A Landtag is a representative assembly in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state. Landtage assemblies are the legislative bodies for the individual states of Germany and states of Austria, have authority to legislate in non-federal matters for the regional area; the Landtag of South Tyrol is the legislature of the autonomous province of South Tyrol in northeast Italy. In the sovereign principality of Liechtenstein the national parliament is called the Landtag of Liechtenstein; the German word Landtag is composed of the words Tag. The German word Tagung is derived from the German word Tag, as such meetings were held at daylight and sometimes spanned several days; the English word'diet' comes from Latin: dies. In feudal society, the formal class system was reflected in the composition of the Imperial States' representative assemblies, regardless of their name well described as estates of the realm: it was not intended as an elected reflection of public opinion, but a fixed expression of established power as recognized in formal privileges, including the right to be seated in person or to be represented as elector in a college, entitled to one or more seats.
Therefore, the representatives defended class interests, decisions were based on a class-based electoral system. In some of the Imperial States that were known as Land, the name of such estates assembly was Landtag, analogous to the Reichstag, which comprised most of the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire plus Reichsgrafen, Imperial prelates and Free imperial cities; the precise composition varied and could change over time, as the result of privileges granted or lost, entities split or merged, border changes et cetera. Since 1466, Prussian Landtag were held in Royal Prussia. Prior to that, Prussian Landtag meetings were held in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Order. See Prussian estates. Since 1525, Prussian Landtag were held in Ducal Prussia. See Preußischer Landtag; as Austria and Prussia escaped the French'exporting the revolution', Napoleon was happy to maintain satellite monarchies in most German territories under his control, the more democratic principles of the Enlightenment would have less effect in the German-speaking lands, or only much later.
1806 the German Confederation was founded as successor of the Holy Roman Empire. § 13 of the "Bundesakte" forced the German states to pass constitutions and implement parliaments called Landstände or Landtag. The first constitution was passed in Nassau; until 1841 all but 2 states parliaments. 1871 the German Empire was founded. All 25 states of the German Empire and the "Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen" had Landtage as legislative authorities; the most important one was the Prussian Landtag. In the Weimar Republic 1918 till 1933 all German states had Landtage. In difference to the former Landstände and Landtage the Weimar Republik Landtage have been elected in free an equal elections. 1933 the Nazis abandoned the federal structure of the Weimar Republic and established a unitary state. The Landtage were abolished as a result; the Diet of Finland, created when the country was ceded from Sweden to Russia in 1809, was called lantdag in Swedish until 1906 when it was replaced by the unicameral Parliament of Finland.
Parliament continued using the name lantdag in Swedish until 1919, when Finland adopted its first constitution following the declaration of independence in 1917. Since the official term in Swedish is riksdag, equivalent of the German Reichstag; the Finnish name is eduskunta. The first Landtag of the Livonian Confederation was called by archbishop of Riga Johannes Ambundii in 1419 and reconvened on a regular basis until the incorporation of Livonian lands into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Denmark in 1561. Separate Landtags for Livonia and Estonia continued to exist as legislative authorities of the Duchies of Livonia, Estonia and Semigallia, the Russian Governorates of Livonia and Courland. After the independence of Estonia and Latvia in 1918, they were replaced by the Riigikogu and the Saeima. In the contemporary Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Austria and the Italian Republic's province of South Tyrol, a Landtag is a unicameral legislature for a constitutive federal state. In the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Landtag is the sole national parliament, because Liechtenstein has no federal structure due to its size.
