A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In
El Tiempo (Colombia)
El Tiempo is a nationally distributed broadsheet daily newspaper in Colombia. As of 2012, it had the highest circulation in Colombia with an average daily weekday of 1,137,483 readers, rising to 1,921,571 readers for the Sunday edition. After longtime rival El Espectador was reduced to a weekly publication following an internal financial crisis in 2001, El Tiempo enjoyed monopoly status in Colombian media as the only daily that circulated nationally, as most smaller dailies have limited distribution outside their own regions. However, El Espectador returned to the daily format on May 11, 2008. From 1913 to 2007, El Tiempo's main shareholders were members of the Santos family. Several participated in Colombian politics: Eduardo Santos Montejo was President of Colombia from 1938 to 1942. Francisco Santos Calderón served as Vice-President, and Juan Manuel Santos as Defense Minister during Álvaro Uribe's administration. The latter was elected president in 2010. In 2007, Spanish Grupo Planeta acquired 55% of the Casa Editorial El Tiempo media group, including the newspaper and its associated TV channel Citytv Bogotá.
In 2012, businessman Luis Carlos Sarmiento Angulo bought the shares of Planeta, the Santos family and other small shareholders, becoming the only owner of the newspaper. The newspaper was founded in 1911 by Alfonso Villegas Restrepo. In 1913 it was purchased by Eduardo Santos Montejo. From until 2007, El Tiempo's main shareholders were members of the Santos family, as part of the media conglomerate Casa Editorial El Tiempo. In 2007, the Spanish Grupo Planeta obtained majority ownership of the daily, but in 2012 sold majority ownership to Luis Carlos Sarmiento Angulo who now owns 86% of El Tiempo. Between 2001 and 2008, due to El Espectador being published as a weekly newspaper, it was Colombia's only national daily newspaper. El Tiempo is published in six regional editions: Bogotá Caribe Medellín Café Cali Region, for the remainder of the country. On Sundays there are special sections. For about 3 years it published every Sunday a special section with a weekly selection of articles from The New York Times, translated into Spanish and using the same pictures.
This section was dropped in January 2008 and since August 2008 it has been published by rival newspaper El Espectador. El Tiempo is part of Grupo de Diarios América, an organization of eleven leading newspapers from eleven Latin American countries. El Tiempo
National Army of Colombia
The National Army of Colombia is the land military force of Colombia and the largest and oldest service branch of the Military Forces of Colombia. It is responsible for carrying out land-based military operations along with the Colombian Naval Infantry and for protecting the Colombian state against domestic or foreign threats; the modern Colombian Army has its roots in the Army of the Commoners, formed on 7 August 1819 – before the establishment of the present day Colombia – to meet the demands of the Revolutionary War against the Spanish Empire. After their triumph against the Spanish, the Congress of Angostura created the Greater Colombian Army, to replace the disbanded Commoners Army; the Colombian Army traces its history back to the 1770s and 1780s, when the Comuneros – descendants of Spanish and Amerindians – decided to separate from the Spanish Empire to create their own country and initiated a revolutionary war. On July 20 of 1810, Colombia declared its independence from the Spanish Empire, a Volunteer National Guard was raised composed of infantry and cavalry units.
As independence was declared, with the Spanish driven out temporarily, a nationwide civil war known as la Patria Boba broke out from 1810 to 1816 between federalists and centralists as many cities and provinces across the country set up their own autonomous junta. The junta declared themselves sovereign from each other as result of the lack of communications between many provinces and cities due to Colombia's complicated mountain terrain; this prevented a full establishment of a regular army, it would take 9 years before a national army would be formed. This gave a rise to a prolonged period of instability and Spanish were able to take advantage of this with Spanish crown sending General Pablo Morillo. Morillo known by his nickname the El Pacificador invaded New Granada in 1816, the United Provinces of New Granada tried to resist with an army under the command of Antonio Baraya and Custodio García Rovira but they were defeated by the Spanish forces at the Battle of El Tambo and the Battle of Bajo Palacé reestablishing Spanish rule in New Granada.
With New Granada being under control of the Spanish again, Morillo launched a campaign of terror by executing many of the leaders of Independence movement in public squares in order to instill fear. The Greater Colombian Army was consolidated on August 7, 1819, following the defeat of the Spaniards at the Battle of Boyacá under the command of Simon Bolivar. Since the Colombian Army has been the biggest organization in Colombia. With independence gained after the defeat of the Spanish Royalist forces at the Battle of Boyacá in 1819, the republic of Gran Colombia was established by the Constitution of Cúcuta in 1821, with its capital in Bogotá. There upon the Gran Colombian Army was formed. In 1828 a war broke out with Peru and the Gran Colombian Army was called upon to defend the nation's sovereignty; the war lasted into 1829 with a Peruvian naval victory, but the Colombians were victorious on land with the crushing of the Peruvian invasion force at the Battle of Tarqui. The war ended in a stalemate.
