Elands Bay is a town in South Africa, situated in the Western Cape Province, on the Atlantic Ocean, at 32°18′S 18°19′E. The town is located about 220 kilometres north from Cape Town and it is a major surfing location and is noted for its caves, which have a number of rock paintings. In 2009, Heritage Western Cape declared the Elands Bay Cave and most of Baboon Point, on which it is located, Elands Bay along with much of this coastline is an important bird habitat. The local wetland, Verloerenvlei, is a Ramsar wetland
A butte /bjuːt/ is an isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top, buttes are smaller than mesas and table landforms. The word butte comes from a French word meaning hill, its use is prevalent in the Western United States. Because of their shapes, buttes are frequently landmarks in plains. In differentiating mesas and buttes, geographers use the rule of thumb that a mesa has a top that is wider than its height, the Mitten Buttes of Monument Valley in Arizona are two of the most distinctive and widely recognized buttes. Monument Valley and the Mittens provided backgrounds in scenes from many western-themed films, the Devils Tower in northeastern Wyoming is a laccolithic butte composed of igneous rock rather than sandstone, limestone or other sedimentary rocks. Among the well-known non-flat-topped buttes in the United States are Bear Butte, South Dakota, Black Butte, Oregon, in many cases, buttes have been given other names that do not use the word butte, for example, Courthouse Rock, Nebraska.
Also, some large hills that are technically not buttes have names using the word butte, examples of which are Kamiak Butte, Buttes form by weathering and erosion when hard caprock overlies a layer of less resistant rock that is eventually worn away. The harder rock on top of the butte resists erosion, the caprock provides protection for the less resistant rock below from wind abrasion which leaves it standing isolated. As the top is further eroded by abrasion and weathering, the material that falls off adds to the scree or talus slope around the base. On a much smaller scale, the process forms hoodoos. Media related to Buttes at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of butte at Wiktionary Butte
University of Cape Town
The University of Cape Town is a public research university located in Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The language of instruction is English, the roots of UCT lie in the establishment of the South African College in 1829 as a school for boys. In 1874 the South African College Schools, teaching up to level, were separated from the College. In 1887 the first male residence in Southern Africa was established, known as College House Residence, in 1918 the South African College was elevated to full university status with the power to award degrees, and renamed the University of Cape Town. UCT moved to the Groote Schuur Estate campus in 1928, during the apartheid era, roughly 1960-1990, many UCT students consistently opposed apartheid, and the university was a bastion of liberalism. However, the demographics of the university did not begin to change meaningfully until the 1980s,1987 saw frequent clashes between protesting students and police, with reporting of police presence on the campus being censored by the government.
On 24 April 1987 the police entered the campus and this marked the first time since 1972 that South Africas police services had suppressed a demonstration at a white university, the UCT crest was designed in 1859 by Charles Davidson Bell, Surveyor-General of the Cape Colony at the time. Bell was an accomplished artist who designed medals and the triangular Cape stamp, the main teaching campus, known as Upper Campus, is located on the Rhodes Estate on the slopes of Devils Peak. This campus contains, in a compact site, the faculties of Science, Commerce. Upper Campus is centered on Jameson Hall, the location for graduation and other ceremonial events, the original buildings and layout of Upper Campus were designed by JM Solomon and built between 1928 and 1930. Since that time, many buildings have been added as the university has grown. Upper Campus is home to the library, The Chancellor Oppenheimer library which holds the majority of the Universitys 1.3 million volume collection. Contiguous with Upper Campus, but separated from it by university sports fields, the state of the art artificial grass soccer field has been approved by FIFA for training for World Cup teams.
The Upper and Lower Campuses together are referred to as the main campus. The Faculty of Health Sciences is located on the Medical School campus next to the Groote Schuur Hospital in Observatory, the Fine Arts and Drama departments are located on the Hiddingh Campus in central Cape Town. The Universitys original building, now known as the Egyptian Building, the only other campus built in this style was the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond, Virginia in the United States. The UCT Graduate School of Business is located on the Breakwater Lodge Campus at the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront. For his contribution of the tract of land which the campus was founded on, the statue was removed in April 2015 following pressure from student groups due to its perceived representation of South Africas racist past and the universitys inadequate representation of blacks
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus. Hares are classified into the family as rabbits. They are similar in size and form to rabbits and eat the same diet and they are generally herbivorous and long-eared, they are fast runners, and they typically live solitarily or in pairs. Hare species are native to Africa, North America, five leporid species with hare in their common names are not considered true hares, the hispid hare, and four species known as red rock hares. Meanwhile, jackrabbits are hares rather than rabbits, a hare less than one year old is called a leveret. The collective noun for a group of hares is a drove, Hares are swift animals, The European hare can run up to 56 km/h. The five species of jackrabbits found in central and western North America are able to run at 64 km/h, and can leap up to 3 m at a time. Normally a shy animal, the European brown hare changes its behavior in spring, when hares can be seen in daytime chasing one another, during this spring frenzy, hares can be seen boxing, one hare striking another with its paws.
