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Diff

In computing, the diff utility is a data comparison tool that calculates and displays the differences between two files. Unlike edit distance notions used for other purposes, diff is line-oriented rather than character-oriented, but it is like Levenshtein distance in that it tries to determine the smallest set of deletions and insertions to create one file from the other; the diff command displays the changes made in a standard format, such that both humans and machines can understand the changes and apply them: given one file and the changes, the other file can be created. Diff is used to show the changes between two versions of the same file. Modern implementations support binary files; the output is called a "diff", or a patch, since the output can be applied with the Unix program patch. The output of similar file comparison utilities are called a "diff"; the POSIX standard specifies the behavior of the "diff" and "patch" utilities and their file formats. The diff utility was developed in the early 1970s on the Unix operating system, emerging from Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey.

The final version, first shipped with the 5th Edition of Unix in 1974, was written by Douglas McIlroy. This research was published in a 1976 paper co-written with James W. Hunt who developed an initial prototype of diff; the algorithm this paper described became known as the Hunt–Szymanski algorithm. McIlroy's work was preceded and influenced by Steve Johnson's comparison program on GECOS and Mike Lesk's proof program. Proof originated on Unix and, like diff, produced line-by-line changes and used angle-brackets for presenting line insertions and deletions in the program's output; the heuristics used in these early applications were, deemed unreliable. The potential usefulness of a diff tool provoked McIlroy into researching and designing a more robust tool that could be used in a variety of tasks but perform well in the processing and size limitations of the PDP-11's hardware, his approach to the problem resulted from collaboration with individuals at Bell Labs including Alfred Aho, Elliot Pinson, Jeffrey Ullman, Harold S. Stone.

In the context of Unix, the use of the ed line editor provided diff with the natural ability to create machine-usable "edit scripts". These edit scripts, when saved to a file, along with the original file, be reconstituted by ed into the modified file in its entirety; this reduced the secondary storage necessary to maintain multiple versions of a file. McIlroy considered writing a post-processor for diff where a variety of output formats could be designed and implemented, but he found it more frugal and simpler to have diff be responsible for generating the syntax and reverse-order input accepted by the ed command. Late in 1984 Larry Wall created a separate utility, releasing its source code on the mod.sources and net.sources newsgroups. This program extended the ability to modify files with output from diff. Modes in Emacs allow for converting the format of patches and editing patches interactively. In diff's early years, common uses included comparing changes in the source of software code and markup for technical documents, verifying program debugging output, comparing filesystem listings and analyzing computer assembly code.

The output targeted for ed was motivated to provide compression for a sequence of modifications made to a file. The Source Code Control System and its ability to archive revisions emerged in the late 1970s as a consequence of storing edit scripts from diff; the operation of diff is based on solving the longest common subsequence problem. In this problem, given two sequences of items: a b c d f g h j q z a b c d e f g i j k r x y z and we want to find a longest sequence of items, present in both original sequences in the same order; that is, we want to find a new sequence which can be obtained from the first original sequence by deleting some items, from the second original sequence by deleting other items. We want this sequence to be as long as possible. In this case it is a b c d f g j z From a longest common subsequence it is only a small step to get diff-like output: if an item is absent in the subsequence but present in the first original sequence, it must have been deleted. If it is absent in the subsequence but present in the second original sequence, it must have been inserted.

E h i q k r x y + - + - + + + + The diff command is invoked from the command line, passing it the names of two files: diff original new. The output of the command represents the changes required to transform the original file into the new file. If original and new are directories diff will be run on each file that exists in both directories. An option, -r, will recursively descend any matching subdirectories to compare files between directories. Any of the examples in the article use the following two files and new: In this traditional output format, a stands for added, d for deleted and c for changed. Line numbers of the original file appear before those of the new file appear after; the less-than and greater-than signs indicate. Addition lines are added to the original file to appear in the new file. Deletion lines are deleted from the original file to be missing in the new file. By default, lines common to both files are not shown. Lines that have moved are shown as added at their new location and as deleted from their old lo

Staircase (album)

