BMW AG is a German multinational company which produces automobiles and motorcycles, produced aircraft engines until 1945. The company is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria. BMW produces motor vehicles in Germany, China, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States. In 2015, BMW was the world's twelfth largest producer of motor vehicles, with 2,279,503 vehicles produced; the Quandt family are long-term shareholders of the company, with the remaining shares owned by public float. Automobiles are marketed under the brands Mini and Rolls-Royce. Motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad; the company has significant motorsport history in touring cars, Formula 1, sports cars and the Isle of Man TT. BMW's origins can be traced back to three separate German companies: Rapp Motorenwerke, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, Automobilwerk Eisenach; the history of the name itself begins with an aircraft engine manufacturer. In April 1917, following the departure of the founder Karl Friedrich Rapp, the company was renamed Bayerische Motoren Werke.
BMW's first product was the BMW IIIa aircraft engine. The IIIa engine was known for high-altitude performance; the resulting orders for IIIa engines from the German military caused rapid expansion for BMW. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. To remain in business, BMW produced farm household items and railway brakes. In 1922, former major shareholder Camillo Castiglioni purchased the rights to the name BMW, which led to the company descended from Rapp Motorenwerke being renamed Süddeutsche Bremse AG. Castiglioni was an investor in another aircraft company, called "Bayerische Flugzeugwerke", which he renamed BMW; the disused factory of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke was re-opened to produce engines for buses, farm equipment and pumps, under the brand name BMW. BMW's corporate history considers the founding date of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke to be the birth of the company; as the restrictions of the Armistice Treaty began to be lifted, BMW began production of motorcycles in 1923, with the R32 model.
BMW's production of automobiles began in 1928, when the company purchased the Automobilwerk Eisenach car company. Automobilwerk Eisenach's current model was the Dixi 3/15, a licensed copy of the Austin 7 which had begun production in 1927. Following the takeover, the Dixi 3/15 became BMW's first production car. In 1932, the BMW 3/20 became the first BMW automobile designed by BMW, it was powered by a four-cylinder engine. BMW's first automotive straight-six engine was released in 1933, in the BMW 303. Throughout the 1930s, BMW expanded its model range to include sedans, coupes and sports cars. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe; the factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour: foreign civilians, prisoners of war and inmates of the Dachau concentration camp. Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944–1945–era jet-powered “emergency fighter”, the Heinkel He 162 Spatz.
The BMW 003 jet engine was first tested as a prime power plant in the first prototype of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the Me 262 V1, but in 1942 tests the BMW prototype engines failed on takeoff with only the standby Junkers Jumo 210 nose-mounted piston engine powering it to a safe landing. The few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h; the first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber, which used BMW 003 jets for power. Through 1944 the 003's reliability improved, making it a suitable power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramm’s light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design; the BMW 003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT 101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built.
During World War II, many BMW production facilities had been bombed. BMW's facilities in East Germany were seized by the Soviet Union and the remaining facilities were banned by the Allies from producing motorcycles or automobiles. During this ban, BMW used basic secondhand and salvaged equipment to make pots and pans expanding to other kitchen supplies and bicycles. In 1947, BMW was granted permission to resume motorcycle production and its first post-war motorcycle - the R24 - was released in 1948. BMW was still barred from producing automobiles, the Bristol Aeroplane Company was producing cars in England based on BMW's pre-war models, using plans that BAC had taken from BMW's German offices. Production of automobiles resumed with the BMW 501 large sedan. Throughout the 1950s, BMW expanded their model range with sedans, coupes and sports cars. In 1954, the BMW 502 was BMW's first to use a V8 engine. To provide an affordable model, BMW began production of the Isetta
Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, is a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship; the name returned in 2017. While Formula One has been regarded as the pinnacle of open-wheeled auto racing, the high-performance nature of the cars and the expense involved in the series has always meant a need for a path to reach this peak. For much of the history of Formula One, Formula Two has represented the penultimate step on the motorsport ladder. Prior to the Second World War, there existed a division of racing for cars smaller and less powerful than Grand Prix racers; this category was called voiturette racing and provided a means for amateur or less experienced drivers and smaller marques to prove themselves. By the outbreak of war, the rules for voiturette racing permitted 1.5 L supercharged engines. In 1946, the 3.0 L supercharged rules were abandoned and Formulae A and B introduced.