For a long time, this had been thought to be only intermale competition, Hares do not bear their young below ground in a burrow as do other leporids, but rather in a shallow depression or flattened nest of grass called a form. Young hares are adapted to the lack of protection, relative to that afforded by a burrow, by being born fully furred. They are hence precocial, and are able to fend for themselves soon after birth, by contrast, the related rabbits and cottontail rabbits are altricial, having young that are born blind and hairless. All rabbits live underground in burrows or warrens, while hares live in simple nests above the ground, Hares are generally larger than rabbits, with longer ears, and have black markings on their fur. Hares have not been domesticated, while rabbits are raised for food, the domestic pet known as the Belgian Hare is a rabbit that has been selectively bred to resemble a hare. Hares have jointed, or kinetic, unique among mammals and they have 48 chromosomes while rabbits have 44.
In rural areas of North America and particularly in pioneer times, because of their extremely low fat content, they are a poor choice as a survival food. Hares can be prepared in the manner as rabbits — commonly roasted or taken apart for breading and frying. Hasenpfeffer is a traditional German stew made from marinated rabbit or hare, pfeffer is not only the name of a spice, but of a dish where the animals blood is used as a thickening agent for the sauce. Wine or vinegar is a prominent ingredient, to lend a sourness to the recipe
Cassine peragua, known as Cape saffron, bastard saffron and forest spoonwood, is a medium-sized tree with fragrant flowers, decorative fruits and a saffron-coloured trunk. It is indigenous to the Afro-montane forests of South Africa, Cape saffron is an evergreen tree which is usually around 2 to 5 meters in height, but can sometimes grow to 15 meters in the right conditions. The tough, leathery leaves are dark green. The bunches of small, bisexual flowers have a strong, but pleasant fragrance, the trunk eventually assumes an orange saffron colour, as the grey bark flakes off exposing the orange under-layer. It is naturally distributed throughout the southern and eastern parts of South Africa, here it grows in a wide variety of habitats, from deep Afromontane forest to coastal dunes and rocky mountain slopes. In addition to the most common and widespread subspecies, there are two rare dwarfed subspecies which occur in restricted pockets in the Western Cape and it is now cultivated as an ornamental garden tree throughout South Africa.
Cape saffron has been used locally for centuries for its beautiful, hard wood and its more common use now is as an attractive ornamental feature in gardens. It grows slowly, but is tough and resistant to wind. In exposed positions, in sun or wind, it will tend to grow shorter and denser. It forms an attractive, domed shape, with a saffron-coloured trunk, the fruits attract great numbers of birds, and the flowers have a pleasant fragrance. PlantzAfrica Images on iSpot Biodiversity Explorer GreenPlanet
The hartebeest, known as kongoni, is an African antelope, first described by the German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1766. Eight subspecies have been described, including two considered to be independent species. A large antelope, the hartebeest stands just over 1 m at the shoulder, the weight ranges from 100 to 200 kg. It has a particularly elongated forehead and oddly shaped horns, short neck and its legs, which often have black markings, are unusually long. The coat is short and shiny. Coat colour varies by the subspecies, from the brown of the western hartebeest to the chocolate brown of the Swaynes hartebeest. Both sexes of all subspecies have horns, with those of females being more slender, horns can reach lengths of 45–70 cm. Apart from its face, the large chest and the sharply sloping back differentiate the hartebeest from other antelopes. Gregarious animals, hartebeest form herds of 20 to 300 individuals and they are very alert and non-aggressive. They are primarily grazers, with their diets consisting mainly of grasses, mating in hartebeest takes place throughout the year with one or two peaks, and depends upon the subspecies and local factors.