In most of the German constitutive federal states, the unicameral legislature is called Landtag: Landtag of Baden-Württemberg Landtag of Bavaria Landtag of Brandenburg Landtag of Hesse Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Landtag of Lower Saxony Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate Landtag of Saarland Landtag of Saxony Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein Landtag of ThuringiaIn the German city states, the parliamentary city council serves the function of the state parliament within the federal system - in the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and in the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg it is called the Bürgerschaft (short for Stadtbürgerschaft, municipal a
Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law
The Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law is a non-university research institute located in Freiburg, Germany. The institute is part of the Max Planck Society and is conducting basic research into criminal law and criminology; the Institute is headed by Hans-Jörg Albrecht and Ulrich Sieber. In 2006, the Institute had a total of 149 employees, including 30 researchers and 51 young researchers, as well as 20 third-party employees and 41 visiting researchers; the library is one of the largest libraries in the area. A former director is Albin Eser; the history of the Institute dates back to 1938, when by Adolf Schönke held the "Seminar for Foreign and International Criminal Law" at the Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg. This led to the founding of the "Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law" in 1947; the Institute was renamed in 1966. The Institute’s homepage
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, municipality, or local government area. Because of the differences in legislation between the states, the exact definition of a City Council varies. However, it is only those local government areas which have been granted city status that are entitled to refer to themselves as cities; the official title is "Corporation of the City of ______" or similar. Some of the urban areas of Australia are governed by a single entity, while others may be controlled by a multitude of much smaller city councils; some significant urban areas can be under the jurisdiction of otherwise rural local governments. Periodic re-alignments of boundaries attempt to rationalize these situations and adjust the deployment of assets and resources; the 2001 Local Government Act restyled the five county boroughs of Dublin, Galway and Limerick as city councils, with the same status in law as county councils. The 2014 Local Government Act Merged Limerick City and Limerick County Council together and Waterford City and Waterford County Council together abolishing Waterford and Limerick City council, While Limerick and Waterford maintain City Status.
The city councils and city halls in Malaysia are as follows. Alor Setar City Council Ipoh City Council Iskandar Puteri City Council Johor Bahru City Council Kota Kinabalu City Hall Kuala Lumpur City Hall Kuala Terengganu City Council Kuching North City Hall Kuching South City Council Melaka City Council Miri City Council Penang Island City Council Petaling Jaya City Council Shah Alam City Council Local councils in New Zealand do vary in structure, but are overseen by the government department Local Government New Zealand. For many decades until the local government reforms of 1989, a borough with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city; the boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so little distinction was made between the urban area and the local government area. New Zealand's local government structural arrangements were reformed by the Local Government Commission in 1989 when 700 councils and special purpose bodies were amalgamated to create 87 new local authorities.
As a result, the term "city" began to take on two meanings. The word "city" came to be used in a less formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries; this informal usage is jealously guarded. Gisborne, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a district council, but its status as a city is not disputed. Under the current law the minimum population for a new city is 50,000. In the Republic of China, a city council represents a provincial city. Members of the councils are elected through local elections for provincial cities which are held every 4–5 years. Councils for the provincial cities in Taiwan are Chiayi City Council, Hsinchu City Council, Keelung City Council. In the UK, not all cities have city councils, the status and functions of city councils vary. A city council may be: The council of a metropolitan district, granted city status; the council of a non-metropolitan district, granted city status.
Some of these councils are some share functions with county councils. A parish council, granted city status; these councils have limited functions. The council of a London borough, granted city status, or the City of London Corporation. A city council may be: One of the three councils of principal areas that have been granted city status. One of the three community councils, with limited functions, that have been granted city status. A city council is the council of one of four council areas designated a City by the Local Government etc. Act 1994; the three cities which are not council areas have no city council. Belfast City Council is now the only city council. Since the local government reforms of 2015 the other four cities form parts of wider districts and do not have their own councils. City councils and town boards consist of several elected aldermen or councillors. In the United States, members of city councils are called council member, council man, council woman, councilman, or councilwoman, while in Canada they are called councillor.
In some cities, the mayor is a voting member of the council. In larger cities the council may elect other executive positions as well, such as a council president and speaker; the council functions as a parliamentary or congressional style legislative body, proposing bills, holding votes, passing laws to help govern the city. The role of the mayor in the council varies depending on whether or not the city uses council–manager government or mayor–council government, by the nature of the statutory authority given to it by state law, city charter, or municipal ordinance. There is a mayor pro tem councilmember. In cities where the council elects the mayor for one year at a time, the mayor pro tem is in line to become the mayor in the next year. In cities where the mayor is elected by the city's voters, the mayor pro tem serves as acting mayor in the absence of the mayor; this position is known as vice mayor. In some cities a different name for the municipal legislature is used. In San
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources. Philology is more defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics. Classical philology studies classical languages. Classical philology principally originated from the Library of Pergamum and the Library of Alexandria around the fourth century BCE, continued by Greeks and Romans throughout the Roman/Byzantine Empire, it was preserved and promoted during the Islamic Golden Age, resumed by European scholars of the Renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other non-Asian and Asian languages. Indo-European studies involves the comparative philology of all Indo-European languages. Philology, with its focus on historical development, is contrasted with linguistics due to Ferdinand de Saussure's insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis.
