Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Video game programmer
A game programmer is a software engineer, programmer, or computer scientist who develops codebases for video games or related software, such as game development tools. Game programming has many specialized disciplines, all of which fall under the umbrella term of "game programmer". A game programmer should not be confused with a game designer. In the early days of video games, a game programmer took on the job of a designer and artist; this was because the abilities of early computers were so limited that having specialized personnel for each function was unnecessary. Game concepts were light and games were only meant to be played for a few minutes at a time, but more art content and variations in gameplay were constrained by computers' limited power; as specialized arcade hardware and home systems became more powerful, game developers could develop deeper storylines and could include such features as high-resolution and full color graphics, advanced artificial intelligence and digital sound.
Technology has advanced to such a great degree that contemporary games boast 3D graphics and full motion video using assets developed by professional graphic artists. Nowadays, the derogatory term "programmer art" has come to imply the kind of bright colors and blocky design that were typical of early video games; the desire for adding more depth and assets to games necessitated a division of labor. Art production was relegated to full-time artists. Next game programming became a separate discipline from game design. Now, only some games, such as the puzzle game Bejeweled, are simple enough to require just one full-time programmer. Despite this division, most game developers have some say in the final design of contemporary games. A contemporary video game may include advanced physics, artificial intelligence, 3D graphics, digitised sound, an original musical score, complex strategy and may use several input devices and may be playable against other people via the Internet or over a LAN; each aspect of the game can consume all of one programmer's time and, in many cases, several programmers.
Some programmers may specialize in one area of game programming, but many are familiar with several aspects. The number of programmers needed for each feature depends somewhat on programmers' skills, but are dictated by the type of game being developed. Game engine programmers create the base engine of the game, including the simulated physics and graphics disciplines. Video games use existing game engines, either commercial, open source or free, they are customized for a particular game, these programmers handle these modifications. A game's physics programmer is dedicated to developing the physics. A game will only simulate a few aspects of real-world physics. For example, a space game may need simulated gravity, but would not have any need for simulating water viscosity. Since processing cycles are always at a premium, physics programmers may employ "shortcuts" that are computationally inexpensive, but look and act "good enough" for the game in question. In other cases, unrealistic physics are employed to allow easier gameplay or for dramatic effect.
Sometimes, a specific subset of situations is specified and the physical outcome of such situations are stored in a record of some sort and are never computed at runtime at all. Some physics programmers may delve into the difficult tasks of inverse kinematics and other motions attributed to game characters, but these motions are assigned via motion capture libraries so as not to overload the CPU with complex calculations. For a role-playing game such as World of Warcraft, only one physics programmer may be needed. For a complex combat game such as Battlefield 1942, teams of several physics programmers may be required; this title belonged to a programmer who developed specialized blitter algorithms and clever optimizations for 2D graphics. Today, however, it is exclusively applied to programmers who specialize in developing and modifying complex 3D graphic renderers; some 2D graphics skills have just become useful again, for developing games for the new generation of cell phones and handheld game consoles.
A 3D graphics programmer must have a firm grasp of advanced mathematical concepts such as vector and matrix math and linear algebra. Skilled programmers specializing in this area of game development can demand high wages and are a scarce commodity, their skills can be used for video games on any platform. An AI programmer develops the logic of time to simulate intelligence in opponents, it has evolved into a specialized discipline, as these tasks used to be implemented by programmers who specialized in other areas. An AI programmer may program pathfinding and enemy tactic systems; this is one of the most challenging aspects of game programming and its sophistication is developing rapidly. Contemporary games dedicate 10 to 20 percent of their programming staff to AI; some games, such as strategy games like Civilization III or role-playing video games such as The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, use AI while others, such as puzzle games, use it sparingly or not at all. Many game developers have created entire languages that can be used to program their own AI for games via scripts.
These languages are less technical than the language used to implement the game, will be used by the game or level designers to implement the world of the game. Many studios make their games' scripting available to players
The Commodore 64 known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International. It has been listed in the Guinness World Records as the highest-selling single computer model of all time, with independent estimates placing the number sold between 10 and 17 million units. Volume production started in early 1982, marketing in August for US$595. Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes of RAM. With support for multicolor sprites and a custom chip for waveform generation, the C64 could create superior visuals and audio compared to systems without such custom hardware; the C64 dominated the low-end computer market for most of the 1980s. For a substantial period, the C64 had between 30% and 40% share of the US market and two million units sold per year, outselling IBM PC compatibles, Apple computers, the Atari 8-bit family of computers. Sam Tramiel, a Atari president and the son of Commodore's founder, said in a 1989 interview, "When I was at Commodore we were building 400,000 C64s a month for a couple of years."
