The Italian Wars referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a series of Renaissance conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved most of the Italian states as well as France, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and the Ottoman Empire. An Italic League that ensured peace in the peninsula for 50 years had collapsed in 1492 with the death of Lorenzo De Medici, key figure of the bloc and ruler of Florence. In 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded the Italian Peninsula and occupied the Kingdom of Naples on the ground of a dynastic claim. However, he was forced to leave the occupied territories after a northern Italian alliance won a tactical victory against him at the Battle of Fornovo. In an attempt to avoid the mistakes of his predecessor, Louis XII annexed the Duchy of Milan in the north of Italy and signed an agreement with Ferdinand of Aragon to share the Kingdom of Naples. Ferdinand of Aragon turned on Louis XII and expelled French forces from the South after the battles of Cerignola and Garigliano.
After a series of alliances and betrayals, the Papacy decided to side against French control of Milan and supported Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and heir of Aragon territories in Italy. Following the battles of Bicocca and Pavia, France lost its control of Milan to the Habsburgs. However, mutinous German Protestant troops of Charles V sacked Rome in 1527: this event was a turning point in the development of the European Wars of Religion and caused Charles V to focus on the growth of Protestantism in the Holy Roman Empire. King Henry II of France took advantage of the situation and tried to establish supremacy in Italy by invading Corsica and Tuscany. However, his conquest of Corsica was reversed by the Genoese admiral Andrea Doria and his troops in Tuscany were defeated at the Battle of Scannagallo by the Florentines and the Imperials. With the abdication of Charles V, Philip II of Spain inherited the Italian possessions; the last significant confrontation, the Battle of St Quentin, was won by Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy for the Spanish and international forces: this led the restoration of the French-occupied Piedmont to the House of Savoy.
In 1559, the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis was signed. The political map of Italy was affected by the end of the wars: Naples and Milan had been confirmed to remain under Spanish control. In a jousting tournament held to celebrate the peace treaty, Henry II of France was killed by a lance: the instability that followed his death led to the French Wars of Religion. Following the Wars in Lombardy between Venice and Milan, which ended in 1454, Northern Italy had been at peace during the reigns of Cosimo de' Medici and Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence, with the notable exception of the War of Ferrara in 1482–1484. Charles VIII of France improved relations with other European rulers in the run up to the First Italian War by negotiating a series of treaties: in 1493, France negotiated the Treaty of Senlis with the Holy Roman Empire. Ludovico Sforza of Milan, seeking an ally against the Republic of Venice, encouraged Charles VIII of France to invade Italy, using the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples as a pretext.
When Ferdinand I of Naples died in 1494, Charles VIII invaded the peninsula with a French Army of twenty-five thousand men hoping to use Naples as a base for a crusade against the Ottoman Turks. For several months, French forces moved through Italy unopposed, since the condottieri armies of the Italian city-states were unable to resist them. Charles VIII made triumphant entries into Pisa on November 8, 1494, Florence on November 17, 1494, Rome on December 31, 1494. Upon reaching the city of Monte San Giovanni in the Kingdom of Naples, Charles VIII sent envoys to the town and the castle located there to seek a surrender of the Neapolitan garrison; the garrison mutilated the envoys and sent the bodies back to the French lines. This enraged the French army so that they reduced the castle in the town with blistering artillery fire on February 9, 1495 and stormed the fort, killing everyone inside; this event was called the sack of Naples. News of the French Army's sack of Naples provoked a reaction among the city-states of Northern Italy and the League of Venice was formed on March 31, 1495.
The League was formed to resist French aggression. The League was established on 31 March after negotiations by Venice, Milan and the Holy Roman Empire. On the League consisted of the Holy Roman Empire, the Duchy of Milan, the Papal States, the Republic of Florence, the Duchy of Mantua and the Republic of Venice; this coalition cut Charles' army off from returning to France. After establishing a pro-French government in Naples, Charles started to march north on his return to France. However, in the small town of Fornovo he met the League army; the Battle of Fornovo was fought on July 6, 1495, after an hour the League's army was forced back across the Taro river while the French continued marching to Asti, leaving their carriages and provisions behind. Francesco Guicciardini wrote that both parties strove to present themselves as the victors in that battle, but the eventual consensus was for a French victory, because the French repelled their enemies across the river and succeeded in moving forward, the
Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares is a Spanish city located 35 kilometres northeast of the country's capital, Madrid. It was one of the first bishoprics founded in Spain. Locally, it is known as "Alcalá", but "de Henares" is appended when needed to differentiate it from a dozen Spanish cities sharing the name Alcalá; the Latin name, Complutum, is sometimes used. The city is the capital of its namesake region, Comarca de Alcalá, its historical centre is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites. Since his investiture after the 2015 local election the Mayor is Javier Rodríguez Palacios; the city boundaries have been inhabited since the Chalcolithic phase of the Bronze Age. Romans conquered the area in the 1st century BC, built the town of Complutum near a previous Carpetanian settlement, called Iplacea. Thus, it became the only Roman town in the Madrid region. With 10,000 inhabitants, it had its own governing institutions. After the downfall of the Roman Empire, under the Visigoths, it declined, although it became a pilgrimage destination in remembrance of the Saints Justo and Pastor.
