endeavors, agricultural or otherwise.
The book comes to one climax with the description of a great storm in lines 311–350, which brings all of man's efforts to naught. After detailing various weather-signs, Virgil ends with an enumeration of the portents associated with Caesar’s assassination and civil war. Prominent themes of the second book include agriculture as man's struggle against a hostile natural world described in violent terms, the ages of Saturn and Jupiter. Like the first book, it begins with a poem addressing the divinities associated with the matters about to be discussed: viticulture and the olive. In the next hundred lines Virgil treats fruit trees, their propagation and growth are described in detail, with a contrast drawn between methods that are natural and those that require human intervention. Three sections on grafting are of particular interest: presented as marvels of man's alteration of nature, many of the examples Virgil gives are unlikely or impossible. Included is a catalogue of the world's trees, set forth in rapid succession, other products of various lands.
The most famous passage of the poem, the Laudes Italiae or Praises of Italy, is introduced by way of a comparison with foreign marvels: despite all of those, no land is as praiseworthy as Italy. A point of cultural interest is a reference to Ascra in line 176, which an ancient reader would have known as the hometown of Hesiod. Next comes the care of vines; these depict the beauty that accompany spring's arrival. The poet returns to didactic narrative with yet more on vines, emphasizing their fragility and laboriousness. A warning about animal damage provides occasion for an explanation of why goats are sacrificed to Bacchus; the olive tree is presented in contrast to the vine: it requires little effort on the part of the farmer. The next subject, at last turning away from the vine, is other kinds of trees: those that produce fruit and those that have useful wood. Virgil again returns to grapevines, recalling the myth of the battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs in a passage known as the Vituperation of Vines.
The remainder of the book is devoted to extolling the simple country life over the corruptness of the city. The third book ostensibly concerned with animal husbandry, it consists of two principal parts, the first half is devoted to the selection of breed stock and the breeding of horses and cattle. It concludes with a description of the furor induced in all animals by sexual desire; the second half of the book is devoted to the care and protection of sheep and goats and their byproducts. It concludes with a description of the devastation caused by a plague in Noricum. Both halves begin with a short prologue called a proem; the poems invoke Greek and Italian gods and address such issues as Virgil's intention to honor both Caesar and his patron Maecenas, as well as his lofty poetic aspirations and the difficulty of the material to follow. Many have observed the parallels between the dramatic endings of each half of this book and the irresistible power of their respective themes of love and death.
Book four, a tonal counterpart to Book two, is divided in half. Bees resemble man in that they labor, are devoted to a king and give their lives for the sake of the community, but they lack the arts and love. In spite of their labor the bees perish and the entire colony dies; the restoration of the bees is accomplished by bugonia, spontaneous rebirth from the carcass of an ox. This process is described twice in the second half and frames the Aristaeus epyllion beginning at line 315; the tone of the book changes from didactic to epic and elegiac in this epyllion, which contains within it the story of Orpheus and Eurydice. Aristaeus, after losing his bees, descends to the home of his mother, the nymph Cyrene, where he is given instructions on how to restore his colonies, he must capture the seer and force him to reveal which divine spirit he angered and how to restore his bee colonies. After binding Proteus (who changes into many fo
The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes
The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes is a children's story published by John Newbery in London in 1765. The story popularized the phrase "goody two-shoes" as a descriptor for an excessively virtuous person or do-gooder. Goody Two-Shoes is a variation of the Cinderella story; the fable tells of Goody Two-Shoes, the nickname of a poor orphan girl named Margery Meanwell, who goes through life with only one shoe. When a rich gentleman gives her a complete pair, she is so happy that she tells everyone that she has "two shoes". Margery becomes a teacher and marries a rich widower; this earning of wealth serves as proof that her virtuousness has been rewarded, a popular theme in children's literature of the era. The anonymous story was published in London by the John Newbery company, a publisher of popular children's literature. In his introduction to an 1881 edition of the book, Charles Welsh wrote: Goody Two-Shoes was published in April 1765, few nursery books have had a wider circulation, or have retained their position so long.