The contrast continued with the emergence of structuralism and Chomskyan linguistics alongside its emphasis on syntax. The term "philology" is derived from the Greek φιλολογία, from the terms φίλος "love, loved, dear, friend" and λόγος "word, reason", describing a love of learning, of literature, as well as of argument and reasoning, reflecting the range of activities included under the notion of λόγος; the term changed little with the Latin philologia, entered the English language in the 16th century, from the Middle French philologie, in the sense of "love of literature". The adjective φιλόλογος meant "fond of discussion or argument, talkative", in Hellenistic Greek implying an excessive preference of argument over the love of true wisdom, φιλόσοφος; as an allegory of literary erudition, philologia appears in fifth-century postclassical literature, an idea revived in Late Medieval literature. The meaning of "love of learning and literature" was narrowed to "the study of the historical development of languages" in 19th-century usage of the term.
Due to the rapid progress made in understanding sound laws and language change, the "golden age of philology" lasted throughout the 19th century, or "from Giacomo Leopardi and Friedrich Schlegel to Nietzsche". In the Anglo-Saxon world, the term philology to describe work on languages and literatures, which had become synonymous with the practices of German scholars, was abandoned as a consequence of anti-German feeling following World War I. Most continental European countries still maintain the term to designate departments, position titles, journals. J. R. R. Tolkien opposed the nationalist reaction against philological practices, claiming that "the philological instinct" was "universal as is the use of language". In British English usage, in British academia, "philology" remains synonymous with "historical linguistics", while in US English, US academia, the wider meaning of "study of a language's grammar and literary tradition" remains more widespread. Based on the harsh critique of Friedrich Nietzsche, US scholars since the 1980s have viewed philology as responsible for a narrowly scientistic study of language and literature.
The comparative linguistics branch of philology studies the relationship between languages. Similarities between Sanskrit and European languages were first noted in the early 16th century and led to speculation of a common ancestor language from which all these descended, it is now named Proto-Indo-European. Philology's interest in ancient languages led to the study of what were, in the 18th century, "exotic" languages, for the light they could cast on problems in understanding and deciphering the origins of older texts. Philology includes the study of texts and their history, it includes elements of textual criticism, trying to reconstruct an author's original text based on variant copies of manuscripts. This branch of research arose among Ancient scholars in the 4th century BC Greek-speaking world, who desired to establish a standard text of popular authors for the purposes of both sound interpretation and secure transmission. Since that time, the original principles of textual criticism have been improved and applied to other distributed texts such as the Bible.
Scholars have tried to reconstruct the original readings of the Bible from the manuscript variants. This method was applied to Classical Studies and to medieval texts as a way to reconstruct the author's original work; the method produced so-called "critical editions", which provided a reconstructed text accompanied by a "critical apparatus", i.e. footnotes that listed the various manuscript variants available, enabling scholars to gain insight into the entire manuscript tradition and argue about the variants. A related study method known as higher criticism studies the authorship and provenance of text to place such text in historical context; as these philological issues are inseparable from issues of interpretation, there is no clear-cut boundary between philology and hermeneutics. When text has a significant political or religious influence, scholars have difficulty reaching objective conclusions; some scholars avoid all critical methods of textual philology
The Allgäu is a region in Swabia in southern Germany. It covers the south of southeastern Baden-Württemberg and parts of Austria; the region stretches from the prealpine lands up to the Alps. The main rivers flowing through the Allgäu are the Iller. Allgäu is not an administrative unit; the Allgovian area is notable for its beautiful landscapes and is popular for vacations and therapeutic stays. It is well known in Germany for its farm produce dairy products including Hirtenkäse and Bergkäse, a generic alpine product from Austria and Switzerland. Besides tourism and dairy products, another important economic sector is the building of industrial equipment and machines. Fendt tractors and produced in Marktoberdorf are one of the most famous products of the region. "Allgovia" is used as a synonym for the region. The alpine regions of the Allgäu rise over 2,000 metres in altitude and are popular for winter skiing; the castle of Neuschwanstein is in the eastern part of the Allgäu. The Allgäu is dominated in the south by the Allgäu Alps, which are not part of the Allgäu themselves.