When the Moors arrived in 711, they subdued the Visigothic city and founded another site, building an al-qal'a, which means "citadel" in Arabic, on a nearby hill, today known as Alcalá la Vieja. On 3 May 1118, it was reconquered by the Archbishop of Toledo Bernard de Sedirac in the name of Castile; the Christians preferred the Burgo de Santiuste on the original Roman site and the Arab one was abandoned. The city was ceded to the Bishopric of Toledo. Under Christian rule until the end of the Reconquista, the city had both a Jewish and a Moorish quarter and a renowned marketplace, its central position allowed it to be a frequent residence of the Kings of Castile, when travelling south. At some time in the 1480s, Christopher Columbus had his first meeting with the Reyes Católicos and Isabella, who financed the travel for the Discovery of America; the city suffered severe damage during the Spanish Civil War. The author Miguel de Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares, baptized in the Church of Santa María in 1547, although his family moved from the city when he was still young.
The city celebrates 9 October, every year and organizes an annual Cervantes festival. The local university is acknowledged as a global leader in the study of his works; every year on 23 April, the anniversary of Cervantes' death, the city of Alcalá hosts the ceremony awarding the Cervantes Prize, the Spanish-speaking world's most prestigious award for lifetime achievement in literature. The award is presented by the King of Spain at the University of Alcalá's historic "Colegio de San Ildefonso." Speeches about the importance of the Spanish language are customarily given by the King, the Minister of Culture and the laureate. The ceremony attracts a wide range of dignitaries to the city including members of the Royal Family, the Prime Minister, others. During this ceremony the citizens of Alcalá can be heard singing the city's song, entitled "Alcalá de Henares." Other notable figures associated with the city are Ferdinand I of Aragon, cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, the mystic John of the Cross, the theologian Gabriel Vázquez, the poet Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Manuel Azaña Díaz, writer and politician, President of the Second Spanish Republic between 1936 and 1939.
The historian Antonio de Solís was probably born here. Ignatius of Loyola was once a student at the university, yet after several confrontations with the Spanish Inquisition, he left the city. Alcalá hosts an annual "Noche en Blanco." During this festival the streets are filled with music, art and dance as the city residents celebrate Alcalá's rich cultural heritage. The festival goes well into the night and centers around the Plaza de Cervantes where stages are set up to host the performances; the town of historic importance was one of the first bishoprics founded in Spain. The polyglot Bible known as the Complutensian Polyglot Bible, the first of the many similar Bibles produced during the revival of Biblical studies that took place in the 16th century, was printed at Alcalá under the care of Cardinal Cisneros. A papal bull of 7 March 1885, united Alcalá with the diocese of Madrid which includes the civil province of Madrid, suffragan of the archbishopric of Toledo; the bishop's residence has since been used for preserving historical archives.
It has a famous staircase. During Muslim rule, the Jewish community of the city was granted equal rights as the Christians living in it. In the Middle Ages, the Jewish congregation of the city paid taxes to the Archbishop of Toledo; the Jews of Alcala were mentioned in the 14th-century Satire by Marrano Pero Ferrús. During the 15th century, the Jewish congregation of the city was one of the largest in Castile, having about 200 Jewish families. Hebrew studies at the University of Alcala were encouraged by Cardinal Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros during the 16th century, bringing some Jews and Marrano Hebraists to work in the city; the location of the Jewish quarter of the city is well known – between Mayor, Santiago and Cervantes streets. One synagogue stood in Carmen Calzado street, no. 10. The other was on Santiago street. After the 1492 Alhambra Decree Jews were requested to become Christians to continue living in Castile and Aragon, those who refused had to left these kingdoms and most of them found residence in North of Africa and the Ottoman Empire.
