Hippolyte Bouchard, or Hipólito Bouchard, was a French Argentine sailor and corsair who fought for Argentina and Peru. During his first campaign as an Argentine corsair he attacked the Spanish colonies of Chile and Peru, under the command of the Irish-Argentine Admiral William Brown, he was the first Argentine to circumnavigate the world. During his voyage around the globe he blockaded the port of Manila. In Hawaii, he recovered an Argentine privateer, seized by mutineers, he met the local ruler, King Kamehameha I. His forces occupied Monterey, California a Spanish colony, raised the Argentine flag and held the town for six days. After raiding Monterey, he plundered Mission San Juan Capistrano in Southern California. Toward the end of the voyage Bouchard raided Spanish ports in Central America, his second homeland remembers him as a patriot. Bouchard was born in a small village close to Saint-Tropez, Bormes-les-Mimosas, in 1780 The son of André Louis Bouchard and Thérèse Brunet was baptized as André Paul but went by the name Hippolyte.
He worked in the French merchant fleet served in the French Navy in their campaigns against the English, thus starting his life at sea. After many campaigns in Egypt and the Saint-Domingue expedition, disillusioned with the direction of the French Revolution, Bouchard went to Argentina in 1809 and, to aid the May Revolution, became a part of the National Argentine Fleet, led by Azopardo. On 2 March 1811 he fought for the first time under the Argentine Flag when the Spanish Captain Jacinto de Romarate defeated the first Argentine flotilla at San Nicolás de los Arroyos, in July and August of that year he played a major role in defending the City of Buenos Aires from a Spanish blockade. In March 1812 Bouchard joined the Mounted Grenadiers Regiment led by José de San Martín and took part in the Battle of San Lorenzo in 1813, where he captured a Spanish flag and therefore was granted Argentine citizenship; some months he married Norberta Merlo. In 1815 Bouchard started a naval campaign under the command of Admiral William Brown, wherein he attacked the fortress of El Callao and the Ecuadorian city of Guayaquil.
On 12 September 1815 he was granted a corsair license to fight the Spanish aboard the French-built corvette Halcón, bought for the Argentine State by Vicente Anastacio Echeverría. Most of the officers were French, except for the second commander, the Englishman Robert Jones, Ramón Freire. Before weighing anchor a conflict between Bouchard and his superiors arose when the expedition's agent, Severino Prudant, promoted several sailors. Echevarría settled the conflict; the campaign fleet was composed of the frigate Hercules under the command of William Brown, the Santísima Trinidad under the command of his brother, Miguel Brown, the schooner Constitución under the command of Oliverio Russell, the Halcón. The Hércules and Santísima Trinidad set sail from Montevideo on 24 October; the plan was for all four ships to rendezvous at Mocha Island where they would establish a plan of operation. The Brown brothers arrived at the island on 28 December, with the Halcón arriving the following day. Upon arrival Bouchard announced that while circumnavigating Cape Horn his ship was exposed to fourteen days of severe weather, it was on that basis that he had concluded that the Constitución had sunk.
On 31 December Brown and Bouchard agreed to operate together during the first hundred days of 1816. Any plunder would be divided as follows: two parts to Brown, as the commander-in-chief, one-and-a-half parts each for the Santísima Trinidad and the Halcón. Bouchard and Miguel Brown subsequently set course for the Peruvian coast, while the Hércules sailed to the Juan Fernández Islands in order to free a number of patriots that were being held prisoner there. On 10 January 1816 the three vessels met again near the fortress of El Callao; the ships bombarded Guayaquil and its nearby fortification. The following day the group seized the brigantine San Pablo, used to transport sick and injured sailors as well as the liberated prisoners. On the 13th the frigate Gobernadora was captured, Lt. Colonel Vicente Banegas, officer of the Republican Army of Nueva Granada, joined the fleet. Four more ships were commandeered on the 18th, including the schooner Carmen and the brig Místico along with two other ships, one of, sacked and sunk.