Both males and females reach maturity at one to two years of age. Gestation is eight to nine months long, after which a single calf is born, births usually peak in the dry season. The lifespan is 12 to 15 years, inhabiting dry savannas and wooded grasslands, hartebeest often move to more arid places after rainfall. They have been reported from altitudes on Mount Kenya up to 4,000 m, the hartebeest was formerly widespread in Africa, but populations have undergone drastic decline due to habitat destruction, human settlement, and competition with livestock for food. Each of the eight subspecies of the hartebeest has a different conservation status, the Bubal hartebeest was declared extinct by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1994. While the populations of the red hartebeest are on the rise, the hartebeest is extinct in Algeria, Lesotho, Morocco and Tunisia, but has been introduced into Swaziland and Zimbabwe. It is a game animal due to its highly regarded meat. The vernacular name hartebeest could have originated from the obsolete Afrikaans word hertebeest, the name was given by the Boers, based on the resemblance of the antelope to deer
Cape Town is a coastal city in South Africa. It is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg and it is the capital and primate city of the Western Cape province. As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa, it is the capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality, the city is famous for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, and for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point. As of 2014, it is the 10th most populous city in Africa and it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design, in 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both the American New York Times and the British Daily Telegraph. Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town was first developed by the Dutch East India Company as a station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa, India.
Jan van Riebeecks arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa, Cape Town quickly outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa, the earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. It was renamed by John II of Portugal as Cape of Good Hope because of the optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India. Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497, in the late 16th century, French, Danish and English but mainly Portuguese ships regularly stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies. They traded tobacco and iron with the Khoikhoi in exchange for fresh meat, the settlement grew slowly during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour.
This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Indonesia, many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Some of these, including grapes, ground nuts, potatoes and citrus, had an important, the Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary Frances vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803, British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain and it became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded very substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for independence from Britain, with the Cape attaining its own parliament. Suffrage was established according to the non-racial, but sexist Cape Qualified Franchise, the discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, and the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa
The Western Cape is a province of South Africa, situated in the south-western part of the country. It is the fourth largest of the nine provinces in terms of area and population, with an area of 129,449 square kilometres and 5.8 million inhabitants. About two-thirds of these live in the metropolitan area of Cape Town. The Western Cape was created in 1994 from part of the former Cape Province, the Western Cape Province is roughly L-shaped, extending north and east from the Cape of Good Hope, in the southwestern corner of South Africa. It stretches about 400 kilometres northwards along the Atlantic coast and about 500 kilometres eastwards along the South African south coast and it is bordered on the north by the Northern Cape and on the east by the Eastern Cape. The total land area of the province is 129,462 square kilometres and it is roughly the size of England or the State of Louisiana. Its capital city and largest city is Cape Town, and some major cities include Stellenbosch, Paarl. The Garden Route and the Overberg are popular tourism areas.
The Western Cape is the southernmost region of the African continent with Cape Agulhas as its southernmost point, the coastline varies from sandy between capes, to rocky to steep and mountainous in places. The only natural harbour is Saldanha Bay on the west coast, however a lack of fresh water in the region meant that it has only recently been used as a harbour. But fresh water coming off Table Mountain and Devils Peak allowed the early European settlers to build Cape Town on the shores of this less than satisfactory anchorage, the province is topographically exceptionally diverse. Most of the province falls within the Cape Fold Belt, a set of parallel ranges of sandstone folded mountains of Cambrian-Ordovician age. The valleys between ranges are very fertile as they contain the weathered loamy soils of the Bokkeveld mustones. The far interior forms part of the Karoo and this region of the Province is generally arid and hilly with a prominent escarpment that runs close to the Provinces most inland boundary.
The Escarpment marks the edge of South Africas central plateau. The principal rivers of the province are the Berg and Olifants which drain into the Atlantic Ocean, and the Breede and Gourits which drain into the Indian Ocean. The vegetation is extremely diverse, with one of the worlds seven floral kingdoms almost exclusively endemic to the province, namely the Cape Floral Kingdom. These evergreen heathlands are extremely rich in diversity, with at least as many plant species occurring on Table Mountain as in the entire United Kingdom
Heritage Western Cape
Heritage Western Cape is a provincial heritage resources authority established by the Minister of Cultural Affairs and Sport of the government of the Western Cape province in South Africa. It is an entity set up under the terms of the National Heritage Resources Act. It is mandated to care for part of South Africas national estate that is of provincial and local significance in the Western Cape. It may delegate responsibility for heritage resources of local significance to competent municipal governments, Heritage Western Cape is the successor body to the former National Monuments Council in the Western Cape. Under the 1996 Constitution of South Africa, cultural matters are a competency shared between national and provincial government and this necessitated the creation of a system whereby many of the responsibilities of the former National Monuments Council were devolved to provincial level via the National Heritage Resources Act. Heritage Western Cape was hence established by regulation on 25 October 2002, in 2003 a Council was appointed by the province’s Minister for Cultural Affairs and Sport and has since met on a quarterly basis.
