Die casting is a metal casting process, characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity. The mold cavity is created using two hardened tool steel dies which have been machined into shape and work to an injection mold during the process. Most die castings are made from non-ferrous metals zinc, aluminium, lead and tin-based alloys. Depending on the type of metal being cast, a hot- or cold-chamber machine is used; the casting equipment and the metal dies represent large capital costs and this tends to limit the process to high-volume production. Manufacture of parts using die casting is simple, involving only four main steps, which keeps the incremental cost per item low, it is suited for a large quantity of small- to medium-sized castings, why die casting produces more castings than any other casting process. Die castings are characterized by a good surface finish and dimensional consistency. Die casting equipment was invented in 1838 for the purpose of producing movable type for the printing industry.
The first die casting-related patent was granted in 1849 for a small hand-operated machine for the purpose of mechanized printing type production. In 1885 Otto Mergenthaler invented the Linotype machine, an automated type-casting device which became the prominent type of equipment in the publishing industry; the Soss die-casting machine, manufactured in Brooklyn, NY, was the first machine to be sold in the open market in North America. Other applications grew with die casting facilitating the growth of consumer goods and appliances by making affordable the production of intricate parts in high volumes. In 1966, General Motors released the Acurad process; the main die casting alloys are: zinc, magnesium, copper and tin. Specific die casting alloys include: zinc aluminium; the Aluminum Association standards: AA 380, AA 384, AA 386, AA 390. The following is a summary of the advantages of each alloy: Zinc: the easiest metal to cast. Aluminium: lightweight. Magnesium: the easiest metal to machine. Copper: high hardness.
Silicon tombac: high-strength alloy made of copper and silicon. Used as an alternative for investment cast steel parts. Lead and tin: high density; such alloys are not used in foodservice applications for public health reasons. Type metal, an alloy of lead and antimony is used for casting hand-set type in letterpress printing and hot foil blocking. Traditionally cast in hand jerk molds now predominantly die cast after the industrialisation of the type foundries. Around 1900 the slug casting machines came onto the market and added further automation, with sometimes dozens of casting machines at one newspaper office. Maximum weight limits for aluminium, brass and zinc castings are 70 pounds, 10 lb, 44 lb, 75 lb, respectively; the material used defines the minimum section thickness and minimum draft required for a casting as outlined in the table below. The thickest section can be greater. There are a number of geometric features to be considered when creating a parametric model of a die casting: Draft is the amount of slope or taper given to cores or other parts of the die cavity to allow for easy ejection of the casting from the die.
All die cast surfaces that are parallel to the opening direction of the die require draft for the proper ejection of the casting from the die. Die castings that feature proper draft are easier to remove from the die and result in high-quality surfaces and more precise finished product. Fillet is the curved juncture of two surfaces that would have otherwise met at a sharp corner or edge. Fillets can be added to a die casting to remove undesirable edges and corners. Parting line represents the point; the location of the parting line defines which side of the die is the cover and, the ejector. Bosses are added to die castings to serve as stand-offs and mounting points for parts that will need to be mounted. For maximum integrity and strength of the die casting, bosses must have universal wall thickness. Ribs are added to a die casting to provide added support for designs that require maximum strength without increased wall thickness. Holes and windows require special consideration when die casting because the perimeters of these features will grip to the die steel during solidification.
To counteract this effect, generous draft should be added to window features. There are two basic types of die casting machines: cold-chamber machines; these are rated by. Typical ratings are between 400 and 4,000 st. Hot-chamber die casting known gooseneck machines, rely upon a pool of molten metal to feed the die. At the beginning of the cycle the piston of the machine is retracted, which allows the molten metal to fill the "gooseneck"; the pneumatic- or hyd
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play, mime, etc, performed in a theatre, or on radio or television. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes since Aristotle's Poetics —the earliest work of dramatic theory; the term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action", derived from "I do". The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. In English, the word "play" or "game" was the standard term used to describe drama until William Shakespeare's time—just as its creator was a "play-maker" rather than a "dramatist" and the building was a "play-house" rather than a "theatre"; the use of "drama" in a more narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. "Drama" in this sense refers to a play, neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola's Thérèse Raquin or Chekhov's Ivanov. It is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe "drama" as a genre within their respective media.