On 21 January the Argentine fleet again attacked the fortress, sinking the frigate Fuente Hermosa in the process. Seven days two more vessels were captured, the frigates Candelaria and Consecuencia; the next day the expanded fleet sailed north in search of the Guayas River. On 7 February the Argentine contingent arrived near Guayaquil; as they arrived, William Brown ordered Bouchard and his brother to stay close to the seven ships they had captured. Brown took the command of the Santísima Trinidad; the next day his attack demolished the fort of Punta de Piedras, located some five leagues from Guayaquil. However, on 9 February Brown failed in his attempt to take the castle of San Carlos, was instead captured by the royalist forces. After a long negotiation, the Argentine corsairs traded Brown for the Candelaria, three brigantines and five correspondence chests, taken from the Consecuencia. After three days, Bouchard informed Brown that his ship was close to sinking and that the officers wished to return to Buenos Aires.
He asked for a division of the booty, received the Consecuencia, the Carmen, 3,475 pesos as compensation (he had t
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be ethnic, historical, or cultural; the heritage of the French people is of Celtic and Germanic origin, descending from the ancient and medieval populations of Gauls, Ligures, Iberians, Franks and Norsemen. France has long been a patchwork of local customs and regional differences, while most French people still speak the French language as their mother tongue, languages like Norman, Catalan, Corsican, French Flemish, Lorraine Franconian and Breton remain spoken in their respective regions. Arabic is widely spoken, arguably the largest minority language in France as of the 21st century. Modern French society is a melting pot. From the middle of the 19th century, it experienced a high rate of inward migration consisting of Arab-Berbers, Sub-Saharan Africans and other peoples from Africa, the Middle East and East Asia, the government, defining France as an inclusive nation with universal values, advocated assimilation through which immigrants were expected to adhere to French values and cultural norms.
Nowadays, while the government has let newcomers retain their distinctive cultures since the mid-1980s and requires from them a mere integration, French citizens still equate their nationality with citizenship as does French law. In addition to mainland France, French people and people of French descent can be found internationally, in overseas departments and territories of France such as the French West Indies, in foreign countries with significant French-speaking population groups or not, such as Switzerland, the United States, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion. According to its principles, France has devoted itself to the destiny of a proposition nation, a generic territory where people are bounded only by the French language and the assumed willingness to live together, as defined by Ernest Renan's "plébiscite de tous les jours" on the willingness to live together, in Renan's 1882 essay "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?").
The debate concerning the integration of this view with the principles underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France and succeeded in doing so. Indeed, the country has long valued its openness and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries; the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France has always valued and advocated assimilation. However, the success of such assimilation has been called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves; the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration.
French people are the descendants of Gauls and Romans, western European Celtic and Italic peoples, as well as Bretons, Aquitanians and Germanic people arriving at the beginning of the Frankish Empire such as the Franks, the Visigoths, the Suebi, the Saxons, the Allemanni and the Burgundians, Germanic groups such as the Vikings, who settled in Normandy and to a lesser extent in Brittany in the 9th century. The name "France" etymologically derives from the territory of the Franks; the Franks were a Germanic tribe. In the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes, their ancestors were Celts who came from Central Europe in the 7th century BCE, non-Celtic peoples including the Ligures, Aquitanians in Aquitaine. Some in the northern and eastern areas, may have had Germanic admixture. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58–51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar. Over the next six centuries, the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture.
In the late Roman era, in addition to colonists from elsewhere in the Empire and Gaulish natives, Gallia became home to some in-migrating populations of Germanic and Scythian origin, such as Alans. The Gaulish language is thought to have survived into the 6th century in France, despite considerable Romanizat
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the U. S. state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below: The first, only, or most significant of its type in the state or within a large geographic region. California Historical Landmarks of number 770 and above are automatically listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event, of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. Why Stop? A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. P. 213. ISBN 9780884159230. OCLC 32168093. Official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP: California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
Mission Santa Clara de Asís
Mission Santa Clara de Asís is a Spanish mission founded by the Franciscan order in the present-day city of Santa Clara, California. The mission, the eighth in California, was founded on January 12, 1777 and named for Saint Clare of Assisi, the foundress of the order of the Poor Clares, it is the namesake of both the city and county of Santa Clara, as well as Santa Clara University, built around the mission. This was the first California mission to be named in honor of a woman and the only mission to now be on the grounds of a university campus. Although ruined and rebuilt six times, the settlement was never abandoned, today it functions as the university chapel for Santa Clara University; the outpost was established as La Misión Santa Clara de Thamien at the Indian village of So-co-is-u-ka January 12, 1777. There the Franciscan brothers erected a cross and shelter for worship to bring Christianity to the Ohlone and Costanoan peoples. Floods and earthquakes damaged many of the early structures and forced relocation to higher ground.