The origins o
The Granada War was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1491, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty's Emirate of Granada. It ended with the defeat of Granada and its annexation by Castile, ending all Islamic rule on the Iberian peninsula; the ten-year war was not a continuous effort but a series of seasonal campaigns launched in spring and broken off in winter. The Granadans were crippled by internal conflict and civil war, while the Christians were unified; the Granadans were bled economically by Castile, with the tribute they had to pay to avoid being attacked and conquered. The war saw the effective use of artillery by the Christians to conquer towns that would otherwise have required long sieges. On January 2, 1492, Muhammad XII of Granada surrendered the Emirate of Granada, the city of Granada, the Alhambra palace to the Castilian forces; the war was a joint project between Ferdinand's Crown of Aragon.
The bulk of the troops and funds for the war came from Castile, Granada was annexed into Castile's lands. The Crown of Aragon was less important: apart from the presence of King Ferdinand himself, Aragon provided naval collaboration and some financial loans. Aristocrats were offered the allure of new lands, while Ferdinand and Isabella centralized and consolidated power; the aftermath of the war ended convivencia between religions In the Iberian peninsula: the Jews were forced to convert to Christianity or be exiled in 1492, by 1501, all of Granada's Muslims were obliged to convert to Christianity, become slaves, or be exiled. "New Christians" came to be accused of crypto-Judaism. Spain would go on to model its national aspirations as the guardian of Catholicism; the fall of the Alhambra is still celebrated every year by the City Council of Granada, the Granada War is considered in traditional Spanish historiography as the final war of the Reconquista. The Emirate of Granada had been the last Muslim state in Iberia for more than two centuries by the time of the Granada War.
The other remnant al-Andalus states of the once powerful Caliphate of Córdoba had long been conquered by the Christians. Pessimism for Granada's future existed before its ultimate fall. Still, Granada was wealthy and powerful, the Christian kingdoms were divided and fought amongst themselves. Granada's problems began to worsen after Emir Yusuf III's death in 1417. Succession struggles ensured that Granada was in an constant low-level civil war. Clan loyalties were stronger than allegiance to the Emir; the only territory the Emir controlled was the city of Granada. At times, the emir did not control all the city, but rather one rival emir would control the Alhambra, another the Albayzín, the most important district of Granada; this internal fighting weakened the state. The economy declined, with Granada's once world-famous porcelain manufacture disrupted and challenged by the Christian town of Manises near Valencia, in Aragon. Despite the weakening economy, taxes were still imposed at their earlier high rates to support Granada's extensive defenses and large army.
Ordinary Granadans paid triple the taxes of Castilians. The heavy taxes that Emir Abu-l-Hasan Ali imposed contributed to his unpopularity; these taxes did at least support a respected army. The frontier between Granada and the Castilian lands of Andalusia was in a constant state of flux, "neither in peace nor in war." Raids across the border were common, as were intermixing alliances between local nobles on both sides of the frontier. Relations were governed by occasional truces and demands for tribute should one side have been seen to overstep their bounds. Neither country's central government controlled the warfare much. King Henry IV of Castile died in December 1474, setting off the War of the Castilian Succession between Henry's daughter Joanna la Beltraneja and Henry's half-sister Isabella; the war raged from 1475–1479, setting Isabella's supporters and the Crown of Aragon against Joanna's supporters and France. During this time, the frontier with Granada was ignored. Truces were agreed upon in 1475, 1476, 1478.
In 1479, the Succession War concluded with Isabella victorious. As Isabella had married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469, this meant that the two powerful kingdoms of Castile and Aragon would stand united, free from inter-Christian war which had helped Granada survive; the truce of 1478 was still theoretically in effect when Granada launched a surprise attack against Zahara in December 1481, as part of a reprisal for a Christian raid. The town fell, the population was enslaved; this attack proved to be a great provocation, factions in favor of war in Andalusia used it to rally support for a counterstrike moving to take credit for it, backed a wider war. The seizure of Alhama and its subsequent royal endorsement is said to be the formal beginning of the Granada War. Abu Hasan was unsuccessful. Reinforcements from the rest of Castile and Aragon averted t
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Badajoz is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. It is situated close to the Portuguese border, on the left bank of the river Guadiana; the population in 2011 was 151,565. Conquered by the Moors in the 8th century, Badajoz became a Moorish kingdom, the Taifa of Badajoz. After the reconquista, the area was disputed between Spain and Portugal for several centuries with alternating control resulting in several wars including the Spanish War of Succession, the Peninsular War, the Storming of Badajoz, the Spanish Civil War. Spanish history is reflected in the town. Badajoz is the see of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mérida-Badajoz. Prior to the merger of the Diocese of Mérida and the Diocese of Badajoz, Badajoz was the see of the Diocese of Badajoz from the bishopric's inception in 1255; the city has a degree of eminence, crowned as it is by the ruins of a Moorish castle and overlooking the Guadiana river, which flows between the castle-hill and the powerfully armed fort of San Cristobal.