The Allgäu is formed by glaciers and glacial debris. Many hills and lakes are remnants of former glaciers. Michael Bredl, a singer and collector of traditional German Volksmusik Official tourist information Non-commercial Allgäu Information Alpine Club Oy/Allgäu Recipes from Allgäu
Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy. It is the branch of economics which assesses the government revenue and government expenditure of the public authorities and the adjustment of one or the other to achieve desirable effects and avoid undesirable ones; the purview of public finance is considered to be threefold: governmental effects on efficient allocation of resources, distribution of income, macroeconomic stabilization. The proper role of government provides a starting point for the analysis of public finance. In theory, under certain circumstances, private markets will allocate goods and services among individuals efficiently. If private markets were able to provide efficient outcomes and if the distribution of income were acceptable there would be little or no scope for government. In many cases, conditions for private market efficiency are violated. For example, if many people can enjoy the same good at the same time private markets may supply too little of that good.
National defense is one example of non-rival consumption, or of a public good."Market failure" occurs when private markets do not allocate goods or services efficiently. The existence of market failure provides an efficiency-based rationale for collective or governmental provision of goods and services. Externalities, public goods, informational advantages, strong economies of scale, network effects can cause market failures. Public provision via a government or a voluntary association, however, is subject to other inefficiencies, termed "government failure." Under broad assumptions, government decisions about the efficient scope and level of activities can be efficiently separated from decisions about the design of taxation systems. In this view, public sector programs should be designed to maximize social benefits minus costs, revenues needed to pay for those expenditures should be raised through a taxation system that creates the fewest efficiency losses caused by distortion of economic activity as possible.
In practice, government budgeting or public budgeting is more complicated and results in inefficient practices. Government can pay for spending by borrowing, although borrowing is a method of distributing tax burdens through time rather than a replacement for taxes. A deficit is the difference between government spending and revenues; the accumulation of deficits over time is the total public debt. Deficit finance allows governments to smooth tax burdens over time, gives governments an important fiscal policy tool. Deficits can narrow the options of successor governments. Public finance is connected to issues of income distribution and social equity. Governments can reallocate income through transfer payments or by designing tax systems that treat high-income and low-income households differently; the public choice approach to public finance seeks to explain how self-interested voters and bureaucrats operate, rather than how they should operate. Collection of sufficient resources from the economy in an appropriate manner along with allocating and use of these resources efficiently and constitute good financial management.
Resource generation, resource allocation and expenditure management are the essential components of a public financial management system. The following subdivisions form the subject matter of public finance. Public expenditure Public revenue Public debt Financial administration Federal finance Economists classify government expenditures into three main types. Government purchases of goods and services for current use are classed as government consumption. Government purchases of goods and services intended to create future benefits – such as infrastructure investment or research spending – are classed as government investment. Government expenditures that are not purchases of goods and services, instead just represent transfers of money – such as social security payments – are called transfer payments. Government operations are those activities involved in the running of a state or a functional equivalent of a state for the purpose of producing value for the citizens. Government operations have the power to make, the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, religious, academic, or other organization or group.
Income distribution – Some forms of government expenditure are intended to transfer income from some groups to others. For example, governments sometimes transfer income to people that have suffered a loss due to natural disaster. Public pension programs transfer wealth from the young to the old. Other forms of government expenditure which represent purchases of goods and services have the effect of changing the income distribution. For example, engaging in a war may transfer wealth to certain sectors of society. Public education transfers wealth to families with children in these schools. Public road construction transfers wealth from people that do not use the roads to those people that do. Income Security Employment insurance Health Care Public financing of campaigns Government expenditures are financed in three ways: Government revenue Taxes Non-tax revenue Government borrowing Money
Messe Freiburg is an event area and exhibition grounds in Freiburg im Breisgau. Markets are undividedly connected to the history of the City of Freiburg. In the year 1120, the establishment of the city tumbled with the market rights. Conrad I, Duke of Zähringen shows all in all that the first fair was allowed to take place because of King Wenzel of Prague in 1379. Subsequently, Freiburg was on the International Commercial Centre on many occasions during this year; the Münsterplatz, the Stühlinger Kirchplatz, used for leisure activities, were important centres. Between 1885 and 1914, at least six "people shows" ethnological expositions took place because of the spring and autumn fairs in Freiburg, which were dedicated to people from Africa and Sri Lanka; the current ancient fair ground was inaugurated in the east of Freiburg in 1929. This had been used in the past for sporting events; the civic hall, situated on the Schwarzwaldstraße, was established to the east of the ancient fairground in 1954.