The second site is known as Mission Santa Clara de Asís. A subsequent site of the mission dating from 1784 to 1819 is located several hundred yards west of the De La Cruz overpass of the Caltrain track; the current site, home to the first college in Alta California, dates back to 1828. There was tension between the people of the mission and those in the nearby Pueblo de San Jose over disputed ownership rights of land and water; the tension was relieved when a road, the Alameda, was built by two hundred Indians to link the communities together. On Sundays, people from San Jose would come to the mission for services, until the building of St. Joseph's Church in 1803. In that year, the mission of Santa Clara reported an Indian population of 1,271. In the same tabular report, its resident priest estimated that 10,000 cattle, 9,500 sheep, 730 horses, 35 mules, 55 swine were on mission lands, while about 3,000 fanegas of grain had been harvested. After the Mexican secularization act of 1833 most of the mission's land and livestock was sold off by Mexico.
Most of the buildings continued to be used as a parish church, unlike the other missions in California. In 1850, California became a state, with that change priests of the Jesuit Order took over the Mission Santa Clara de Asís in 1851 from the Franciscans. Father John Nobili, S. J. was put in charge of the mission. He began a college on the mission site in 1851. Throughout the history of the mission, the bells have rung faithfully every evening, a promise made to King Charles III of Spain when he sent the original bells to the mission in 1777, he asked that the bells be rung each evening at 8:30 in memory of those who had died, although the actual bells have since been replaced by a recording. In 1861, a new wooden façade with two bell towers was attached over the old adobe front of the building; the interior was widened in 1885 to increase the seating capacity by removing the original adobe nave walls. A fire in 1925 destroyed the structure, including the surrounding wall; the church's parochial functions were transferred to the Saint Clare Parish west of the campus.
A rebuilt and restored Mission Santa Clara was consecrated in 1929, when it assumed its primary modern function as chapel and centerpiece of the university campus. It is open to visitors every day; the original mission cemetery, still used, is located on nearby Lincoln Street. Spanish missions in California USNS Mission Santa Clara – a Buenaventura Class fleet oiler built during World War II. Forbes, Alexander. California: A History of Upper and Lower California. Smith, Elder and Co. Cornhill, London. Giglio, Gary, C. et al. Environmental Impact Report for the General Plan Amendment and Development of a Portion of FMC Corporation's Coleman Avenue Facility, Earth Metrics Inc. September 1988, published by the City of Santa Clara, California. Jones, Terry L. and Kathryn A. Klar. California Prehistory: Colonization and Complexity. Altimira Press, Landham, MD. ISBN 0-7591-0872-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Leffingwell, Randy. California Missions and Presidios: The History & Beauty of the Spanish Missions.
Voyageur Press, Inc. Stillwater, MN. ISBN 0-89658-492-5. Levy, Richard.. William C. sturrent, Robert F. Heizer, ed. Handbook of North American Indians. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. p. 486. ISBN 0-87474-188-2. Milliken, Randall. A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area 1769–1910. Ballena Press Publication, Menlo Park, CA. ISBN 0-87919-132-5. Paddison, Joshua. A World Transformed: Firsthand Accounts of California Before the Gold Rush. Heyday Books, Berkeley, CA. ISBN 1-890771-13-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Ruscin, Terry. Mission Memoirs. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego, CA. ISBN 0-932653-30-8. Yenne, Bill; the Missions of California. Advantage Publishers Group, San Diego, CA. ISBN 1-59223-319-8. Early photographs, sketches of Mission Santa Clara de Asís, via Calisphere, California Digital Library Howser, Huell. "California Missions". California Missions. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive
Mission Santa Cruz
Mission Santa Cruz was a Spanish mission founded by the Franciscan order in present-day Santa Cruz, California. The mission was founded in 1791 and named for the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, adopting the name given to a nearby creek by the missionary priest Juan Crespi, who accompanied the explorer Gaspar de Portolá when he camped on the banks of the San Lorenzo River on October 17, 1769; as with the other California missions, Mission Santa Cruz served as a site for ecclesiastical conversion of natives, first the Amah Mutsun people, the original inhabitants of the region renamed the “Ohlone” by the Spaniards, the Yokuts from the east. The settlement was the site of the first autopsy in Alta California; the current Holy Cross Church was built on the site of the original mission church in 1889, it remains an active parish of the Diocese of Monterey. A section of stone foundation wall from one of the mission buildings and a few old headstones from the mission cemetery can be found directly behind the present Holy Cross Church.