"Radio drama" has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a live performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception; the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Mime is a form of drama. Drama can be combined with music: the dramatic text in opera is sung throughout. Musicals include songs. Closet drama describes a form, intended to be read, rather than performed. In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance. Western drama originates in classical Greece; the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BC they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating the god Dionysus.
Historians know the names of many ancient Greek dramatists, not least Thespis, credited with the innovation of an actor who speaks and impersonates a character, while interacting with the chorus and its leader, who were a traditional part of the performance of non-dramatic poetry. Only a small fraction of the work of five dramatists, has survived to this day: we have a small number of complete texts by the tragedians Aeschylus and Euripides, the comic writers Aristophanes and, from the late 4th century, Menander. Aeschylus' historical tragedy The Persians is the oldest surviving drama, although when it won first prize at the City Dionysia competition in 472 BC, he had been writing plays for more than 25 years; the competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BC. Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BC. Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between "old comedy", "middle comedy" and "new comedy". Following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BC, Rome encountered Greek drama. From the years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire, theatre spread west across Europe, around the Mediterranean and reached England. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, the year 240 BC marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. From the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments; the first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BC. Five years Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived. While both dramatists composed in both genres, Andronicus was most appreciated for his tragedies and Naevius for his comedies. By the beginning of the 2nd century BC, drama was established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed.
The Roman comedies that have survived are all fabula palliata (comedies b
D. I. E. or Death Investigation Extension is a TVB modern comedy-action series broadcast in March 2008. It stars Sonija Kwok, Kenneth Ma & Margie Tsang. TVB began filming D. I. E. Again, the sequel, in November 2008. In the police force, "Death Investigation Extension" or "D. I. E." was established to accommodate those who have been sent away by their supervisors. As everybody knows, members of the Extension are to investigate unsolved cold cases. Yue Chi-Long, who has cracked a large number of difficult cases by extrasensory means, is assigned to the D. I. E. because his superiors find him strange for falling asleep on the job. New appointee Ying Jing-Jing is a good-looking girl but she takes an uncompromising stand over every case she deals with. Unaccepting of a division made of incompetent detectives, she is tricked into staying by her former supervisor, who claims that she was placed there to replace the head and whip the team into shape. Chi-Long has a laidback attitude; the relationship between Jing-Jing and Chi-Long is deteriorating day by day, but improving in a way...
Long lives with his elder sister, Yue Chi-Ching and his Aunt Sa, after his mother died and his father disappeared. While investigating an old case, Chi-Long gets to find his long-lost father Yue Tai-Hoi. While Chi-Ching is accepting, Chi-Long is angry at his father, going as far as arresting him when evidence hinted that Tai-Hoi may be related to a murder. Through close collaboration with Chi-Long, Jing-Jing has developed affection for him, her neglected but two-timing boyfriend Shing Ka-Tsun soon seals the decision for her, until Ka-Tsun's new girlfriend is murdered and he is forced to flee. When everything settles, Jing-Jing decides to start a relationship with Chi-Long, despite knowing that Ka-Tsun still loves her; however Chi-Long has started to try to avoid her without rhyme or reason, feeling confused about what is happening Jing-Jing decides to do some probing and is shocked to discover that Chi-Long has been dogged by a female ghost called Siu-Yi, preventing Long from developing romantic relationships.
Siu-Yi tells Long that his life clashes with Jing's, he will cause her to be killed if they are together. Long ignores this line. Chi-Long breaks up with Jing-Jing, until she is on a case, but Chi-Long and Jing-Jing know they are still in love with each other, leaving them in a painful and awkward situation... The original ending of the series has Roger Kwok's character, Yue Sir, dead as a result of the car accident. However, the TV audience voted for a happy ending; as a result, another ending was created by TVB. The alternate ending is of "Mo lei tau" style of comedy. Siu Yi transports members of the D. I. E. team to the moment before the car accident. Members of D. I. E. Try various ways to stop Chai Foon-Cheung, but to no avail. At the last moment, Chai Foon Cheung stops the truck and says to the D. I. E. team that he feels moved by their sincerity to save Yue Sir from dying, thus asking them to arrest him for bootlegging movies. Yue Sir and Madam Ying are with Yue Sir holding their newborn son. Yue Sir comments why their son weighs a head full of hair.