In the UK market, the C64 faced competition from the BBC Micro and the ZX Spectrum, but the C64 was still one of the two most popular computers in the UK. Part of the Commodore 64's success was its sale in regular retail stores instead of only electronics or computer hobbyist specialty stores. Commodore produced many of its parts in-house to control costs, including custom integrated circuit chips from MOS Technology, it has been compared to the Ford Model T automobile for its role in bringing a new technology to middle-class households via creative and affordable mass-production. 10,000 commercial software titles have been made for the Commodore 64 including development tools, office productivity applications, video games. C64 emulators allow anyone with a modern computer, or a compatible video game console, to run these programs today; the C64 is credited with popularizing the computer demoscene and is still used today by some computer hobbyists. In 2011, 17 years after it was taken off the market, research showed that brand recognition for the model was still at 87%.
In January 1981, MOS Technology, Inc. Commodore's integrated circuit design subsidiary, initiated a project to design the graphic and audio chips for a next generation video game console. Design work for the chips, named MOS Technology VIC-II and MOS Technology SID, was completed in November 1981. Commodore began a game console project that would use the new chips—called the Ultimax or the Commodore MAX Machine, engineered by Yash Terakura from Commodore Japan; this project was cancelled after just a few machines were manufactured for the Japanese market. At the same time, Robert "Bob" Russell and Robert "Bob" Yannes were critical of the current product line-up at Commodore, a continuation of the Commodore PET line aimed at business users. With the support of Al Charpentier and Charles Winterble, they proposed to Commodore CEO Jack Tramiel a true low-cost sequel to the VIC-20. Tramiel dictated. Although 64-Kbit dynamic random-access memory chips cost over US$100 at the time, he knew that DRAM prices were falling, would drop to an acceptable level before full production was reached.
The team was able to design the computer because, unlike most other home-computer companies, Commodore had its own semiconductor fab to produce test chips. The chips were complete by November, by which time Charpentier and Tramiel had decided to proceed with the new computer; the product was code named the VIC-40 as the successor to the popular VIC-20. The team that constructed it consisted of Yash Terakura, Shiraz Shivji, Bob Russell, Bob Yannes and David A. Ziembicki; the design and some sample software were finished in time for the show, after the team had worked tirelessly over both Thanksgiving and Christmas weekends. The machine used the same case, same-sized motherboard, same Commodore BASIC 2.0 in ROM as the VIC-20. BASIC served as the user interface shell and was available on startup at the READY prompt; when the product was to be presented, the VIC-40 product was renamed C64. The C64 made an impressive debut at the January 1982 Consumer Electronics Show, as recalled by Production Engineer David A. Ziembicki: "All we saw at our booth were Atari people with their mouths dropping open, saying,'How can you do that for $595?'"
The answer was vertical integration. Commodore had a reputation for announcing products that never appeared, so sought to ship the C64. Production began in spring 1982 and volume shipments began in August; the C64 faced a wide range of competing home computers, but with a lower price and more flexible hardware, it outsold many of its competitors. In the United States the greatest competitors were the Atari 8-bit 400, the Atari 800, the Apple II; the Atari 400 and 800 had been designed to accommodate stringent FCC emissions requirements and so were expensive to
The ColecoVision is Coleco Industries' second-generation home video-game console, released in August 1982. The ColecoVision offered a closer experience to more powerful arcade game systems compared to competitors such as the Atari 2600, along with the means to expand the system's basic hardware; the initial catalog of twelve games included Nintendo's Donkey Kong as the pack-in cartridge, Sega's graphically impressive Zaxxon, some lesser known arcade titles that found a larger audience on the console, such as Lady Bug, Cosmic Avenger, Venture. 145 titles in total were published as ROM cartridges for the system between 1982 and 1984. The ColecoVision was discontinued in 1985. By Christmas of 1982, Coleco had sold more than 500,000 units, in part on the strength of its bundled game; the ColecoVision's main competitor was the less commercially successful Atari 5200, based on the older Atari 400/800 computer. The ColecoVision was distributed by CBS Electronics outside of North America, was branded the CBS ColecoVision.
In Europe the console was released in July 1983, nearly one year after the North American release. Sales passed 1 million in early 1983, before the video game crash of 1983. By the beginning of 1984, quarterly sales of the ColecoVision had decreased. Over the next 18 months, the Coleco company ramped down its video game division withdrawing from the video game market by the end of the summer of 1985; the ColecoVision was discontinued by October 1985. Total sales of the ColecoVision are uncertain but were in excess of 2 million units, due to the console continuing to sell modestly up until its discontinuation the following year; the video game crash of 1983 has been cited as the main cause of the ColecoVision's being discontinued less than three years after its launch. In 1983 Spectravideo announced the SV-603 ColecoVision Video Game Adapter for its SV-318 computer; the company stated that the $70 product allowed users to "enjoy the entire library of exciting ColecoVision video-game cartridges".
