A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion. A diesel–electric transmission system includes a diesel engine connected to an electrical generator, creating electricity that powers electric traction motors. No clutch is required. Before diesel engines came into widespread use, a similar system, using a petrol engine and called petrol–electric or gas–electric, was sometimes used. Diesel–electric transmission is used on railways by diesel electric locomotives and diesel electric multiple units, as electric motors are able to supply full torque at 0 RPM. Diesel–electric systems are used in submarines and surface ships and some land vehicles. In some high-efficiency applications, electrical energy may be stored in rechargeable batteries, in which case these vehicles can be considered as a class of hybrid electric vehicle; the first diesel motorship was the first diesel–electric ship, the Russian tanker Vandal from Branobel, launched in 1903.
Steam turbine–electric propulsion has been in use since the 1920s, using diesel–electric powerplants in surface ships has increased lately. The Finnish coastal defence ships Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen laid down in 1928–1929, were among the first surface ships to use diesel–electric transmission; the technology was used in diesel powered icebreakers. In World War II the United States built diesel–electric surface warships. Due to machinery shortages destroyer escorts of the Evarts and Cannon classes were diesel–electric, with half their designed horsepower; the Wind-class icebreakers, on the other hand, were designed for diesel–electric propulsion because of its flexibility and resistance to damage. Some modern diesel–electric ships, including cruise ships and icebreakers, use electric motors in pods called azimuth thrusters underneath to allow for 360° rotation, making the ships far more maneuverable. An example of this is Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship as of 2019. Gas turbines are used for electrical power generation and some ships use a combination: Queen Mary 2 has a set of diesel engines in the bottom of the ship plus two gas turbines mounted near the main funnel.
This provides a simple way to use the high-speed, low-torque output of a turbine to drive a low-speed propeller, without the need for excessive reduction gearing. Early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the engine and propeller, switching between diesel engines for surface running and electric motors for submerged propulsion; this was a "parallel" type of hybrid, since the motor and engine were coupled to the same shaft. On the surface, the motor was used as a generator to recharge the batteries and supply other electric loads; the engine would be disconnected for submerged operation, with batteries powering the electric motor and supplying all other power as well. True diesel–electric transmissions for submarines were first proposed by the United States Navy's Bureau of Engineering in 1928—instead of driving the propeller directly while running on the surface, the submarine's diesel would instead drive a generator that could either charge the submarine's batteries or drive the electric motor.
This meant that motor speed was independent of the diesel engine's speed, the diesel could run at an optimum and non-critical speed, while one or more of the diesel engines could be shut down for maintenance while the submarine continued to run using battery power. The concept was pioneered in 1929 in the S-class submarines S-3, S-6, S-7 to test the concept; the first production submarines with this system were the Porpoise-class, it was used on most subsequent US diesel submarines through the 1960s. The only other navy to adopt the system before 1945 was the British Royal Navy in the U-class submarines, although some submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy used separate diesel generators for low-speed running. In a diesel–electric transmission arrangement, as used on 1930s and US Navy, German and other nations' diesel submarines, the propellers are driven directly or through reduction gears by an electric motor, while two or more diesel generators provide electric energy for charging the batteries and driving the electric motors.
This mechanically isolates the noisy engine compartment from the outer pressure hull and reduces the acoustic signature of the submarine when surfaced. Some nuclear submarines use a similar turbo-electric propulsion system, with propulsion turbo generators driven by reactor plant steam. During World War I, there was a strategic need for rail engines without plumes of smoke above them. Diesel technology was not yet sufficiently developed but a few precursor attempts were made for petrol–electric transmissions by the French and British. About 300 of these locomotives, only 96 being standard gauge, were in use at various points in the conflict. Before the war, the GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab had been produced in the USA. In the 1920s, diesel–electric technology first saw limited use in switchers, locomotives used for moving trains around in railroad yards and assembling and disassembling them. An early company offering "Oil-Electric" locomotives was the American Locomotive Company; the ALCO HH series of diesel–electric switcher entered series production in 1931.