A reduced-scale "replica" chapel was built near the mission site in the 1930s and functions as a chapel of Holy Cross Church. Today's Plaza Park occupies the same location as the original plaza, at the center of the former mission complex; the complex at one time included as many as 32 buildings. The only surviving mission building, a dormitory for native acolytes, has been restored to its original appearance and functions as a museum of the Santa Cruz Mission State Historic Park; the Santa Cruz mission was consecrated by Padre Fermin Lasuen on August 28, 1791, on the San Lorenzo river's flood plain. It was one of the smaller missions, in the fourth military district under protection of the Presidio of San Francisco; the mission was flooded. Over the next three years, the padres rebuilt the mission on the hill overlooking the river. In 1797, the secular pueblo of Branciforte was founded across the San Lorenzo River to the east of Mission Santa Cruz; the mission padres did not welcome the location of the pueblo so close to the mission, accused the Branciforte settlers of gambling and tempting the native acolytes to desert the mission.
On October 12, 1812, Father Andrés Quintana was strangled to death by mission neophytes, angry over his use of a metal-tipped whip in the punishment of laborers. In 1818, the Mission received advance warning of an attack by the Argentine corsair Hipólito Bouchard and was evacuated; the citizens of Branciforte, several of whom were retired soldiers, were asked to protect the Mission's valuables. One of the only surviving first-person descriptions by a native Californian of life in a mission was given in an interview by Lorenzo Asisara in 1877. Asisara was born at Mission Santa Cruz in 1819, his father was one of the neophytes involved in the Quintana killing, Asisara repeated the story his father had told him about those events. The earliest surviving first-person writings by a native Californian of life in a mission is by Pablo Tac, a Luiseño from Mission San Luis Rey de Francia. Christian Clifford, author of Meet Pablo Tac, wrote "On January 15, 1834, Father Peyrí, Agapito left San Fernando College and in February boarded a ship for Europe.
They travelled via New York and France, arriving in Barcelona, Spain, on June 21. The'New' World was coming to meet the'Old' World." Tac arrived in Rome in September 1834 and was enrolled in the College of the Propaganda, studying Latin grammar. He went on to study rhetoric and philosophy in preparation for missionary work, it was while at the College that he created Luiseño written language and wrote the "Conversion of the San Luiseños of Alta California." The front wall of the adobe mission, built in 1794, was destroyed by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. A wooden facade was added and the structure converted to other uses. A new wooden church was built next door in 1858. In 1889, the current Gothic Revival-style Holy Cross Church was built on the original site in the same orientation, facing the original plaza. At the same time, the mission cemetery was excavated and the remains moved to a mass grave at Old Holy Cross Cemetery, a few miles to the east. In recent years, a group of local volunteers have been working to restore the old cemetery, to identify the mission gravesite and those whose remains were moved there.