After the dissolution in 1830 of Gran Colombia and the death of Bolivar, the Army of the new New Granada had been involved in war and civil war without being able to progress or modernize. Its officers were not technically skilled; the government addressed this by founding and organizing military schools and colleges, but was hampered by the constant civil wars that financially drained the country's economy. In 1839 General Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera hired Italian Colonel Agustin Códazzi as an inspector of the army; as a consequence of these civil wars over partisan affairs, the chiefs and officers began to be involved in politics. The need to professionalize and retrain the army prompted the creation of a military school, created in 1887. In order to reorganize the army, the government hired a French military mission, its mission was fruitful and the organization along French lines based on divisions and battalions was implemented in the country. Another civil war the most devastating of them all, the Thousand Days War, was declared on October 8, 1899, did not allow the retraining and education of officers and commanders.
This civil war lasted until 1903. With the ending of the Thousand Days War, General Rafael Reyes Prieto was elected President of Colombia with many ambitious plans to reorganize and professionalize the army; the first thing he did was to reduce troop numbers drastically: the army at the time had an estimated 80,000 troops who were poorly equipped, poorly trained, poorly dressed and malnourished. The army lacked professionalism and sense of duty to the country and never acted as a national army, acting instead as militias and armed factions led by Commanders who had their own political agendas. In 1907 a military reform was carried out by President Rafael Reyes Prieto right in the aftermath of the Thousand Days War which had devastated the country economically and morally; the ministry of war hired a Chilean military mission to advise the ministry on how to professionalize the army. This led to the creation of the Colombian Military School in June 1907; the Army was dramatically reorganized under the guise of the Chilean military mission, the Chilean army which had adopted Prussian military doctrine and uniforms since 1886 did the same to the Colombian army as Colombian troops began using Prussian military uniforms and doctrine, still present today in the Colombian Military Academy with ceremonial uniforms being of Prussian influence and the use of Pickelhaube helmets.
FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives
The FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives is a most wanted list maintained by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. The list arose from a conversation held in late 1949 between J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the FBI, William Kinsey Hutchinson, International News Service editor-in-chief, who were discussing ways to promote capture of the FBI's "toughest guys"; this discussion turned into a published article, which received so much positive publicity that on March 14, 1950, the FBI announced the list to increase law enforcement's ability to capture dangerous fugitives. Individuals are only removed from the list if the fugitive is captured, dies, or if the charges against them are dropped. In nine cases, the FBI removed individuals from the list after deciding that they were no longer a "particularly dangerous menace to society". Machetero member Víctor Manuel Gerena, added to the list in 1984, was on the list for 32 years, longer than anyone else. Billie Austin Bryant spent the shortest amount of time on the list, being listed for two hours in 1969.
The oldest person to be added to the list was William Bradford Bishop, Jr. on April 10, 2014 at 77 years old. On rare occasions, the FBI will add a "Number Eleven" if that individual is dangerous but the Bureau does not feel any of the current ten should be removed. Despite occasional references in the media, the FBI does not rank their list; the list is posted in public places such as post offices. In many cases, fugitives on the list have turned themselves in on becoming aware of their listing; as of December 4, 2014, 504 fugitives had been listed, eight of them women, 473 captured or located, 155 of them due to public assistance. On May 19, 1996, Leslie Isben Rogge became the first person on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list to be apprehended due to the Internet; the FBI maintains other lists of individuals, including the Most Wanted Terrorists, along with crime alerts, missing persons, other fugitive lists. On June 17, 2013, the list reached a cumulative total of 500 fugitives having been listed.
As of March 14, 2019, 521 fugitives had been listed. The Criminal Investigative Division at FBI Headquarters calls upon all 56 Field Offices to submit candidates for the FBI's "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" list; the nominees received are reviewed by the Office of Public Affairs. The selection of the "proposed" candidate is forwarded to the Assistant Director of the CID for his/her approval and to the FBI's Director for final approval; this process takes some time, why James Joseph "Whitey" Bulger, Jr., arrested in Santa Monica, California on June 22, 2011, remained on the list until May 9, 2012 despite no longer being at large. Osama bin Laden remained on the list for a year after his death at the hands of U. S. forces on May 2, 2011. Rewards are offered for information leading to capture of fugitives on the list. Former FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives FBI Most Wanted Terrorists List of Mexico's 37 most-wanted drug lords Specially Designated Global Terrorist The World's 10 Most Wanted Fugitives, a list published by Forbes U.