Formula A permitted the old 4.5 L aspirated cars, but as the 3.0 L supercharged cars were more than a match for these, the old 1.5 L voiturette formula replaced 3.0 L supercharged cars in an attempt to equalise performance. This left no category below Formula A/Formula One, so Formula Two was first formally codified in 1948 by FIA as a smaller and cheaper complement to the Grand Prix cars of the era. Among the races held in this first year of Formula Two was the 1948 Stockholm Grand Prix; the rules limited engines to two-litre aspirated or 750 cc supercharged. As a result, the cars were smaller and cheaper than those used in Formula One; this encouraged new marques such as Cooper to move up to Formula Two, before competing against the big manufacturers of Alfa Romeo and Maserati. In fact, Formula One in its early years attracted so few entrants that in 1952 and 1953 all World Championship Grand Prix races, except the unique Indianapolis 500, were run in Formula Two. F2 went into decline with the arrival of the 2.5 L F1 in 1954, but a new Formula Two was introduced for 1957, for 1.5 L cars.
This became dominated by rear-engined Coopers drawing on their Formula 3 and'Bobtail' sports car, with Porsches based on their RSK sports cars enjoying some success. Ferrari developed their'Sharknose' Dino 156 as a Formula Two car, while still racing front-engined Grand Prix cars; the dominant engine of this formula was the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder, with the rare Borgward sixteen-valve unit enjoying some success. A enlarged version of the F2 Cooper won the first two Formula One Grands Prix in 1958, marking the beginning of the rear-engined era in Formula One; the 1.5 L formula was short-lived, with Formula Junior replacing first Formula Three and Formula Two until 1963—but the 1961 1.5 L Formula One was a continuation of this Formula Two. Formula Junior was introduced in 1959, an attempt to be all things to all people, it was soon realised that there was a need to split it into two new formulae. Formula Two was the domain of Formula One stars on their days off. Engines were by Cosworth and Honda, though some other units appeared, including various Fiat based units and dedicated racing engines from BMC and BRM.
For 1967, the FIA increased the maximum engine capacity to 1600cc. With the "return to power" of Formula One the gap between Formula One and Formula Two was felt to be too wide, the introduction of new 1600cc production-based engine regulations for Formula Two restored the category to its intended role as a feeder series for Formula One; the FIA introduced the European Formula Two Championship in 1967. Ickx, driving a Matra MS5, won the inaugural championship by 11 points from the Australian, Frank Gardner; the most popular 1600cc engine was the Cosworth FVA, the sixteen-valve head on a four-cylinder Cortina block, the "proof of concept" for the legendary DFV. The 1967 FVA gave 220 bhp at 9000 rpm. Other units appeared, including a four-cylinder BMW and a V6 Dino Ferrari. Many Formula One drivers continued to drive the smaller and lighter cars on non-championship weekends, some Grand Prix grids would be a mix of Formula One and Formula Two cars. Jacky Ickx made his Grand Prix debut there in a Formula Two car, qualifying with the fifth fastest time overall.