The architecture of Badajoz is indicative of its tempestuous history. Badajoz is home to the CD Badajoz and AD Cerro de Reyes football clubs and the AB Pacense basketball club, it is served by Badajoz Railway Badajoz Airport. Archaeological finds unearthed. Megalithic tombs are dated as far back as 4000 BC, while many of the steles found are from the Late Bronze Age. Other finds include weapons such as axes and swords, everyday items of pottery and utensils, various items of jewellery such as bracelets. Archaeological excavations have revealed remnants from the Lower Paleolithic period. Artifacts have been found at the Roman town of Colonia Civitas Pacensis in the Badajoz area, although a significant number of larger artifacts were found in Mérida. With the invasion of the Romans, which started in 218 BC during the Second Punic War and Extremadura became part of the administrative district called Hispania Ulterior, divided by Emperor Augustus into Hispania Ulterior Baetica and Hispania Ulterior Lusitania.
Though the settlement is not mentioned in Roman history, Roman villas such as the La Cocosa Villa have been discovered in the area, while Visigothic constructions have been found in the vicinity. Badajoz attained importance during the reign of Moorish rulers such as the Umayyad caliphs of Córdoba, the Almoravids and Almohads of North Africa. From the 8th century, the Umayyad dynasty controlled the region until the early 11th century; the official foundation of Badajoz was laid by the Muladi nobleman Ibn Marwan, around 875, after he had been expelled from Mérida. Under Ibn Marwan, the city was the seat of an effective autonomous rebel state, quenched only in the 10th century. In 1021, it became the capital of the Taifa of Badajoz. Badajoz was known as Baṭalyaws during Muslim rule; the invasion of Badajoz by Christian rulers in 1086 under Alfonso VI of Castile, overturned the rule of the Moors. In addition to an invasion by the Almoravids of Morocco in 1067, Badajoz was invaded by the Almohads in 1147.
Badajoz was captured by Alfonso IX of León on 19 March 1230. Shortly after its conquest, in the time of Alfonso X the Wise of Castile, a bishopric see was established and work was initiated on the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista. In 1336, during the reign of Alfonso XI of Castile, the troops of King Afonso IV of Portugal besieged the city. However, soon afterwards, the Castilian-Leonese troops, which included Pedro Ponce de León the Elder and Juan Alonso Pérez de Guzmán y Coronel, second lord of Sanlúcar de Barrameda and son of Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, defeated the troops of Alfonso IV in the Battle of Villanueva de Barcarrota, their victory forced the king of Portugal to desert the city and it fell into neglect. In medieval times, the Sánchez de Badajoz family dominated the area as the lords of Barcarrota, near Badajoz, acquiring the property in 1369 when it was granted to Fernán Sánchez de Badajoz by Enrique II, they temporarily soon regained control. Fernán Sánchez's grandson of the same name, son of Garci Sánchez de Badajoz, was both lord of Barcarrota and Mayor of Badajoz in 1434.
Garci Sánchez de Badajoz his son, was a notable writer, one of his descendants, Diego Sánchez de Badajoz, was a notable playwright. The first hospital was founded in the town by Bishop Fray Pedro de Silva in 1485; those affected by the plague epidemic were treated here in 1506. During the 16th century the city experienced a cultural renaissance thanks to personalities such as the painter Luis de Morales, the composer Juan Vázquez, the humanist Rodrigo Dosma, the poet Joaquin Romero de Cepeda, the playwright Diego Sánchez de Badajoz, the Dominican mystic Fray Luis de Granada and architect Gaspar Méndez. In 1524, a board meeting between representatives of Spain and Portugal took place in the Old Town Hall in the city to clarify the status of their territorial arrangements, attended by Hernando Colón, Juan Vespucio, Sebastián Caboto, Juan Sebastián Elcano, Diego Ribeiro and Esteban Gómez. With reason to assert their rights to the Portuguese Crown, Philip II of Spain moved his court to Badajoz in August 1580.