S. Marshals 15 Most Wanted Fugitives Media related to FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives at Wikimedia Commons Official website Ten most wanted fugitives list is turning 65 years old Additional information from America's Most Wanted
Miami the City of Miami, is the cultural and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of the most populous county in Florida; the city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles, between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U. S. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet. Miami is a major center, a leader in finance, culture, entertainment, the arts, international trade; the Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha − level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement.
In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, is home to many large national and international companies; the Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, it accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.
Metropolitan Miami is a major tourism hub in the southeastern U. S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes; the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River. In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida. Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole; the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native.
The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness; the area was characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami was incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. It was derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee. Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space.
When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J, a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed. During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure; the legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines.
The war brought an increase in Miami's population. After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population; the city developed cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s
Right-wing paramilitarism in Colombia
Right-wing paramilitary groups in Colombia are paramilitary groups acting in opposition to revolutionary Marxist-Leninist guerrilla forces and their allies among the civilian population. These paramilitary groups control the large majority of the illegal drug trade of cocaine and other substances and are the parties responsible for most of the human rights violations in the latter half of the ongoing Colombian Armed Conflict. According to several international human rights and governmental organizations, right-wing paramilitary groups have been responsible for at least 70 to 80% of political murders in Colombia per year; the remaining political murders are committed by leftist guerrillas and government forces. The first paramilitary groups were organized by the Colombian military following recommendations made by U. S. military counterinsurgency advisers who were sent to Colombia during the Cold War to combat leftist political activists and armed guerrilla groups. The development of more modern paramilitary groups has involved elite landowners, drug traffickers, members of the security forces and multinational corporations.
Paramilitary violence today is principally targeted towards left-wing insurgents and their supporters. In October 1959, the United States sent a "Special Survey Team", composed of counterinsurgency experts, to investigate Colombia's internal security situation; this was due to the increased prevalence of armed communist groups in rural Colombia which formed during and after La Violencia. In February 1962, a Fort Bragg top-level U. S. Special Warfare team, headed by Special Warfare Center commander General William P. Yarborough, visited Colombia for a second survey. In a secret supplement to his report to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Yarborough encouraged the creation and deployment of a paramilitary force to commit sabotage and terrorist acts against communists: A concerted country team effort should be made now to select civilian and military personnel for clandestine training in resistance operations in case they are needed later; this should be done with a view toward development of a civil and military structure for exploitation in the event the Colombian internal security system deteriorates further.
This structure should be used to pressure toward reforms known to be needed, perform counter-agent and counter-propaganda functions and as necessary execute paramilitary, sabotage and/or terrorist activities against known communist proponents. It should be backed by the United States." The new counter-insurgency policy was instituted as Plan Lazo in 1962 and called for both military operations and civic action programs in violent areas. Following Yarborough's recommendations, the Colombian military recruited civilians into paramilitary "civil defense" groups which worked alongside the military in its counter-insurgency campaign, as well as in civilian intelligence networks to gather information on guerrilla activity. Among other policy recommendations, the US team advised that "in order to shield the interests of both Colombian and US authorities against'interventionist' charges any special aid given for internal security was to be sterile and covert in nature." It was not until the early part of the 1980s that the Colombian government attempted to move away from the counterinsurgency strategy represented by Plan Lazo and Yarborough's 1962 recommendations.
The first legal framework for the training of civilians by military or police forces for security purposes was formally established by the Colombian presidential decree 3398 of 1965, issued during a state of siege, which defined the defense of the nation as requiring "the organization and tasking of all of the residents of the country and its natural resources...to guarantee National Independence and institutional stability." This decree temporarily allowed the formation of private security forces used to protect large landowners, cattle ranchers, government officials. Decree 3398 was succeeded by Law 48 of 1968, a piece of permanent legislation that gave the Colombian executive the power to establish civil patrols by decree and allowed the Defense Ministry to supply their members with military-grade weaponry. Human Rights Watch has pointed out that "although few civil patrols were formally created by the president, the military cited Law 48 as the legal foundation for their support for all paramilitaries."A series of Colombian military manuals from the 1960s encouraged the creation of paramilitary organizations to help fight guerrillas.