Siu Yi appears telling them that their curse has been taken care of, the reason that their son is so big is because she fed him a bowl of rice before he was born. Neither endings address the fate of criminal Dai Hao-Ying, who started the series as a Triad boss and ended up being a petty thief. 41st TVB Anniversary Awards "Best Drama" "Best Actor in a Leading Role" "Best Actress in a Leading Role" "My Favourite Male Character" "My Favourite Male Character" "My Favourite Female Character" Malaysia - 8TV TVB.com D. I. E. - Official Website K for TVB.net D. I. E. - Episodic Synopsis and Screen Captures
Death is the permanent cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which bring about death include aging, malnutrition, suicide, starvation and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Death – the death of humans – has been considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death, anxiety, grief, emotional pain, sympathy, solitude, or saudade. Many cultures and religions have the idea of an afterlife, hold the idea of reward or judgement and punishment for past sin; the word death comes from Old English dēaþ. This comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *dheu- meaning the "process, condition of dying"; the concept and symptoms of death, varying degrees of delicacy used in discussion in public forums, have generated numerous scientific and acceptable terms or euphemisms for death.
When a person has died, it is said they have passed away, passed on, expired, or are gone, among numerous other accepted, religiously specific and irreverent terms. Bereft of life, the dead person is a corpse, cadaver, a body, a set of remains, when all flesh has rotted away, a skeleton; the terms carrion and carcass can be used, though these more connote the remains of non-human animals. As a polite reference to a dead person, it has become common practice to use the participle form of "decease", as in the deceased; the ashes left after a cremation are sometimes referred to by the neologism cremains, a portmanteau of "cremation" and "remains". Senescence refers to a scenario when a living being is able to survive all calamities, but dies due to causes relating to old age. Animal and plant cells reproduce and function during the whole period of natural existence, but the aging process derives from deterioration of cellular activity and ruination of regular functioning. Aptitude of cells for gradual deterioration and mortality means that cells are sentenced to stable and long-term loss of living capacities despite continuing metabolic reactions and viability.
In the United Kingdom, for example, nine out of ten of all the deaths that occur on a daily basis relates to senescence, while around the world it accounts for two-thirds of 150,000 deaths that take place daily. All animals who survive external hazards to their biological functioning die from biological aging, known in life sciences as "senescence"; some organisms experience negligible senescence exhibiting biological immortality. These include the jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii, the hydra, the planarian. Unnatural causes of death include homicide. From all causes 150,000 people die around the world each day. Of these, two thirds die directly or indirectly due to senescence, but in industrialized countries – such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany – the rate approaches 90%. Physiological death is now seen as a process, more than an event: conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible. Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of vital signs.
In general, clinical death is neither sufficient for a determination of legal death. A patient with working heart and lungs determined to be brain dead can be pronounced dead without clinical death occurring; as scientific knowledge and medicine advance, formulating a precise medical definition of death becomes more difficult. Signs of death or strong indications that a warm-blooded animal is no longer alive are: Respiratory arrest Cardiac arrest Brain death Pallor mortis, paleness which happens in the 15–120 minutes after death Algor mortis, the reduction in body temperature following death; this is a steady decline until matching ambient temperature Rigor mortis, the limbs of the corpse become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate Livor mortis, a settling of the blood in the lower portion of the body Decomposition, the reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor. The concept of death is a key to human understanding of the phenomenon. There are many scientific approaches to the concept.
For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, defines death as a point in time at which brain activity ceases. One of the challenges in defining death is in distinguishing it from life; as a point in time, death would seem to refer to the moment. Determining when death has occurred is difficult, as cessation of life functions is not simultaneous across organ systems; such determination therefore requires drawing precise conceptual boundaries between death. This is due to there being little consensus on how to define life; this general problem applies to the particular challenge of defining death in the context of medicine. It is possible to define life in terms of consciousness; when consciousness ceases, a living organism can be said to have died. One of the flaws in this approach is that there are many organisms which are alive but not conscious. Another problem is in defining consciousness, which has many different d
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is applied in an aqueous solution, may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber. Both dyes and pigments are colored. Dyes are soluble in water whereas pigments are insoluble; some dyes can be rendered insoluble with the addition of salt to produce a lake pigment. The majority of natural dyes are derived from plant sources: roots, bark and wood, lichens. Most dyes are synthetic, i.e. are man-made from petrochemicals. Other than pigmentation, they have a range of applications including organic dye lasers, optical media and camera sensors. Textile dyeing dates back to the Neolithic period. Throughout history, people have dyed their textiles using common, locally available materials. Scarce dyestuffs that produced brilliant and permanent colors such as the natural invertebrate dyes Tyrian purple and crimson kermes were prized luxury items in the ancient and medieval world.