In the 1930s, the system was adapted for the fastest trains of their day. Diesel–electric powerplants became popular
Jesse William Dirkhising known as Jesse Yates, was an American teenager from Prairie Grove, Arkansas. He was staying with two men who bound, drugged and raped him, he died from positional asphyxia during the ordeal. Despite his being at their home with approval from his parents, the defense argued he was complicit in the sexual acts, therefore the death was accidental. Considering he was only 13 and the men were adults, this was considered unlikely. Further details revealed in the court case depicted a gruesome death. Dirkhising's death received only regional media coverage until a Washington Times article ran a story nearly a month after his death, noting the lack of national coverage in contrast to that given to the 1998 death of Matthew Shepard; the Shepard murder was approaching its first anniversary and was getting another round of national attention, coupled with updates on pending hate crime legislation. Prompted by coverage in The Washington Times, the Dirkhising case gained notoriety as conservative commentators compared media coverage of the two cases and explored the issues of what was considered a hate crime.
The added attention resulted in mainstream media reporting the Dirkhising case in relation to the coverage of the Shepard case, with many attempting to explain why the two were handled differently by the media, received differently by readers. The media coverage of the Dirkhising case was and contrasted with that of the high-profile Shepard case, although the cases were dissimilar in several important details. While both victims died as the result of assaults by two men, Dirkhising was a minor and the victim of a sex crime, while the adult Shepard was ostensibly murdered as part of a hate crime. While both heterosexuality and homosexuality have been cited as issues in both cases, the circumstances were different and in contrast: Shepard was an gay man, attacked by two heterosexual men, while Dirkhising was raped by two men who were described as lovers in a police affidavit. Dirkhising was Miles Yates Jr. from the small town of Prairie Grove, Arkansas. At the time of his death he was 13 and in seventh grade.
Davis Carpenter, charged with his murder, was 38, lived about 30 miles away in Rogers, a "small but booming northwest Arkansas town." 22-year-old Joshua Macave Brown shared Carpenter's apartment. Carpenter, who managed a beauty salon, was a friend of Dirkhising's parents. Dirkhising had stayed with the two men at their apartment on weekends for two months prior to his death. Brown had been sexually molesting Dirkhising for two months before his death. Jesse's family had been told. On September 26, 1999, Dirkhising's murder was brought to the attention of police at Rogers, when they responded to a 911 call, they went to the home of Davis Carpenter, where Joshua Brown was present. Police found that Dirkhising had been tied to a mattress and that his ankles and wrists had been bound with duct tape and belts. Dirkhising had been gagged with a bandana and duct tape. Brown told police they had given Dirkhising an enema of urine dosed with amitriptyline, an antidepressant and a sedative. Police determined that Dirkhising had been raped over a period of several hours.
It was revealed that over a two-day period Dirkhising had been raped and sodomized with various objects. After the men took a break to eat, Brown noticed Dirkhising was not breathing and alerted Carpenter, who attempted to resuscitate the boy called 911. Dirkhising died in the hospital, his death hastened as the result of positional asphyxia. Police found in Carpenter's home material of a pedophile nature, including instructions on how to sedate a child, a diagram of how to tie up and position the boy, as well as other notes of fantasies of molesting children, it was speculated that one of the men planned the other carried it out. The Arkansas State Police recorded in their affidavit a statement by Brown that he had been molesting Dirkhising for at least two months prior to Dirkhising's death. Brown claimed that Dirkhising was a willing participant. According to age of consent laws in Arkansas, Dirkhising was incapable of giving informed consent for sexual activity. Brown later claimed he himself was "under the influence of methamphetamine" when talking with his arresting officers.