Queen Anne of Austria died in the city two months and on 5 December 1580, Philip moved out of the city. From 1580 until 1640, as a result of the absence of war, the city flouri
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules. Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, continued into the modern period among military officers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, duels were fought with swords, but beginning in the late 18th century in England, duels were more fought using pistols. Fencing and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century; the duel was based on a code of honor. Duels were fought not so much to kill the opponent as to gain "satisfaction", that is, to restore one's honor by demonstrating a willingness to risk one's life for it, as such the tradition of dueling was reserved for the male members of nobility. On occasion, duels with pistols or swords were fought between women. Legislation against dueling goes back to the medieval period; the Fourth Council of the Lateran outlawed duels, civil legislation in the Holy Roman Empire against dueling was passed in the wake of the Thirty Years' War.
From the early 17th century, duels became illegal in the countries. Dueling fell out of favor in England by the mid-19th century and in Continental Europe by the turn of the 20th century. Dueling declined in the Eastern United States in the 19th century and by the time the American Civil War broke out, dueling had begun to wane in the South. Public opinion, not legislation, caused the change. In Western society, the formal concept of a duel developed out of the medieval judicial duel and older pre-Christian practices such as the Viking Age holmgang. In Medieval society, judicial duels were fought by squires to end various disputes. Countries like Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland practiced this tradition. Judicial combat took two forms in the feat of arms and chivalric combat; the feat of arms was supervised by a judge. The battle was fought as a result of a slight or challenge to one party's honor which could not be resolved by a court. Weapons were standardized and typical of a knight's armoury, for example longswords, polearms etc. however, weapon quality and augmentations were at the discretion of the knight, for example, a spiked hand guard or an extra grip for half-swording.
The parties involved would wear their own armour. The duel lasted. In early cases, the defeated party was executed; this type of duel soon evolved into the more chivalric pas d'armes, or "passage of arms", a chivalric hastilude that evolved in the late 14th century and remained popular through the 15th century. A knight or group of knights would stake out a travelled spot, such as a bridge or city gate, let it be known that any other knight who wished to pass must first fight, or be disgraced. If a traveling venans did not have weapons or horse to meet the challenge, one might be provided, if the venans chose not to fight, he would leave his spurs behind as a sign of humiliation. If a lady passed unescorted, she would leave behind a glove or scarf, to be rescued and returned to her by a future knight who passed that way; the Roman Catholic Church was critical of dueling throughout medieval history, frowning both on the traditions of judicial combat and on the duel on points of honor among the nobility.
Judicial duels were deprecated by the Lateran Council of 1215, but the judicial duel persisted in the Holy Roman Empire into the 15th century. The word duel comes from the Latin'duellum', cognate with'bellum', meaning'war'. During the early Renaissance, dueling established the status of a respectable gentleman and was an accepted manner to resolve disputes; the first published code duello, or "code of dueling", appeared in Renaissance Italy. The first formalized national code was France's, during the Renaissance. In 1777, a code of practice was drawn up for the regulation of duels, at the Summer assizes in the town of Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland. A copy of the code, known as'The twenty-six commandments', was to be kept in a gentleman's pistol case for reference should a dispute arise regarding procedure. However, the tradition had become rooted in European culture as a prerogative of the aristocracy, these attempts failed. For example, King Louis XIII of France outlawed dueling in 1626, a law which remained in force for afterwards, his successor Louis XIV intensified efforts to wipe out the duel.
Despite these efforts, dueling continued unabated, it is estimated that between 1685 and 1716, French officers fought 10,000 duels, leading to over 400 deaths. By the late 18th century, Enlightenment era values began to influence society with new self-conscious ideas about politeness, civil behaviour and new attitudes towards violence; the cultivated art of politeness demanded that there should be no outward displays of anger or violence, the concept of honor became more personalized. By the 1770s the practice of dueling was coming under attack from many sections of enlightened society, as a violent relic of Europe's medieval past unsuited for modern life; as England began to industrialize and benefit from urban planning and more effective police forces, the culture of street violence in general began to wane. The growing middle class maintained their reputation with recourse to either bringing charges of libel, or to the fast-growing print media of t