Forced to start behind the slower Formula One cars, Ickx forced his way back into a points position, only to be forced to retire with broken suspension. Jim Clark, regarded as one of the greatest race drivers of all time, was killed in a Formula Two race early in 1968, at the Hockenheimring; the "invasion" of Formula One drivers in Formula Two ranks was permitted because of the unique grad
ACI Vallelunga Circuit
The Autodromo Vallelunga Piero Taruffi is a racing circuit situated 32 km north of Rome, near Vallelunga of Campagnano. Vallelunga was built as a sand 1.8 km oval in 1959. From 1963 the circuit held the Rome Grand Prix, in 1967 a new loop was added when the track became the property of the Automobile Club d'Italia. Further refurbishment was undertaken in 1971; the track is named for the famous Italian racing driver Piero Taruffi. In August 2004 work started on a 1 km extension to the track, bringing the track up to its current length; the new configuration has received homologation from the FIA as a test circuit, being used by various Formula One teams. The circuit has hosted the 6 Hours of Vallelunga endurance event; the track is used by ACI for public driving safety training courses, in autumn of each year hosts a vast flea-market specialising in vintage automotive spare parts. The circuit is home to simulation software developers, Kunos Simulazioni, who occupy a pit garage as an office. ACI Vallelunga Circuit In Italian only Satellite picture by Google Maps
Red Bull is an energy drink sold by Red Bull GmbH, an Austrian company created in 1987. Red Bull has the highest market share of any energy drink in the world, with 6.790 billion cans sold in a year. Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz was inspired by an existing energy drink named Krating Daeng, first introduced and sold in Thailand by Chaleo Yoovidhya, he took this idea, modified the ingredients to suit the tastes of Westerners, and, in partnership with Chaleo, founded Red Bull GmbH in 1987 in Chakkapong, Thailand. In Thai, daeng means red, a krating is a large species of wild bovine native to South Asia. Yoovidhya's heirs own majority stakes in both brands, they both use the same red bull on yellow sun logo while continuing to market the separate drinks to the respective Thai and Western markets. Red Bull is sold in a slim blue-silver can. Only available in a single nondescript flavor and regular or sugar-free formulas, a line of "color editions" with artificial fruit flavors were added to the line beginning in 2013.
The Red Bull company slogan is "Red Bull gives you wings". Rather than following a traditional approach to mass marketing, Red Bull has generated awareness and created a'brand myth' through proprietary extreme sport event series such as Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series, Red Bull Air Race, Red Bull Crashed Ice and stand-out stunts such as the Stratos space diving project. Red Bull's marketing arsenal includes multiple sports team ownerships, celebrity endorsements, music, through its record label Red Bull Records. Energy drinks have been associated with health risks, such as masking the effects of intoxication when consumed with alcohol, excessive or repeated consumption can lead to cardiac and psychiatric conditions. However, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that an adequate consumption of Red Bull and other popular energy drinks is safe and that the amount of caffeine in standard Red Bull cans is unlikely to interact adversely with other typical constituents of energy drinks or with alcohol.
Energy drinks have the effects that caffeine and sugar give, but there is no distinct evidence that the wide variety of other ingredients has any effect. In 1976, Chaleo Yoovidhya introduced a drink called Krating Daeng in Thailand, which means "red gaur" in English, it labourers. While working for German manufacturer Blendax in 1982, Dietrich Mateschitz travelled to Thailand and met Chaleo, owner of T. C. Pharmaceutical. During his visit, Mateschitz discovered. In 1984, Mateschitz co-founded Red Bull GmbH with Yoovidhya and turned it into an international brand; each partner invested US$500,000 of savings to found the company. Yoovidhya and Mateschitz each held a 49 percent share of the new company, they gave the remaining two percent to Yoovidhya's son, but it was agreed that Mateschitz would run the company. The product was launched in Austria in 1987. In Thailand, energy drinks are most popular with blue-collar workers. Red Bull re-positioned the drink as a trendy, upscale drink, first introducing it at Austrian ski resorts.