Plant-based dyes such as woad, indigo and madder were important trade goods in the economies of Asia and Europe. Across Asia and Africa, patterned fabrics were produced using resist dyeing techniques to control the absorption of color in piece-dyed cloth. Dyes from the New World such as cochineal and logwood were brought to Europe by the Spanish treasure fleets, the dyestuffs of Europe were carried by colonists to America. Dyed flax fibers have been found in the Republic of Georgia in a prehistoric cave dated to 36,000 BP. Archaeological evidence shows that in India and Phoenicia, dyeing has been carried out for over 5,000 years. Early dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral sources, with no to little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably roots, bark and wood, only few of which are used on a commercial scale; the first synthetic dye, was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin in 1856. The discovery of mauveine started a surge in organic chemistry in general.
Other aniline dyes followed, such as fuchsine and induline. Many thousands of synthetic dyes have since been prepared. Dyes are classified according to their chemical properties. Acid dyes are water-soluble anionic dyes that are applied to fibers such as silk, wool and modified acrylic fibers using neutral to acid dye baths. Attachment to the fiber is attributed, at least to salt formation between anionic groups in the dyes and cationic groups in the fiber. Acid dyes are not substantive to cellulosic fibers. Most synthetic food colors fall in this category. Examples of acid dye are Acid red 88, etc.. Basic dyes are water-soluble cationic dyes that are applied to acrylic fibers, but find some use for wool and silk. Acetic acid is added to the dye bath to help the uptake of the dye onto the fiber. Basic dyes are used in the coloration of paper. Direct or substantive dyeing is carried out in a neutral or alkaline dye bath, at or near boiling point, with the addition of either sodium chloride or sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate.
Direct dyes are used on cotton, leather, wool and nylon. They are used as pH indicators and as biological stains. Mordant dyes require a mordant, which improves the fastness of the dye against water and perspiration; the choice of mordant is important as different mordants can change the final color significantly. Most natural dyes are mordant dyes and there is therefore a large literature base describing dyeing techniques; the most important mordant dyes are chrome dyes, used for wool. The mordant potassium dichromate is applied as an after-treatment, it is important to note that many mordants those in the heavy metal category, can be hazardous to health and extreme care must be taken in using them. Vat dyes are insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibres directly. However, reduction in alkaline liquor produces the water-soluble alkali metal salt of the dye; this form is colorless, in which case it is referred to as a Leuco dye, has an affinity for the textile fibre. Subsequent oxidation reforms the original insoluble dye.
The color of denim is due to the original vat dye. Reactive dyes utilize a chromophore attached to a substituent, capable of directly reacting with the fiber substrate; the covalent bonds that attach reactive dye to natural fibers make them among the most permanent of dyes. "Cold" reactive dyes, such as Procion MX, Cibacron F, Drimarene K, are easy to use because the dye can be applied at room temperature. Reactive dyes are by far the best choice for dyeing cotton and other cellulose fibers at home or in the art studio. Disperse dyes were developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate, are water-insoluble; the dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent and sold as a paste, or spray-dried and sold as a powder. Their main use is to dye polyester, but they can be used to dye nylon, cellulose triacetate, acrylic fibers. In some cases, a dyeing temperature of 130 °C is required, a pressurized dyebath is used; the fine particle size gives a large surface area that aids dissolution to allow uptake by the fiber.