The Council has established a number of sub-committees which meet regularly to carry out the legal responsibilities of the organisation, for the most part this concerns the processing of almost 3300 applications per annum for work on sites protected under the terms of the National Heritage Resources Act. Heritage Western Cape inherited responsibility for approximately 2,500 former national monuments, the National Heritage Resources Act provides for a greater variety of protection than did its predecessor and the organisation has continued to institute protections of various forms under its terms. A large part of work is dedicated to transforming the heritage landscape of the Western Cape to ensure that the heritage of all its people enjoys equal recognition. The logo of the organisation was launched by the provincial Minister for Cultural Affairs, to clarify areas of uncertainty regarding mandate, representatives of Heritage Western Cape meet quarterly with SAHRA. It consists of up to 14 members appointed for a term of office.
The Council meets quarterly and has established an Executive Committee to manage its business between its meetings, the Executive is chaired by the chairperson of the Council and is otherwise made up of the chairpersons of standing sub-committees. The terms of office of the present Council and its sub-committees expire on 31 August 2016, there are five standing sub-committees which oversee aspects of the day-to-day business of the organisation. They are made up of specialists who are recognised for their expertise, applications to work on such sites are assessed by the committee to consider whether or not they should be approved. Applications to work on archaeological and palaeontological sites and meteorite permit applications in the province are considered by the APM Committee, the Committee advises the IACom regarding impact assessments on archaeological and meteorite resources. Established in 2003 this Committee deals with appeals made against decisions taken by the committees and this committee was established in 2012 via amalgamation of three sub-committees.
It has the following Sections, Administrative Support, Professional Services and Policy and Planning responsible for development, research. The latter two are made up of professional archaeologists, architects and planners, the staff provides support to and makes recommendations to the Council and its sub-committees
Maytenus /ˈmeɪtɛnəs/ is a genus of flowering plants in the staff vine family, Celastraceae. Members of the genus are distributed throughout Central and South America, Southeast Asia and Australasia and they grow in a very wide variety of climates, from tropical to subpolar. Maytenus abbottii A. E. van Wyk Maytenus acuminata Loes, Maytenus addat Sebsebe Maytenus aquifolia Mart. – Orangebark Maytenus boaria Molina Maytenus canariensis G. Kunkel & Sunding Maytenus clarendonensis Britton Maytenus crassipes Urb, – Koonkara Maytenus curtissii Ding Hou Maytenus cymosa Krug & Urban – Caribbean Mayten Maytenus dhofarensis Sebsebe Maytenus disperma Loes. – Puerto Rico Mayten Maytenus fasciculiflora Jessup Maytenus ferdinandi Jessup Maytenus harenensis Sebsebe Maytenus harrisii Krug & Urb, Maytenus jefeana Lundell Maytenus krukovii A. C. Sm. Ex Eggers – White Cinnamon Maytenus laevis Reissek Maytenus lucidus Maytenus macrocarpa Briq, Maytenus matudai Lundell Maytenus microcarpa Fawc. & Rendle Maytenus octogona Maytenus obtusifolia Maytenus oleoides Loes, Maytenus oleosa A. E.