The number of editions that have been published, both in England and America, is legion, it has appeared in mutilated versions, under the auspices of numerous publishing houses in London and the provinces, although of late years there have been no new issues. The story was attributed to the Irish author Oliver Goldsmith, though this is disputed; because Goldsmith wrote for pay, because of his copious fiction in essays, the attribution to Goldsmith is plausible. Washington Irving was one supporter of Goldsmith's authoring the book. However, the book has been attributed to Newbery himself and to Giles Jones, a friend of Newbery's. "Booksellers" such as Newbery would pay authors for anonymous work, no certain evidence of attribution has emerged. Although The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes is credited with popularizing the term "goody two-shoes", the actual origin of the phrase is unknown. For example, it appears a century earlier in Charles Cotton's Voyage to Ireland in Burlesque: Mistress mayoress complained that the pottage was cold.
Hold you, if you can, your tittle-tattle,' quoth he. The name is used herein to point out the mayoress' comparative privilege. Text of an 1881 reprint of the original version on Project Gutenberg Image of a 1787 Edition 18th Century Children's Book Collections at the British Museum 1888 chromolithographed pictorial edition at the Internet Archive
The Tirukkural, or shortly the Kural, is a classic Tamil text consisting of 1,330 couplets or Kurals, dealing with the everyday virtues of an individual. It is one of the two oldest works now extant in Tamil literature in their entirety, the other being the Tolkappiyam. Considered one of the greatest works written on ethics and morality, chiefly secular ethics, it is known for its universality and non-denominational nature, it was authored by Valluvar known in full as Thiruvalluvar. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 5th century CE; the traditional accounts describe it as the last work of the third Sangam, but linguistic analysis suggests a date of 450 to 500 CE. Traditionally praised as "the Universal Veda" and "the Universal Code of Conduct," the Kural emphasizes on the vital principles of non-violence, moral vegetarianism or veganism, human brotherhood, absence of desires, path of righteousness and truth, so forth, besides covering a wide range of subjects such as moral codes of rulers, agriculture and wisdom, sobriety and domestic life.
The work is quoted in vegetarian conferences, both in India and abroad. Considered as chef d'oeuvre of both Indian and world literature, the Kural is one of the most important works in the Tamil language and is called the masterpiece of Tamil Literature, both in its philosophical and literary caliber; this is reflected in some of the other names by which the text is given by, such as the Work of Three Books, Modern Veda, Divine Work, Faultless Word, Tamil Veda. The Kural has influenced several scholars across the ethical, political, religious and spiritual spheres. Authors influenced by the Kural include Ilango Adigal, Leo Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi, Albert Schweitzer, Constantius Joseph Beschi, Karl Graul, George Uglow Pope, Alexander Piatigorsky, Yu Hsi, many of whom have translated the work into their languages. Translated into at least 40 languages as of 2014, the Kural is one of the most translated works in the world; because the life and ethics of the Tamils are considered to be defined in terms of the values set by the Kural, the government and the people of Tamil Nadu alike uphold the text with utmost reverence.
Along with the Gita, the Kural is a prime candidate nominated to be the national book of India, for which a declaration was passed at the Tamil Nadu Assembly in 2006. The term Tirukkural is a compound word made of two individual terms and kural. Tiru is an honorific Tamil term that corresponds to the universally Indian, Sanskrit term sri meaning "holy, excellent and beautiful." The term tiru has as many as 19 different meanings. Kural means something, "short and abridged." Etymologically, kural is the shortened form of kural paattu, derived from kuruvenpaattu, one of the two Tamil poetic forms explained by Tolkappiyam, the other one being neduvenpaattu. According to Winslow, kural is used as a literary term to indicate "a metrical line of 2 feet, or a distich or couplet of short lines, the first of 4 and the second of 3 feet." Thus, Tirukkural comes to mean "sacred couplets."The Kural is unique among ancient works that it did not have a name nor did it have any mention of the author's name in it at the time of its release at the ruler's court at the city of Madurai, the seat of the Third Tamil Sangam.