In 1969, the Reglamento de EJC 3-10, Reservado, de 1969 stated that the armed forces should organize "self-defense committees" which were defined as "military-type organizations made up of civilian personnel in the combat zone, which are trained and equipped to undertake operations against guerrilla groups that threaten an area or to operate in coordination with combat troops". These committees were to maintain contact with local military officers, keeping a high level awareness about any suspicious communist action in their communities, in particular those of suspected "guerrilla supporters"; the manual allowed military personnel to dress in civilian clothes when necessary to infiltrate areas of suspected guerrilla influence and for civilian helpers to travel alongside military units. Separately, in order to help gain the trust of local citizens, the military was advised to participate in the daily activities of the community where and when applicable. Between 1978 and 1979, an alleged far-right paramilitary organization known as the American Anti-Communist Alliance started a terror campaign against Colombian communists, which included bombings and assassinations.
It was revealed that the organization had direct links to the Colombian National Army. Contem
Illegal drug trade
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws; the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's World Drug Report 2005 estimates the size of the global illicit drug market at US$321.6 billion in 2003 alone. With a world GDP of US$36 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally and remains difficult for local authorities to thwart its popularity. Chinese authorities issued edicts against opium smoking in 1729, 1796 and 1800; the West prohibited addictive drugs throughout the late early 20th centuries. In the early 19th century, an illegal drug trade in China emerged; as a result, by 1838 the number of Chinese opium-addicts had grown to between four and twelve million.
The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium. The United Kingdom forced China to allow British merchants to sell Indian-grown opium. Trading in opium was lucrative, smoking opium had become common in the 19th century, so British merchants increased trade with the Chinese; the Second Opium War broke out in 1856. After the two Opium Wars, the British Crown, via the treaties of Nanking, Tianjin, obligated the Chinese government to pay large sums of money for opium they had seized and destroyed, which were referred to as "reparations". In 1868, as a result of the increased use of opium, the UK restricted the sale of opium in Britain by implementing the 1868 Pharmacy Act. In the United States, control of opium remained under the control of individual US states until the introduction of the Harrison Act in 1914, after 12 international powers signed the International Opium Convention in 1912. Between 1920 and 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution banned alcohol in the United States.
Prohibition proved impossible to enforce and resulted in the rise of organized crime, including the modern American Mafia, which identified enormous business opportunities in the manufacturing and sale of illicit liquor. The beginning of the 21st century saw drug use increase in North America and Europe, with a increased demand for marijuana and cocaine; as a result, international organized crime syndicates such as the Sinaloa Cartel and'Ndrangheta have increased cooperation among each other in order to facilitate trans-Atlantic drug-trafficking. Use of another illicit drug, has increased in Europe. Drug trafficking is regarded by lawmakers as a serious offense around the world. Penalties depend on the type of drug, the quantity trafficked, where the drugs are sold and how they are distributed. If the drugs are sold to underage people the penalties for trafficking may be harsher than in other circumstances. Drug smuggling carries severe penalties in many countries. Sentencing may include lengthy periods of incarceration and the death penalty.
In December 2005, Van Tuong Nguyen, a 25-year-old Australian drug smuggler, was hanged in Singapore after being convicted in March 2004. In 2010, two people were sentenced to death in Malaysia for trafficking 1 kilogram of cannabis into the country. Execution is used as a deterrent, many have called upon much more effective measures to be taken by countries to tackle drug trafficking; the countries of drug production and transit are some of the most affected by the drug trade, though countries receiving the illegally imported substances are adversely affected. For example, Ecuador has absorbed up to 300,000 refugees from Colombia who are running from guerrillas and drug lords. While some applied for asylum, others are still illegal immigrants; the drugs that pass from Colombia through Ecuador to other parts of South America create economic and social problems. Honduras, through which an estimated 79% of cocaine passes on its way to the United States, has the highest murder rate in the world. According to the International Crisis Group, the most violent regions in Central America along the Guatemala–Honduras border, are correlated with an abundance of drug trafficking activity.
In many countries worldwide, the illegal drug trade is thought to be directly linked to violent crimes such as murder. This is true in all developing countries, such as Honduras, but is an issue for many developed countries worldwide. In the late 1990s in the United States the Federal Bureau of Investigation estimated that 5% of murders were drug-related. In Colombia, Drug violence can be caused by factors such as, the economy, poor governments, no authority within the law enforcement. After a crackdown by US and Mexican authorities in the first decade of the 21st century as part of tightened border security in the wake of the September 11 attacks, border violence inside Mexico surged; the Mexican government estimates. A report by the UK government's Drug Strategy Unit, leaked to the press, stated that due to the expensive price of addictive drugs heroin and coc