A memorial was dedicated in 2016. The only original Mission building left is a long multi-room building which at one time housed local Yokut and Ohlone Indian families; the original building can be toured during operating hours. There is a protected remnant of the mission church foundation wall behind the current Holy Cross Church; the parish address is 126 High Street. The road leading to the mission from the west is called Mission Street, part of California State Route 1. In 1931, Gladys Sullivan Doyle proposed to construct a reduced-size replica of the original chapel, she contributed all of the construction costs, on the condition that she be allowed to be buried inside. Her grave can be viewed in a small side room. Since there were no surviving photographs or drawings of the original structure, design of the replica chapel was adapted from an 1876 painting by the French painter Léon Trousset; the original painting hangs in the nave of the chapel. The concrete construction was done by parishioner Tranquilino Costella, an Italian immigrant, whose contractor stamp is still seen in the si
Mission San Juan Capistrano
Mission San Juan Capistrano was a Spanish mission in colonial Las Californias. It is located in Orange County, southern California; the mission was founded by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order. Named for Giovanni de Capistrano, a 15th-century theologian and "warrior priest" who resided in the Abruzzo region of Italy, San Juan Capistrano has the distinction of being home to the oldest building in California still in use, a chapel built in 1782. Known alternately as "Serra's Chapel" and "Father Serra's Church," it is the only extant structure where it has been documented that Junipero Serra celebrated Mass. One of the best known missions in Alta California, one of the few missions to have been founded twice—others being Mission San Gabriel Arcángel and Mission La Purísima Concepción; the site was consecrated on October 30, 1775, by Fermín Lasuén, but was abandoned due to unrest among the indigenous population in San Diego. The success of the settlement's population is evident in its historical records.
Prior to the arrival of the missionaries, some 550 indigenous Acjachemen peoples lived in this area of their homeland. By 1790, the number of Indian reductions had grown to 700 Mission Indians, just six years nearly 1,000 "neophytes" lived in or around the Mission compound. 1,649 baptisms were conducted that year alone, out of the none total 4,639 people converted between 1776 and 1847. More than 69 former inhabitants; the remains of St. John O'Sullivan, who recognized the property's historic value and working tirelessly to conserve and rebuild its structures, are buried at the entrance to the cemetery on west side of the property, a statue raised in his honor stands at the head of the crypt; the surviving chapel serves as the final resting place of three priests who passed on while serving at the Mission: José Barona, Vicente Fustér, Vicente Pascual Oliva are all entombed beneath the sanctuary floor. The Criolla or "Mission grape," was first planted at San Juan Capistrano in 1779, in 1783 the first wine produced in Alta California was from the Mission's winery.
The Mission entered a long period of gradual decline after Mexican government secularization in 1833. After 1850 U. S. statehood, numerous efforts were made over the latter 19th century to restore the Mission to its former state, but none achieved much success until the arrival of O'Sullivan in 1910. Restoration efforts continue, "Serra's Chapel" is still used for religious services. Over 500,000 visitors, including 80,000 school children, come to the Mission each year, and while the ruins of "The Great Stone Church" are a renowned architectural wonder, the Mission is best known for the annual "Return of the Swallows", traditionally observed every March 19. Mission San Juan Capistrano has served as a favorite subject for many notable artists, has been immortalized in literature and on film numerous times more than any other mission. In 1984, a modern church complex was constructed just north and west of the Mission compound and is now known as Mission Basilica San Juan Capistrano. Today, the mission compound serves as a museum, with the Serra Chapel within the compound serving as a chapel for the mission parish.
The natives ate acorns that they turned into soups and bread. The former Spanish settlement at Sajavit lies within that area occupied during the late Paleoindian period and continuing on into the present day by the Native American society known as the Juaneño. Many contemporary Juaneño, who identify themselves as descendents of the indigenous society living in the local San Juan and San Mateo Creek drainage areas, have adopted the indigenous term Acjachemen, their language was related to the Luiseño language spoken by the nearby Luiseño tribe. The Acjachemen territory extended from Las Pulgas Creek in northern San Diego County up into the San Joaquin Hills along Orange County's central coast, inland from the Pacific Ocean up into the Santa Ana Mountains; the bulk of the population occupied the outlets of two large creeks, San Juan Creek and San Mateo Creek. The highest concentration of villages was along the lower San Juan, where Mission San Juan Capistrano was situated and is preserved today.
The Acjachemen resided in seasonal camps. Village populations ranged from between 35 and 300 inhabitants, consisting of a single lineage in the smaller villages, of a dominant clan joined with other families in the larger settlements; each clan was "politically" independent. The elite class, a middle class, people of disconnected or wandering families and captives of war comprised the three hierarchical social classes. Native leadership consisted of the Nota, or clan chief, who conducted community rites and regulated ceremonial life in conjunction with the council of elders, made up of lineage heads and ceremonial specialists in their own right; this body decided upon matters of the community, which were carried out by the Nota and his underlings. While the placement of residential huts in a village was not regulated, the ceremonial enclo