The author used the title Muppāl, meaning "three divisions," to present it to the King, since the work was written about the first three of the four ancient Indian aims in life, known as purushaarthas, viz. virtue and love, with the fourth aim, salvation, implicitly said in the last five chapters of Book I. Remaining nameless for several years after its writing, the work came to be referred to by various names in the centuries that followed. Nine traditional names had been in use to refer to the book during the time of writing of the Tiruvalluva Maalai, a eulogy written on the Kural by various poets between the 1st and 11th centuries CE; the title Muppāl remained the work's primary name until the 13th century CE. It is estimated that the Kural has been known by as many as 44 names given at various periods over the millennia, making it one of the numerously titled works; the Kural is structured into 133 chapters, each containing 10 couplets, for a total of 1,330 couplets. The 133 chapters are grouped into three parts, or "books": Book I – Aṟam: Book of Virtue, dealing with virtues independent of the surroundings Book II – Poruḷ: Book of Polity, dealing with virtues with respect to the surroundings Book III – Inbam: Book of Love, dealing with virtues involved in conjugal human love Aṟam refers to ethical values for the holistic pursuit of life, poruḷ refers to wealth obtained in ethical manner guided by aṟam, inbam or kāmam refers to pleasure and fulfilment of one's desires in an aṟam-driven manner.
Although poruḷ and inbam are desirable pursuits in human life, they both need to be regulated by aṟam. One must remain unattached to wealth and possessions, which can either be transcended or sought with detachment and awareness. Pleasure needs to be fulfilled consciously and without harming anyone, it is said that there exists an inherent tension between inbam. Thus and pleasure must be pursued with an "action with renunciation", nothing but an aṟam-driven action, craving-free, in order to resolve this tension; each kural or couplet contains seven words, known as cirs, with four cirs on the first line and three on the second, following the kur
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, the aesthetic dissemination of art; the three classical branches of art are painting and architecture. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts; until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning, which translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of all with some relation to its etymology. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, is not rational, he speaks approvingly of this, other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, laughter as well.
In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, poetry with language; the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.
The more recent and specific sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: a study of a creative skill, a process of using the creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience with the creative skill; the creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a personal drive and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.
If the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. If the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are sometimes considered applied art; some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However fine art has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression; the purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art. The purpose may be nonexistent; the nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exp
Thiruvalluvar known as Valluvar, was a celebrated Tamil poet and philosopher. He is best known for authoring the Thirukkuṛaḷ, a collection of couplets on ethics and economical matters, love; the text is considered the greatest work of the Tamil literature and one of the finest works on ethics and morality. Much of the information about Valluvar comes from legendary accounts, little is known with certainty about his family background, religious affiliation, or birthplace, he is believed to have lived in Madurai and in the town of Mylapore, his floruit is dated variously from 4th century BCE to 5th century CE, based on the traditional accounts and the linguistic analyses of his writings. Maraimalai Adigal gives 31 BCE as the birth year of Valluvar. Valluvar has influenced every scholar down the ages since his time across the ethical, political, religious and spiritual spheres; because the life and ethics of the Tamils are considered to be defined in terms of the values set by the Kural literature, the government and the people of Tamil land alike venerate Valluvar and his work with utmost reverence.
He is known by numerous honorific designations, such as Saint, First Poet, Divine Poet and Great Scholar. There is negligible authentic information about the life of Valluvar. In fact, neither his actual name nor the original title of his work can be determined with certainty. Tirukkural itself does not name its author. Reminiscing this, Monsieur Ariel, a French scholar of the 19th century, famously said of the Tirukkural thus: Ce livre sans nom, par un auteur sans nom; the name Thiruvalluvar was first mentioned in the text Tiruvalluva Maalai. Various claims have been made regarding Valluvar's occupation. One tradition claims. Another theory is that he must have been from the agricultural caste of Vellalars because he extols agriculture in his work. Mu Raghava Iyengar speculated that "valluva" in his name is a variation of "vallabha", the designation of a royal officer. S. Vaiyapuri Pillai derived his name from "valluvan" and theorized that he was "the chief of the proclaiming boys analogous to a trumpet-major of an army".