van Wyk & R. H. Archer Maytenus ponceana Britt. – Florida Mayten, Guttapercha Mayten Maytenus procumbens Loes, Maytenus silvestris Lander & L. A. S. Johnson – Narrow-leaved Orangebark, Orange Bark, Orange Bush Maytenus sp. nov. A Miller Maytenus stipitata Lundell Maytenus undata Blakelock Maytenus vitis-idaea – Indians Salt Maytenus williamsii A. Molina Gymnosporia diversifolia Maxim, Gymnosporia rothiana Wight & Arn. ex M. A. Lawson Gymnosporia royleana Wall. Gymnosporia thomsonii Kurz M. boaria and M. magellanica are the most known species in Europe, the bark of M. krukovii has a variety of documented medicinal properties, it is sometimes admixed into decoctions of ayahuasca
Kiggelaria africana is a large, low-branching African tree, and is currently the only accepted species in the genus. Despite its common name, Kiggelaria africana is not related to the more familiar fruit-producing Peach tree although the leaves do look similar, unlike peach leaves, they are fairly thick and stiff, with a thin coating of fur on the undersides. A well-shaped, evergreen tree with grey-green leaves, the smooth bark is pale grey in colour and the tree tends to be low-branching. The Wild Peach is dioecious and its flowers are bell-shaped. The flowers are followed in the summer by round, green capsules and these split open once ripe and the seeds, which are each covered in a layer of bright orange-red flesh, are eaten and spread by birds. This tree grows across southern and eastern Africa - from Cape Town in the south and it occurs naturally in Afromontane forests as well as by the coast, in bushveld and along rivers. The Wild Peach is a tough and fast-growing tree. It prefers a position and a moderate amount of water.
It naturally forms a large tree with a gentle, non-invasive root system. If a conventional tree shape is required, the shoots grow from the trees lower trunk should be removed. A multitude of birds enjoy the tiny red fruits and will consequently be attracted to this tree and their caterpillars sometimes eat the tree bare, but this is part of a natural process and the Kiggelaria trees always rapidly regrow their foliage. This tree can easily be propagated from seed, young plants grow fast and begin flowering after only a year or two. Van Wyk, B. and van Wyk, P.1997, field Guide to trees of South Africa
The rock hyrax, called rock badger and Cape hyrax, is commonly referred to in South African English as the dassie. It is one of the four living species of the order Hyracoidea, like all hyraxes, it is a medium-sized terrestrial mammal, superficially resembling a guinea pig with short ears and tail. The closest living relatives to hyraxes are the elephants and sirenians. The rock hyrax is found across Africa and the Middle East in habitats with rock crevices into which it escapes from predators and it is the only extant terrestrial afrotherian in the Middle East. Hyraxes typically live in groups of 10–80 animals, and forage as a group and they have been reported to use sentries, one or more animals take up position on a vantage point and issue alarm calls on the approach of predators. The rock hyrax has incomplete thermoregulation and is most active in the morning and evening, although its activity pattern varies substantially with season, over most of its range, the rock hyrax is not endangered, and in some areas is considered a minor pest.
In Ethiopia and Jordan, it is a reservoir of the leishmaniasis parasite, the rock hyrax is squat and heavily built, adults reaching a length of 50 cm and weighing around 4 kg, with a slight sexual dimorphism, males being approximately 10% heavier than females. Their fur is thick and grey-brown, although this varies strongly between different environments, from brown in wetter habitats, to light gray in desert living individuals. Hyrax size is correlated to precipitation, probably because of the effect on preferred hyrax forage, prominent in and apparently unique to hyraxes is the dorsal gland, which excretes an odour used for social communication and territorial marking. The gland is most clearly visible in dominant males, the head of the rock hyrax is pointed, having a short neck with rounded ears. They have long whiskers on their muzzles. The rock hyrax has a prominent pair of long, pointed tusk-like upper incisors which are reminiscent of the elephant, the forefeet are plantigrade, and the hind feet semi-digitigrade.
The soles of the feet have large, soft pads that are kept moist with sweat-like secretions, in males, the testes are permanently abdominal, another anatomical feature that hyraxes share with their relatives elephants and sirenians. Thermoregulation in the rock hyrax has been subject to much research, animals kept in constant environmental conditions display such variation and this internal mechanism may be related to water balance regulation. The rock hyrax occurs across sub-Saharan Africa, with the exception of the Congo basin, a larger, longer-haired subspecies is abundant in the glacial moraines in the alpine zone of Mount Kenya. The distribution continues into southern Algeria and Egypt, and the Middle East, with populations in Israel, Lebanon, a mammal of similar appearance by convergent evolution, but unrelated, is the rock cavy of Brazil. Rock hyraxes build dwelling holes in any type of rock with suitable cavities such as sedimentary rocks, in Mount Kenya, rock hyraxes live in colonies comprising an adult male, differing numbers of adult females and immatures.
They are active during the day, and sometimes during moonlit nights, the dominant male defends and watches over the group