Die (integrated circuit)

A die, in the context of integrated circuits, is a small block of semiconducting material on which a given functional circuit is fabricated. Integrated circuits are produced in large batches on a single wafer of electronic-grade silicon or other semiconductor through processes such as photolithography; the wafer is cut into many pieces, each containing one copy of the circuit. Each of these pieces is called a die. There are three used plural forms: "dice", "dies" and "die". To simplify handling and integration onto a printed circuit board, most dies are packaged in various forms. Most dies are used for integrated circuits; the process begins with the production of monocrystalline silicon ingots. These ingots are sliced into disks with a diameter of up to 300mm; these wafers are polished to a mirror finish before going through photolithography. In many steps the transistors are connected with metal interconnect layers; these prepared wafers go through wafer testing to test their functionality. The wafers are sliced and sorted to filter out the faulty dies.

Functional dies are packaged and the completed integrated circuit is ready to be shipped. A die can host many types of circuits. One common use case of an integrated circuit die. Through advances in modern technology, the size of the transistor within the die has shrunk exponentially, following Moore's Law. Other uses for dies can range from LED lighting to power semiconductor devices. Die preparation Integrated circuit design Wire bonding and ball bonding Wedge Bonding Process on YouTube – animation Industrial Bonder on YouTube – the video shows bonding not brazing

APEC Thailand 2003

APEC Thailand 2003 was a series of political meetings held around Thailand between the 21 member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation during 2003. Various meetings were held across Thailand to discuss present economic conditions and future global policies. Leaders from all the member countries met from 20-21 October 2003 in Bangkok. President George W. Bush will attend leaders' meetings and will visit Indonesia, the Philippines and Australia; the presentation defines the major issues that may arise during the APEC meeting and President Bush's visit to East Asia. The theme of APEC in 2003 is "Different worlds: Partnership for the Future", which aims to bring together the greatest potential of all APEC economies to meet future challenges, in particular the free and open trade of APEC and investment in the developed APEC economies; this central theme is magnified by a series of five sub-themes designed to guide APEC working groups and forums in achieving their objectives. Media related to APEC Thailand 2003 at Wikimedia Commons

Downy mildew

Downy mildew refers to any of several types of oomycete microbes that are obligate parasites of plants. Downy mildews belong to Peronosporaceae. In commercial agriculture, they are a particular problem for growers of crucifers and vegetables that grow on vines; the prime example is Peronospora farinosa featured in NCBI-Taxonomy and HYP3. This pathogen does not produce survival structures in the northern states of the United States, overwinters as live mildew colonies in Gulf Coast states, it progresses northward with cucurbit production each spring. Yield loss associated with downy mildew is most related to soft rots that occur after plant canopies collapse and sunburn occurs on fruit. Cucurbit downy mildew only affects leaves of cucurbit plants. Initial symptoms include large, yellow areas visible on the upper surface; as lesions mature, they expand and turn brown. The under surface of infected leaves appears watersoaked. Upon closer inspection, a purple-brown mold becomes apparent. Small spores shaped like footballs can be observed among the mold with a 10x hand lens.

In disease-favorable conditions, downy mildew will spread destroying leaf tissue without affecting stems or petioles. Because the downy mildew pathogen does not overwinter in midwestern fields, crop rotations and tillage practices do not affect disease development; the pathogen tends to become established in late summer. Therefore, planting early season varieties may further reduce the minor threat posed by downy mildew. Fungicides applied for downy mildew control may be unnecessary. Broad spectrum protectant fungicides such as chlorothalonil and fixed copper are at least somewhat effective in protecting against downy mildew infection. Systemic fungicides are labeled for use against cucurbit downy mildew, but are recommended only after diagnosis of this disease has been confirmed. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency has approved oxathiapiprolin for use against downy mildew. In Canada, a mixture of zoxamide and mancozeb was registered for control of the mildew under the trademark Gavel as early as 2008.

One way to control downy mildew is to eliminate humidity around the impacted plants. Watering from below, such as with a drip system, improve air circulation through selective pruning. In enclosed environments, like in the house or in a greenhouse, reducing the humidity will help as well. Downy mildew of basil caused by Peronospora belbahrii has been a huge problem for both commercial producers and home growers; the disease was first reported in Italy in 2004, was reported in the U. S. in 2007 and 2008 and has been increasing in prevalence and economic importance since then. Cucurbitaceae downy mildew is specific to cucurbits; the disease is one of the most significant diseases of cucurbits worldwide. Plasmopara viticola is the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew. Hop Downy Mildew is specific to hops; the disease is the single most devastating disease in Western United States hopyards, since the microbe thrives in moist climates. Infected young hop bines become stunted with thickened clusters of pale curled leaves.

These spikes have a silvery upper surface, while the undersides of leaves become blackened with spores. These dwarfed spikes are called "basal spikes".'Lateral' or'terminal' spikes occur further up the vine. An entire hop crop could be devastated in only a few days. A new and aggressive form of impatiens downy mildew has emerged as a major threat to the cultivation of ornamental impatiens in the United States, where they are one of the most popular ornamental plants. Peronospora manshurica infects soybeans, reducing photosynthetic activity and quality; the fungus spreads by oospores on diseased leaves and/or on infected seed. The disease spreads in environments with high humidity and favors temperatures between 20-22 °C. Tufts of grayish to pale-colored sporangiophores on the underside of leaves distinguish the infection from other foliar diseases; the disease is controlled using the fungicides mancozeb, maneb, or zineb. Downy mildew on spinach is caused by Peronospora effusa, an oomycete pathogen that poses a challenge to spinach production worldwide in organic production.

Plasmopara halstedii infects sunflowers, producing oospores which can remain dormant in the soil for many years. Blue mold Peronosporaceae