The poem Kapilar Agaval, purportedly written by Kapilar, describes its author as a brother of Valluvar. It states that they were children of a Pulaya mother named a Brahmin father named Bhagwan; the poem claims that the couple had seven children, including four sisters. However, this legendary account is spurious. Kamil Zvelebil dates Kapilar Agaval to 15th century CE, based on its language. Various biographies mention the name of Valluvar's wife as Vasuki, but such details are of doubtful historicity. George Uglow Pope called Valluvar "the greatest poet of South India", but according to Zvelebil, he does not seem to have been a poet. According to Zvelebil, while the author handles the metre skillfully, the Tirukkuṛaḷ does not feature "true and great poetry" throughout the work, notably, in the third book, which deals with love and pleasure; this suggests that Valluvar's main aim was not to produce a work of art, but rather an instructive text focused on wisdom and ethics. Traditional account has it that Valluvar was left as a new-born child in a grove of ilupay or oil-nut tree, under a punnai or mastwood tree, near a temple sacred to Shiva at Mylapore.
He was raised by a Velalan couple. Some believe that he was the chief, a priest, a soothsayer and a doctor, heading the eighteen tribes that compose the Pariah community. Once when Valluvar helped a farmer from the town of Kaveripakkam named Margasahayan by saving his crops from a disease, Margasahayan offered Valluvar his daughter Vasuki in marriage as a token of gratitude. Valluvar and Vasuki earned a living by weaving clothes. Valluvar purchased thread from a merchant named Elelasingan, who became his lifelong friend and disciple. Elelasingan thus traded overseas. Valluvar is said to have authored the Kural text on the insistence of Elelasingan’s son Arlyakananthar. On the advice of Elelasingan and other friends, Valluvar took his work to the Madurai College at the Pandiyan King's court at Madurai. Poetess Avvaiyar and Poet Idaikkadar are said to have accompanied Valluvar on his journey to Madurai. Upon reaching the Madurai College, he presented his work to an assembly of forty-nine poets presided over by the Pandiyan King.
His work won the ordeal set by the assembly and was accepted unanimously. The forty-nine professors along with Avvaiyar and Idaikkadar sung in praise of Valluvar and his work, compiled into an anthology named the Tiruvalluva Maalai; when Vasuki died, Valluvar buried her body in a sitting posture. Lamenting her death, he affection toward her. Valluvar was a deep thinker and a keen observer of life “in its more familiar and humbler walks.” He analyzed both the micro- and the macro-dimensions of the society and observed every action of not just the layman but the ruler, including the follies and vices of the kings, the education of the princes, the intrigues of the kings’ courts, the attitudes of tactics of the ministers, the havoc wreaked by periodic wars, the frequency of famines and epidemics. He scrutinized the application of morality in every sphere of life and the society and wrote down in couplets; the exact date of Valluvar is still under debate. With his time being uncertain, the exact time when he authored the Kural text remains e
Siddhartha is a novel by Hermann Hesse that deals with the spiritual journey of self-discovery of a man named Siddhartha during the time of the Gautama Buddha. The book, Hesse's ninth novel, was written in a simple, lyrical style, it was published in the U. S. in became influential during the 1960s. Hesse dedicated the first part of it to Romain Rolland and the second part to Wilhelm Gundert, his cousin; the word Siddhartha is made up of two words in Sanskrit language, siddha + artha, which together means "he who has found meaning" or "he who has attained his goals". In fact, the Buddha's own name, before his renunciation, was Siddhartha Gautama, Prince of Kapilavastu. In this book, the Buddha is referred to as "Gotama"; the story takes place in the Nepalese district of Kapilavastu. Siddhartha decides to leave behind his home in the hope of gaining spiritual illumination by becoming an ascetic wandering beggar of the Samanas. Joined by his best friend, Siddhartha fasts, becomes homeless, renounces all personal possessions, intensely meditates seeking and speaking with Gautama, the famous Buddha, or Enlightened One.