Staircase is the fourth solo album released on ECM by jazz pianist Keith Jarrett. It features Jarrett performing four solo piano pieces recorded in the studio. Jarrett and producer Manfred Eicher had arrived at Studio Davout in Paris to record a soundtrack to Michèle Rosier's film Mon cœur est rouge. Finishing early with several hours of studio time left and impressed by the quality of the studio's piano, they spontaneously decided to record this album; the Allmusic review by Richard S. Ginell awarded the album 4 stars, stating, "One can always admire Jarrett's lovely tone and flexible touch, yet when he gets stuck for ideas, the repetitions begin to grate. Maybe he needs the stimulus of a live audience in order to get the creative and rhythmic juices flowing when flying solo.". All compositions by Keith Jarrett Staircase: "Part 1" - 6:57 "Part 2" - 7:58 "Part 3" - 1:25 Hourglass: "Part 1" - 4:42 "Part 2" - 14:03 Sundial: "Part 1" - 8:57 "Part 2" - 4:55 "Part 3" - 6:27 Sand: "Part 1" - 6:54 "Part 2" - 8:48 "Part 3" - 3:21 Keith Jarrett – piano

Chamara Silva

Lindamlilage Prageeth Chamara Silva is a former Sri Lankan cricketer, who played all formats of the game for 12 years. He is a leg-break bowler. After poor performances, Silva was dropped from the squad, but continued to play in domestic seasons for Panadura Sports Club, he has been compared with Aravinda de Silva due to his bow-legged stance. Silva was an important member of three World runner-up Sri Lanka teams in 2007, 2009 and 2011, he was educated at the Panadura Royal College. Having set a steady record for his club Panadura, he captained the team and secured a good record including a 54 on his One Day International debut against Australia. Since 1998, he has played List A cricket and since 2004, Twenty20 cricket with moderate success and steady averages. In March 2018, he was named in Colombo's squad for the 2017–18 Super Four Provincial Tournament; the following month, he was named in Colombo's squad for the 2018 Super Provincial One Day Tournament. In March 2019, he was named in Colombo's squad for the 2019 Super Provincial One Day Tournament.

He made his Test debut in New Zealand and had the worst possible start being dismissed for a pair just like his teammate Marvan Atapattu. He was given a second chance however and justified his selection with an entertaining 61 in the first innings of the 2nd Test, enjoying a 121 run partnership with Kumar Sangakkara. In the second innings he improved further, making a aggressive unbeaten 152, hitting 20 fours and batting right through with the tail before running out of partners. Silva scored his first One Day International hundred against India just 3 weeks before the World Cup, his good form continued in the Cricket World Cup 2007, he managed to make 350 runs with an average of 43.75 with 4 half centuries and a highest score of 64. His success in the middle order has helped to give Sri Lanka a boost in their one-day and test sides after veteran middle order batsmen Russel Arnold announced his retirement at the end of the World Cup. Chamara Silva has been banned from all forms of cricket from September 2017 for two years due to the alleged misconduct during a domestic first class cricket match between Panadura Cricket Club and Kalutara Physical Culture Club along with Manoj Deshapriya.

Chamara Silva, the captain of the Panadura Cricket Club was found guilty for match-fixing allegations after the unusual scoring rate by Panadura side in a first class cricket match in January 2017

List of terrorist incidents in 1986

This is a timeline of incidents in 1986 that have been labelled as "terrorism" and are not believed to have been carried out by a government or its forces. To be included, entries must be notable and described by a consensus of reliable sources as "terrorism". List entries must comply with the guidelines outlined in the manual of style under MOS:TERRORIST. Casualty figures in this list are the total casualties of the incident including immediate casualties and casualties. Casualties listed are the victims. Perpetrator casualties are listed separately. Casualty totals may be unavailable due to a lack of information. A figure with a plus sign indicates that at least that many people have died – the actual toll could be higher. A figure with a plus sign may indicate that over that number of people are victims. If casualty figures are 20 or more, they will be shown in bold. In addition, figures for casualties more than 50 will be underlined. Incidents are limited to one per location per day. If multiple attacks occur in the same place on the same day, they will be merged into a single incident.

In addition to the guidelines above, the table includes the following categories: A bomb place on a bus in the West Bank kills one and injures three. A Jordanian Mahmoud Mahmoud Atta is arrested, extradited to Israel, sentenced to life in prison and freed by the Israeli Supreme Court. After the September 11 attacks, he was confused with ringleader Egyptian Mohamed Atta. List of terrorist incidents

Gerrit Cornelisz Vlasman

Gerrit Cornelisz. Vlasman, was a Dutch Golden Age member of the Haarlem schutterij, he was the son of Cornelis Gerritsz. Vlasman, a landowner with privileges near Sassenheim who owned the Haarlem brewery Het Zeepaard, he became a flag bearer of the St. George militia in Haarlem from 1612-1624, he was portrayed by Frans Hals in The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616. He either died or married after 1624, as his name no longer appears in the membership lists of the St. George militia after that, he was related to Cornelia Jansdr. Vlasman, who married the painter Floris van Dyck in 1625. Gerrit Cornelisz. Vlasman in De Haarlemse Schuttersstukken, by Jhr. Mr. C. C. van Valkenburg, pp. 67, Haerlem: jaarboek 1958, ISSN 0927-0728, on the website of the North Holland Archives