The main console unit consists of a 14×8×2-inch rectangular plastic case that houses the motherboard, with a cartridge slot on the right side and connectors for the external power supply and RF jack at the rear. The controllers connect into plugs in a recessed area on the top of the unit; the design of the controllers is similar to that of Mattel's Intellivision—the controller is rectangular and consists of a numeric keypad and a set of side buttons. In place of the circular control disc below the keypad, the Coleco controller has a short, 1.5-inch joystick. The keypad is designed to accept a thin plastic overlay; each ColecoVision console shipped with two controllers. All first-party cartridges and most third-party software titles feature a 12-second pause before presenting the game select screen; this delay results from an intentional loop in the console's BIOS to enable on-screen display of the ColecoVision brand. Companies like Parker Brothers and Micro Fun bypassed this loop, which necessitated embedding portions of the BIOS outside the delay loop, further reducing storage available to actual game programming.
CPU: NEC version of Zilog Z80A @ 3.58 MHz Video processor: Texas Instruments TMS9928A 256×192 pixel resolution 32 sprites on-screen at once, max 4 per horizontal line 15 colors + transparent Sound: Texas Instruments SN76489A PSG 3 tone generators 1 noise generator Video RAM: 16 KB RAM: 1 KB ROM: 8 KB Texas Instruments TMS4764 Mask ROM Storage: ROM Cartridge of 8, 16, 24 or 32 KB capacity. From its introduction, Coleco touted the ColecoVision's hardware expandability by highlighting the Expansion Module Interface on the front of the unit; these hardware expansion modules and accessories were sold separately. Expansion Module #1 makes the ColecoVision compatible with the industry-leading Atari 2600, with some exceptions. Functionally, this gave the ColecoVision the largest software library of any console of its day; the expansion module prompted legal action from Atari. Coleco and Atari settled out of court with Coleco becoming licensed under Atari's patents; the royalty based license applied to Coleco's Gemini game system, a clone of the 2600, but with combined joystick/paddle controllers.
Expansion Module # 2 is a driving controller. The gas pedal is a simple on/off switch, so many gamers used the second ColecoVision controller as a gear shift for more precise speed control. Although Coleco called the driving controller an expansion module, it plugs into the controller port, not the Expansion Module Interface; the driving controller is compatible with the games Destructor, Bump'n' Jump and The Dukes of Hazzard. Expansion Module #3 converts the ColecoVision into a full-fledged computer known as the Adam, complete with keyboard, digital data pack cassette drives and printer; the Roller Controller is a trackball that came packaged with a conversion of the arcade game Slither, a Centipede clone. The roller controller uses a special power connector, not compatible with Expansion Module #3. Coleco mailed an adapter to owners of both units; the other cartridge programmed to use the roller controller is Victory. A joystick mode switch on the roller controller allows it to be used with al
Galaga, pronounced, is a Japanese arcade game developed and published by Namco Japan and by Midway in North America in 1981. It is the sequel to 1979's Galaxian; the gameplay of Galaga puts the player in control of a spacecraft, situated at the bottom of the screen, with enemy aliens arriving in formation at the beginning of a stage, either trying to destroy, collide with, or capture the spaceship, with the player progressing every time alien forces are vanquished. Galaga is one of the most commercially successful games from the golden age of arcade video games; the arcade version of it has been ported to many consoles, it has had several sequels. In 2011, the game celebrated its 30th anniversary with the release of Galaga 30th Collection for iOS; the objective of Galaga is to score as many points as possible by destroying insect-like enemies. The player controls a starfighter that can move right along the bottom of the playfield. Enemies swarm in groups in a formation near the top of the screen, begin flying down toward the player, firing bullets at and attempting to crash into them.
In stages, some enemies break from an entering group in a frantic attempt to crash into the player. The game ends when the player's last fighter is lost by colliding with an enemy, being hit by an enemy shot, or being captured. Galaga introduces new features from Galaxian. Among these are the ability for two player shots to exist on-screen at once rather than one, a "hit/miss ratio" statistic at the end of the game, a bonus "Challenging Stage" that occurs at Stage 3 and every fourth stage thereafter, in which a series of 40 enemies fly onto and off the screen, 8 at a time, moving in set patterns without firing at the player's ship or trying to crash into it; when you destroy a group of enemies, you are awarded 1K-3K pts. These stages award a 10K-point bonus if the player manages to destroy every enemy, but otherwise 100 bonus points for every enemy destroyed. Another feature in the game is for enemies to randomly transform and organize into a certain formation, which awards the player bonus points if they manage to destroy all three, from levels 4 on, repeating every 256 levels.