Pricing was a key differentiator, with Red Bull positioned as a premium drink and Krating Daeng as a lower cost item. In many countries, both drinks are available. In 1992, the product expanded to Slovenia, it entered the United States via California in 1997 and the Middle East in 2000. In 2008, Forbes magazine listed both Chaleo and Mateschitz as the 250th richest people in the world with an estimated net worth of US$4 billion. Red Bull GmbH is headquartered in Fuschl am See, an Austrian village of about 1,500 inhabitants near Salzburg; the company is 51 percent controlled by the Yoovidhya family who, for technical reasons, own the trademark in Europe and the US. In 1995, Krating Daeng authorized its drink. Labelled as Red Bull, to be sold in China. Since 2014, the Austrian Red Bull has been exported to China; this has created confusion since both drinks use the same brand name, in both Chinese. In Southeast Asia, Red Bull and Krating Daeng are confused as both use the Red Bull name in their packaging, although they are two separate products aimed at different markets.
The main difference is that Red Bull comes in a tall blue and silver can while the Thailand Red Bull, or Krating Daeng, is in a smaller gold can. The two drinks differ in terms of taste—Red Bull has less sugar and is carbonated; the flavouring used for Red Bull is still exported worldwide. Depending on the country Red Bull contains caffeine, taurine, B vitamins and simple sugars in a buffer solution of carbonated water, baking soda and magnesium carbonate. To produce Red Bull Sugarfree, sugars sucrose and glucose have been replaced by the sweeteners acesulfame K and aspartame/sucralose. Red Bull identifies its flavors as "editions." Original Sugar-free Total Zero Red Ruby/Red Blue Yellow/Tropical Orange/Mandarin Green/Kiwi White/Coconut Peach Pear Sugar-Free Lime Sugar-Free Purple/Acai Sugar-Free Purple/Acai Lime Orange Sugar-free Yellow/Tropical Sugar-free Winter Edition Summer Edition Silver/Lime/Green Spring Edition
The Montjuïc circuit is a former street circuit located on the Montjuïc mountain in Barcelona, Spain. The circuit was the venue for the Spanish motorcycle Grand Prix from 1950 to 1968, hosted the event on even-numbered years until 1976; the last Formula One Grand Prix held there in 1975, is notable for both a fatal crash that led to Formula One abandoning the venue and the only occasion to date that a female driver has scored World Championship points. By 1908 international motorsport was conducted at the Circuit Baix Penedès with the Copa Catalunya. In 1923 the first Great automobile Prize of Spain in the permanent Sitges Terramar circuit was run near Barcelona. In 1932 a race was held on a street circuit with the start in the Montjuïc Park, wooded parkland on a hill above the city's harbour; the course of the 1933 east circuit of that race became the Montjuïc Circuit proper, holding the Penya Rhin Grand Prix. In 1968, Montjuïc was selected as the venue for the Spanish Grand Prix, held at the Jarama circuit in Madrid, with the inaugural Grand Prix being held there on May 4, 1969.
The variable character of the anticlockwise course made setting the cars up a challenge. The 1975 Spanish Grand Prix was marked by tragedy. Many drivers felt that the circuit was unsafe, two time world champion Emerson Fittipaldi withdrew in protest before the start of the race. On lap 26 the Embassy Hill-Lola car of Rolf Stommelen left the track; the race was subsequently stopped before half distance and half points awarded, with Jochen Mass being recorded as the winner. Lella Lombardi became the first and only female driver to score world championship points, taking 0.5 points for 6th place. Formula One never returned to the circuit after the accident; the circuit of Montjuic was the scene of the 24 hours of Montjuic, a motorcycle endurance race. The area where the circuit was located is now part of Anella Olímpica, where many Venues of the 1992 Summer Olympics are now located. In 2004, the city council of Barcelona decided to mark the layout of the old circuit. On October 13–14, 2007 the circuit was used for the Martini Legends, to honour the 75th anniversary of the circuit.