The dyeing rate can be influenced by the choice of dispersing agent used during the grinding. Azoic dyeing is a technique in which an insoluble Azo dye is produced directly
A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material using a press. Like molds, dies are customized to the item they are used to create. Products made with dies range from simple paper clips to complex pieces used in advanced technology. Forming dies are made by tool and die makers and put into production after mounting into a press; the die is a metal block, used for forming materials like sheet metal and plastic. For the vacuum forming of plastic sheet only a single form is used to form transparent plastic containers for merchandise. Vacuum forming is considered a simple molding thermoforming process but uses the same principles as die forming. For the forming of sheet metal, such as automobile body parts, two parts may be used: one, called the punch, performs the stretching, and/or blanking operation, while another part, called the die block securely clamps the workpiece and provides similar stretching, and/or blanking operation; the workpiece may pass through several stages using different tools or operations to obtain the final form.
In the case of an automotive component there will be a shearing operation after the main forming is done and additional crimping or rolling operations to ensure that all sharp edges are hidden and to add rigidity to the panel. The main components for die tool sets are: Die block – This is the main part that all the other parts are attached to. Punch plate – This part holds and supports the different punches in place. Blank punch – This part along with the blank die produces the blanked part. Pierce punch – This part along with the pierce die removes parts from the blanked finished part. Stripper plate – This is used to hold the material down on the blank/pierce die and strip the material off the punches. Pilot – This will help to place the sheet for the next stage of operation. Guide, back gauge, or finger stop – These parts are all used to make sure that the material being worked on always goes in the same position, within the die, as the last one. Setting block – This part is used to control the depth that the punch goes into the die.
Blanking dies – See blanking punch Pierce die – See pierce punch. Shank – used to hold in the presses, it should be situated at the center of gravity of the plate. Blanking: A blanking die produces a flat piece of material by cutting the desired shape in one operation; the finished part is referred to as a blank. A blanking die may only cut the outside contour of a part used for parts with no internal features. Three benefits to die blanking are:Accuracy. A properly sharpened die, with the correct amount of clearance between the punch and die, will produce a part that holds close dimensional tolerances in relationship to the part's edges. Appearance. Since the part is blanked in one operation, the finish edges of the part produces a uniform appearance as opposed to varying degrees of burnishing from multiple operations. Flatness. Due to the compression of the blanking process, the end result is a flat part that may retain a specific level of flatness for additional manufacturing operations. Broaching: The process of removing material through the use of multiple cutting teeth, with each tooth cutting behind the other.
A broaching die is used to remove material from parts that are too thick for shaving. Bulging: A bulging die expands the closed end of tube through the use of two types of bulging dies. Similar to the way a chef's hat bulges out at the top from the cylindrical band around the chef's head. Bulging fluid dies: Uses oil as a vehicle to expand the part. Bulging rubber dies: Uses a rubber block under pressure to move the wall of a workpiece. Coining: is similar to forming with the main difference being that a coining die may form different features on either face of the blank, these features being transferred from the face of the punch or die respectively; the coining die and punch flow the metal by squeezing the blank within a confined area, instead of bending the blank. For example: an Olympic medal, formed from a coining die may have a flat surface on the back and a raised feature on the front. If the medal was formed, the surface on the back would be the reverse image of the front. Compound operations: Compound dies perform multiple operations on the part.
The compound operation is the act of implementing more than one operation during the press cycle. Compound die: A type of die that has the die block mounted on a punch plate with perforators in the upper die with the inner punch mounted in the lower die set. An inverted type of blanking die that punches upwards, leaving the part sitting on the lower punch instead of blanking the part through. A compound die allows the cutting of external part features on a single press stroke. Curling: The curling operation is used to roll the material into a curved shape. A door hinge is an example of a part created by a curling die. Cut off: Cut off dies are used to cut off excess material from a finished end of a part or to cut off a predetermined length of material strip for additional operations. Drawing: The drawing operation is similar to the forming operation except that the drawing operation undergoes severe plastic deformation and the material of the part extends around the sides. A metal cup with a detailed feature at the bottom is an example of the difference between formed and drawn.
The bottom of the cup was formed. Extruding: Extruding is the act of deforming blanks of metal called slugs into finished parts such as an aluminum I-beam. Extrusion dies use high pressure from the punch
Die is a 2010 Canadian-Italian thriller film written and directed by Dominic James and starring Elias Koteas and Emily Hampshire. Six strangers wake up in cells in an underground facility, their captive decides their fate with the roll of a die. Die on IMDb