Dirkhising's case was reported regionally by "news organizations in Arkansas and covered by newspapers in Oklahoma and Tennessee," yet no national press. The Associated Press ran the story on its local wires but not nationally until a month when the story was focused on the lack of coverage rather than the crime itself. A LexisNexis search revealed only a few dozen articles that appeared only after The Washington Times story on the lack of coverage on October 22, 1999, a month after Dirkhising's death. On October 22, 1999 one month after his death, The Washington Times ran a story with the headline "Media tune out torture death of Arkansas boy." The story contrasted the lack of coverage of the Dirkhising case with the treatment the murder of Matthew Shepard received. The story quoted Tim Graham, director of media studies at Media Research Center, a Conservative media watchdog group that criticizes liberal bias, as saying, "Nobody wants to say anything negative about homosexuals. Nobody wants to be seen on the wrong side of that issue."
Brent Bozell, media critic and director of the Media Research Center, accused the media of delibe
Kikuo Chishima was a Japanese medical researcher who promoted a variant of the Soviet medical biologist Olga Lepeshinskaya's pseudoscientific cellular theories, known as neo-Haematology, now discredited. Chishima was born in the village of Kamitakara in Japan. In 1953 he became a research professor at Gifu University, in 1958 he completed his medical training earning a degree from Toho medical University. Upon his retirement from the faculty at Gifu in 1963, he became a full professor at Nagaya university. In 1964 he assumed the chairmanship of the Society of neo-haematology, his magnum opus - Chishima's Complete Works Regarding Biological and Medical Sciences - is a multivolume tome encompassing 5 decades of research, of which only volume 9 - Revolution of Biology and Medical Science - has been translated into English. Chishima died aged 79. Chishima's ideas concerning cellular theory can be seen as novel extensions of some of the more obscure theories that emerged during the Trofim Lysenko era in Russia, like those of Olga Lepeshinskaya, head of Soviet medicine under Joseph Stalin, to whose cellular theories Chishima made extensive reference.
Neo-Haematology embraces the same discredited principles as Lepeshinskaya's cellular theories. Its eight'revolutionary principles' are as follows: Red blood corpuscles with polipotency differentiate into all kinds of somatic cells and germ cells, in accordance with their cellular environmental conditions. Reversible differentiation between the red blood corpuscles and the fixed cellular elements under the different nutritional conditions or the developmental stages. Bacteria and viruses arise spontaneously from organic matter by means of the AFD process. Cells increase in number by the new-formation of them from organic matter but not by the so-called mitotic cell division. Haematopoietic organ of the red corpuscle is not the bone marrow but the intestinal villus in the adult and the placental villus in the embryonic stage. Orthodox genetics contains some basic mistakes. For instance, according to my finding, the germ cells such as spermatozoa and the ova arise newly from the somatic element, the red blood corpuscles.
Darwinism involves some important contradictions of the origin of life, the mutation theory, existence of micro-organisms which remained as they were without evolution, the negligence of symbiosis as an important evolutional factor, etc. I have presented a new scientific methodology, bio-dialectic instead of formal logic or material dialectic.. As can be seen from Chishima's principles, neo-haematology called for a rejection of significant established Biological theories such the mitotic theory of cellular division, whilst advocating a belief in the spontaneous generation of microbes and the belief that tissue elements can differentiate and retro-differentiate depending purely upon environmental conditions. Chishima rejected the chromosome theory of heredity, embraced a form of lamarckism in line with the Lysenkoite biologists in Russia at the time. Chishima advocated a dialectical approach to addressing Biological problems, however he diverged from his Soviet counterparts in that he rejected dialectical materialism in favor of what he termed Bio-dialectics, which incorporated spiritual elements into its framework.
Much of the spiritual aspect of Chishima's work came from a desire on his part to reconcile the contradictions between Eastern and Western medicine. Neo-haematology is based on discredited theories and ideas, so by today's standards and by the standards of its day it has to be considered a pseudoscience, despite this however it still has a small following in America and Japan amongst New Age medicine advocates. 1. Chishima, K.. Revolution of Biology and Medical Science. Neo-Haematological Society Press, Japan. 2. Http://www.polder.net/chishima/ 3. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070203024142/http://www.chishima.ac/