Signalling the return of Formula One cars to Montjuïc, Emerson Fittipaldi appeared in his Lotus 72, Marc Gené drove a contemporary Ferrari. Montjuïc Park History The circuit in OpenStreetMaps The streets of the former circuit in Google Maps
BMW M Coupé and Roadster
The BMW M Coupé and BMW M Roadster are high performance models of the BMW Z3 and BMW Z4 coupés/roadsters produced by BMW M. The first generation was based on the BMW Z3 and was produced between 1998 and 2002; the second generation was based on the BMW Z4 and was produced between 2006 and 2008. All models were produced in the BMW Spartanburg plant in the United States, however some major components— such as the engine and transmission— were imported from Germany; the Z3 M Roadster was introduced in 1996 as the high performance version of the BMW Z3. Cosmetic differences between the Z3 M and the standard Z3 models included front and rear bumpers, gills and mirrors; the standard Z3 models received a facelift in 1999, however the appearance of the Z3 M was not changed. In the 5 years from 1998 to 2002 15,000 M Roadsters were produced; this is compared to the 300,000 standard Z3s produced in the same timeframe. The M roadster is electronically limited to a top speed of 250 km/h; the M Coupé, manufactured from 1998 until 2002, was developed under the leadership of engineer Burkhard Göschel with the intention of adding increased torsional and structural rigidity to the Z3 roadster's chassis.
The development team had a hard time convincing the Board of Directors to approve the model for production, but it was given the green light as long as it remained cost-effective to produce. To achieve this goal, majority of the body panels had to be shared with the M roadster, thus the doors and everything from the A-pillar forward are interchangeable between the coupé and roadster, as are most interior parts; the Z3 coupé, which combines the M coupe's body with the standard Z3 drivetrain and cosmetics was approved for production at the same time. Sales were slow, it was given nicknames like "hearse" and "clown shoe" because of its distinctive styling. The Z3M Coupe and Roadster were powered by the engines from the E36 M3; this means that most countries used the 3.2 L version of the BMW S50 engine, while North American models used the less powerful BMW S52 engine. The S50 produces 236 kW at 7,400rpm and 350 N⋅m at 3,250rpm, while the S52 engine produces 179 kW at 6,000rpm and 320 N⋅m at 3,800rpm.
A total of 2,999 cars were built with the S50 engine and 2,180 cars were built with the S52 engine. In October 2001, the engines were upgraded to the BMW S54 engine from the E46 M3. In most countries, it produces 239 kW at 7,400 rpm and 354 N⋅m at 4,900rpm, while North American models have 235 kW at 7,400 rpm and 341 N⋅m at 4,900 rpm; the difference in peak power and torque is due to the catalytic converters being located closer to the engine on the North American spec cars, which allows the catalysts to heat up faster and reduce cold start emissions. A total of 1,112 cars were built with the S54 engine; the gearbox is a ZF Type C 5-speed manual. The final drive is either 3.23:1 or 3.15:1. A limited slip differential with a maximum locking of 25 percent is standard. Like all Z3 models, the M Coupe and Roadster's suspension is made up of MacPherson struts in the front and semi-trailing arms in the rear. However, compared to the six-cylinder Z3 roadster, the M roadster included modifications such as wider front and rear tracks, reduced ride height, modified front suspension geometry, firmer springs and shocks, thicker anti-roll bars, stronger semi-trailing arms and a reinforced subframe.
When the M roadster switched to the S54 engine, the chassis was upgraded to the stiffer springs and shocks developed for the M Coupé. The brakes from the E36 M3 were used: four-wheel vented discs measuring 12.4 in on the front and 12.3 in on the rear. In most countries, the front discs were a two-piece "floating rotor" design; the U. S. market was denied the more efficient two-piece discs offered in the rest of the world because BMW of North America was concerned that, if not properly maintained, the discs presented the possibility of failing, thus creating a legal liability. Canadian market cars were equipped with the floating discs. Front tyres were 225/45ZR17 and rear tyres were 245/40ZR17; the wheel sizes were 9x17-inch at the rear. The coupé model was introduced to the public first in concept form at the 2005 Frankfurt Motor Show and in production form at the 2006 Geneva International Motor Show with production starting shortly after; the Z4 M Coupé had a fastback coupé design, resulting in a different body shape to its Z3 M Coupe predecessor.