Afterward, both Siddhartha and Govinda acknowledge the elegance of the Buddha's teachings. Although Govinda hastily joins the Buddha's order, Siddhartha does not follow, claiming that the Buddha's philosophy, though supremely wise, does not account for the distinct experiences of each person, he argues that the individual seeks an unique, personal meaning that cannot be presented to him by a teacher. He thus resolves to carry on his quest alone. Siddartha crosses a river and the generous ferryman, whom Siddhartha is unable to pay, merrily predicts that Siddhartha will return to the river to compensate him in some way. Venturing onward toward city life, Siddhartha discovers Kamala, the most beautiful woman he has yet seen. Kamala, a courtesan, notes Siddhartha's handsome appearance and fast wit, telling him that he must become wealthy to win her affections so that she may teach him the art of love. Although Siddhartha despised materialistic pursuits as a Shramana, he agrees now to Kamala's suggestions.
She directs him to the employ of Kamaswami, a local businessman, insists that he have Kamaswami treat him as an equal rather than an underling. Siddhartha succeeds, providing a voice of patience and tranquility, which Siddhartha learned from his days as an ascetic, against Kamaswami's fits of passion, thus Siddhartha becomes a rich man and Kamala's lover, though in his middle years he realizes that the luxurious lifestyle he has chosen is a game that lacks spiritual fulfillment. Leaving the fast-paced bustle of the city, Siddhartha returns to the river and thinks of a new existence and is saved only by an internal experience of the holy word, Om; the next morning, Siddhartha reconnects with Govinda, passing through the area as a wandering Buddhist. Siddhartha decides to live the rest of his life in the presence of the spiritually inspirational river. Siddhartha thus reunites with the ferryman, named Vasudeva, with whom he begins a humbler way of life. Although Vasudeva is a simple man, he understands and relates that the river has many voices and significant messages to divulge to any who might listen.
Some years Kamala, now a Buddhist convert, is travelling to see the Buddha at his deathbed, accompanied by her reluctant young son, when she is bitten by a venomous snake near Siddhartha's river. Siddhartha realizes that the boy is his own child. After Kamala's death, Siddhartha attempts to console and raise the furiously resistant boy, until one day the child flees altogether. Although Siddhartha is desperate to find his runaway son, Vasudeva urges him to let the boy find his own path, much like Siddhartha did himself in his youth. Listening to the river with Vasudeva, Siddhartha realizes that time is an illusion and that all of his feelings and experiences those of suffering, are part of a great and jubilant fellowship of all things connected in the cyclical unity of nature. After Siddhartha's moment of illumination, Vasudeva claims that his work is done and he must depart into the woods, leaving Siddhartha peacefully fulfilled and alone once more. Toward the end of his life, Govinda hears about an enlightened ferryman and travels to Siddhartha, not recognizing him as his old childhood friend.
Govinda asks the now-elderly Siddhartha to relate his wisdom and Siddhartha replies that for every true statement there is an opposite one, true. Because nature works in a self-sustaining cycle, every entity carries in it the potential for its opposite and so the world must always be considered complete. Siddhartha urges people to identify and love the world in its completeness. Siddhartha requests that Govinda kiss his forehead and, when he does, Govinda experiences the visions of timelessness that Siddhartha himself saw with Vasudeva by the river. Govinda bows to his wise friend and Siddhartha smiles radiantly, having found enlightenment. Siddartha: The protagonist. Govinda: A friend and follower of Gautama. Siddartha’s Father: A Brahmin, unable to satisfy Siddhartha's quest for enlightenment; the Samanas: Traveling ascetics who tell Siddhartha that deprivation leads to enlightenment. Gautama: The Buddha, whose Teachings are rejected but whose power of self-experience and self-wisdom is praised by Siddhartha.
Kamala: A courtesan and Siddhartha's sensual mentor, mother of his child, Young Siddhartha. Kamaswami: A merchant who instructs Siddhartha on business. Vasudeva: An enlightened ferryman and