This was according to the designs of Albert Maria Lehr. In the five decades that followed, the civic hall was used for social events, concerts and fairs, it was used as the provisional University Library from autumn 2008 until the new UB was completed in July 2015. Since the end of 2015, it served as emergency accommodation for refugees. In the mean time, the hall is under the protection of historic monuments; the decision to move the Messe to the north of Freiburg was made in the nineties. The first construction stage, together with its three halls, was made up of 18,500 m² of floor space and service areas and was only implemented after just short of one and a half years. On January 17, 2000, three years after the appropriate municipal council resolution, the construction stage was put into action. Due to the relocation of the Messe, building sites emerged on the “Alten Messplatz”; these enriched the current surrounding areas of Wiehre, Oberau and Littenweiler, including 180 new residences and a huge shopping centre.
The first public festival took place in autumn 1999 on the new outdoor area known as the "Freiburger Herbstmesse". Due to the investment of 75 million Euros, Freiburg had four times more exhibition space at its disposal than before. Cultural events can now take place in hall 2 with up to 10 000 viewers. On March 25, 2003, the local council in Freiburg decided to build a fourth hall: the Rothaus-Arena. In November 2004, the construction began; the country supported the second construction phase of the Messe with a grant of 2,9 million Euros from the promotion program for investmenting in exhibitions. The total investment for the fourth hall was around 22,9 million Euros, predominantly provided by regional companies; the designs for the construction of the first three halls, subsequently the Rothaus-Arena and the expansion of its foyer were award winning, making it an achievement for the architect, Detlef Sacker, from Freiburg. The new hall was inaugurated in 2006 as “Intersolar”, where the singer Pink made her appearance at the International Trade Fair.
The first construction stage, as well as the necessary connections to the roads and local public transport, including any further costs were paid with around 12,5 million Euros by the Badische Staatsbrauerei Rothaus. 4 million Euros came directly from the state Baden-Württemberg. Another 7 million came into the city treasury through selling property to the state Baden-Württemberg, used for expanding the University; the city invested more than 10,5 million Euros in creating the Messe Freiburg. Through the commercialization of the old trade fair in the east of the city, on which a new part of town and a shopping center were built, 12 million Euros were generated; the city paid more than 9 million Euros for the external development of the new trade fair and the demoliting of the buildings in the old location. The federal government and the state of Baden-Württemberg paid 10 million Euros. All plans concerning the costs and schedule were kept; the estimated doubling of the trade fair revenue to six million Euros by 2010 was exceeded in 2007 with more than 7,9 million Euros, in 2010 with 15 million Euros.
The indirect profitability of the Freiburg economy and gastronomy, generated by the new trade fair, had tripled to 60 million Euros per year during this time. The biggest events in the last decades included: the Tour de France in 2000, an open-air concert by Herbert Grönemeyer with 54000 visitors, the visit of the 14th Dalai Lama, several TV-shows, the world championships of indoor cycling and roller figure skating; the number of days when the trade fair was occupied rose from 220 to 330 between 2005 and 2007. The revenue per employee of the Messe Freiburg is by now the highest in the country. Pope Benedict XVI held a vigil mass on 24 September 2011, together with 28,000 adolescents on the exhibition groud of the Freiburg Messe, as part of his visit to Germany in 2011; the Messe Freiburg is situated 2.5 km northwest of the Freiburg Old Town and is in close vicinity to the airfield, the goods station, parts of the University of Freiburg, the University Medical Center and the Industrial Area in the North.
The Messe Freiburg is connected to the city center by the Breisgau-S-Bahn, with the station Neue "Messe/Universität", since December 2015, by the tram-line 4 used as a part of the Freiburg city railway. The tram-line 4 will be extended by two stations by 2017. In the future the final stop will be "Madisonalle". 4000 Parking spaces are available for visitors. According to its website, the Messe Freiburg is e