The Z4 M Coupé did away with the controversial iDrive system. The roof added an additional weight of 5 kg as compared to the roadster; the official 0–97 km/h acceleration time is 5 seconds and the top speed is electronically to 249 km/h. The Z4 M Coupé set a laptime at Nurbürgring Nordschleife of 15 seconds; the roadster model was launched in late 2006. Weighing 1,450 kg, the M Roadster has a from 0-97 km/h of 4.7 seconds. Top speed is electronically limited to 250 km/h. Unlike the Z3 M Roadster, the external dimensions of the Z4 M Roadster were the same as the standard Z4; the M Coupe and M Roadster are powered by the BMW S54 straight-six engine from the E46 M3. The engine had fly-by-wire throttle and dual VANOS. In most countries, the engine produces 252 kW at 7,900 rpm and 365 N⋅m at 4,900 rpm- the same outputs as in the M3; the engine has a redline of 8,000 rpm. Cars sold in North America have 250 kW at 355 N ⋅ m at 4,900 rpm; the engine was mated to a new 6-speed "Type
Hans-Joachim Stuck, nicknamed "Strietzel", is a German racing driver who has competed in Formula One and many other categories. He was born in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, is the son of Christa Thielmann and the legendary Hans Stuck; as a young boy, his father taught him driving on the Nürburgring. In 1969 he started his first motor race at the Nordschleife. Speaking about that day he said, "Getting to the grid was exciting. All of a sudden, my wishes to become a racer came true. I just wanted to start the race and give everybody hell!" The following year, at just 19 years of age, he won his first 24 hours race at the wheel of a BMW 2002ti. He won there again in 1998 and 2004, each time with a BMW touring car. In 1972, Stuck teamed up with Jochen Mass to drive a Ford Capri RS2600 to victory at the Spa 24 Hours endurance race in Belgium, his campaigns racing the BMW 3.0 CSL "Batmobile" were successful in 1974 and 1975, in the German DRM as well as in the USA together with Ronnie Peterson. In the 1970s he raced the turbo-charged BMW 320i.
After some success in Formula 2 with a March-BMW, he entered F1 with March. Overall, Stuck participated in 81 Grands Prix, debuting on 13 January 1974, he scored 29 championship points. Incidentally, Stuck was the first driver to be born after the inaugural Grand Prix in 1950. Stuck was quite successful at Brabham-Alfa in 1977, leading the 1977 United States Grand Prix at Watkins Glen in the rain, but was replaced by Niki Lauda for 1978. Stuck missed an opportunity to join Williams F1. Due to his height of 194 centimetres, he did not fit well into the F1 cars of the late 1970s that had the cockpit moved forward. Leaving F1 at that time spared him bad injuries to the leg, as suffered by Ronnie Peterson, Clay Regazzoni, Marc Surer and others. Stuck continued racing touring and sports cars all over the world, winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans twice with a Porsche 962. Stuck says the 962 is the favourite racecar he has driven during his career, describing it has having the "perfect combination of power and downforce".
In the 1990s he tasted touring car success, winning the DTM Championship in 1990 with Audi, before returning to Porsche until the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1998. He resumed an official role with BMW after that. In 2006, Stuck raced in the inaugural season of the Grand Prix Masters formula for retired Formula One drivers after scoring 6th in the first race event at the Kyalami circuit in South Africa on 11–13 November 2005. January 2008 saw; this role has seen him use his experience to help refine road cars, including the new Golf VI GTI. Stuck announced the end of his active career as a race driver after 43 years after the 2011 Nürburgring 24 Hours, in which he participated with a Reiter Engineering Lamborghini Gallardo LP600+ GT3 together with Dennis Rostek and his sons Ferdinand Stuck and Johannes Stuck. Team Stuck³ finished 15th overall following gearbox problems. In April 2012, Stuck was appointed President of the German Motorsport Association. ‡ Graded drivers not eligible for European Formula Two Championship points Footnotes † — Retired, but was classified as he completed 90% of the winner's race distance.