Witt/Thomas Productions

Witt/Thomas Productions is an American television and movie production company run by TV producers Paul Junger Witt and Tony Thomas. The company was productive between its founding in 1975 and 1999, but is still active, producing the occasional film and TV series project, it has produced more than 25 American primetime television series half-hour sitcoms. Witt/Thomas is best known for producing the popular sitcoms Soap, Benson, It's a Living, The Golden Girls, Empty Nest and Brotherly Love. Witt and Thomas have produced many cinematic works, including the 1989 box office success Dead Poets Society. Numerous Witt/Thomas television series were created and co-executive produced by Susan Harris, the wife of Paul Junger Witt; the shows that had involvement from Harris were produced under the modified Witt/Thomas/Harris Productions nameplate. The partnership between Paul Junger Witt and Tony Thomas began in 1971, when the two were paired together as producers on the now-classic and influential ABC made-for-TV-movie Brian's Song.

Following this and Thomas elected to continue working together on additional TV movies for all the major American broadcast networks. After having each built an extensive resume separately as TV producers, aside from their partnership, the two formed Witt/Thomas Productions in 1975 upon selling their first TV pilot, the NBC comedy Fay; the sitcom, which premiered in the fall of 1975, was created by Susan Harris, who became a key partner in the production company. Fay failed to find an audience, was cancelled after a single interrupted season. However, shortly after picking up Fay for the fall 1975 schedule, NBC had bought a second pilot from Witt and Thomas, granted a midseason replacement slot for early the following year. Premiering in January 1976 was The Practice, a comedy set in a family-run doctor's office, the first series to be a Witt/Thomas Production; the series was created for Witt/Thomas by Steve Gordon, who became known for writing and directing the blockbuster film Arthur. This was the first of three TV series the company produced in which Thomas' father, Danny Thomas, was cast in the starring role.

The Practice performed well enough to be awarded a second season, but the early ratings success was not sustained. NBC cancelled the series in January 1977, after 12 months on the air. In the spring of 1977, CBS broadcast another of the company's efforts, the romantic comedy Loves Me, Loves Me Not, created by Harris and starring Susan Dey, but it lasted only six episodes; the series reunited Witt with Dey. Witt and Harris would soon find success with their next pilot, a sitcom parody of daytime soap operas entitled Soap. ABC picked up the series, which drew controversy over its tawdry and taboo storylines from the day it was announced on the network's schedule. Soap premiered in September 1977 to further controversy, but blockbuster ratings, cemented Witt and Harris as producers of breakthrough relevant television. In the midst of Soap's success, the company would produce the spin-off series Benson, for Soap regular Robert Guillaume, which debuted in September 1979. By this time, Witt/Thomas were experiencing increased demand by ABC.

In 1980, the producers sold the series I'm a Big Girl Now to ABC, which paired Danny Thomas with Soap star Diana Canova in the lead roles. Both Soap and I'm a Big Girl Now were cancelled in 1981, with Benson continuing until 1986, lasting longer than its parent show. Subsequent shows with a Witt/Thomas/Harris collaboration include It Takes Two, a single-season comedy starring Patty Duke Astin and Richard Crenna as a modern, dual-career couple. Diamond spoke of a new series they were about to preview, about elderly women living in a Miami home, entitled "Miami Nice". Roberts corrected Diamond; the Golden Girls, which centered on four older women rooming together and enjoying their golden years, went on to become, the biggest success for Witt/Thomas/Harris, garnering several Emmy nominations and strong ratings. The series produced an successful spin-off in 1988, Empty Nest, which starred Richard Mulligan as eligible older bachelor Dr. Harry Weston, who lived and held medical practice in the same neighborhood as The Golden Girls.

In 1987, Witt/Thomas/Harris had the new sitcom project Mama's Boy in development for NBC. It served as a starring vehicle for Bruce Weitz and Nancy Walker, in which the former played a successful journalist whose loving mother moves into his New York apartment and interrupts his bachelor lifestyle. Susan Blakely and Dan Hedaya starred. Mama's Boy was picked up by the network, but only retained the status of being a "special" throughout the 1987–88 s