Another gameplay feature new to Galaga is the ability for enemies to capture the player's fighter. While the player is in control of just one fighter, a "boss" Galaga will periodically attempt to capture the fighter using a tractor beam. If successful, the fighter joins the enemy formation as a satellite to the boss Galaga which captured it; the captive fighter becomes an enemy, turns red, it can be shot and destroyed, awarding the player 1K points on its destruction. The player can still fire while being captured up to the point their ship "touches" the captor, which could be considered an opportunity to shoot the captor down before it can manage to capture the player. Captive fighters can be freed by destroying the boss Galaga towing it; the freed fighter will combine with the player's fighter who freed them and form a Dual Fighter, offering doubled firepower but with the disadvantage of a target twice as large. If the player destroys the captor while it is still in formation, the captured fighter will not be rescued, will instead fly away after a diving run to appear in the next stage as a satellite for another boss Galaga where it can again be rescued.
A small section in the middle of the Dual Fighter is immune to enemy fire. The default setting for extra lives awards them at scores of 20K, 70K, every multiple of 70K, though other settings can be used. However, no matter the settings, after turning over at 1,000,000 points, no more extra lives are awarded. Additionally, the 2nd player may have up to 8-digit scores; the high score display, maxes out at six digits. Galaga has an exploitable bug that can cause the attackers to randomly stop firing shots at the player. In addition, similar to the Split-Screen Level in Pac-Man, a bug exists in Galaga in which the game "rolls over" from Stage 255 to Stage 0. Depending on the difficulty setting of the machine, this can cause the game to stall, requiring that the machine be reset or power-cycled in order to start a new game. Galaga contains a bug that allows the player to control the spacecraft during the game's attract mode; the original arcade version of Galaga has been ported to: Atari 7800 Famicom Disk System MSX Famicom/NES SG-1000 casio pv2000 Gaplus Galaga'88 Galaga'90 Galaxian³ Attack of the Zolgear Galaga Legions Galaga Special Edition Galaga Legions DX Galaga 3D Impact Galaga: TEKKEN Edition Galaga Assault Galaga Wars Galaga Revenge Virtual Console: Famicom/NES port released in North America on April 9, 2007 for the Wii, on March 13, 2014 for the Nintendo 3DS and on August 15, 2013 for the Wii U.
Xbox Live Arcade—released July 26, 2006 iOS —released March 31, 2009 Nintendo 3DS: As part of the retail title Pac-Man & Galaga Dimensions.
The Game Boy is an 8-bit handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The first handheld in the Game Boy line, it was first released on April 21, 1989 in Japan, followed by North America three months and in Europe nearly a year after. Designed by the same team that developed the Game & Watch and several Nintendo Entertainment System games, it was created and published by Satoru Okada, Gunpei Yokoi, Nintendo Research & Development 1. Nintendo's second handheld game console, the Game Boy combined features from both the NES and the Game & Watch; the console features a dot-matrix screen, five control buttons, a 2 voice speaker, like its rivals, uses cartridges as physical media. At launch, it was sold either as a standalone unit, or bundled with the one of several games, including Super Mario Land and Tetris. Several accessories were developed for the Game Boy, including a carrying pouch and the Game Boy Printer. Despite being technically inferior to its competitors, the Game Boy received praise for its battery life and durability, outsold the competition, selling one million units in the United States within a few weeks.
Together with its successor, the Game Boy Color, the handheld has sold an estimated 118 million units worldwide. It is one of the most recognizable devices from the 1980s, becoming a cultural icon in the years following its release. Several redesigns were released during the console's lifetime, including the Game Boy Pocket and the Game Boy Light. Production of the Game Boy continued into the early 2000s, until it was discontinued following the release of its successor, the Game Boy Advance, in 2001; the original internal codename for the Game Boy was "Dot Matrix Game", these initials came to be featured on the final product's model number, "DMG-01". The internal reception of the device was very poor; the Game Boy has four operation buttons labeled "A", "B", "SELECT", "START", as well as a directional pad. There is a volume control dial on the right side of the device and a similar dial on the left side to adjust the contrast. At the top of the Game Boy, a sliding on-off switch and the slot for the Game Boy cartridges are located.
The on-off switch includes a physical lockout to prevent users from either inserting or removing a cartridge while the unit is switched on. Nintendo recommends users leave a cartridge in the slot to prevent dust and dirt from entering the system; the Game Boy contains optional input and/or output connectors. On the left side of the system is an external 3.5 mm × 1.35 mm DC power supply jack that allows users to use an external rechargeable battery pack or AC adapter instead of four AA batteries. The Game Boy requires 6 V DC of at least 150 mA. A 3.5 mm stereo headphone jack is located on the bottom side of the unit which allows users to listen to the audio with the bundled headphones or external speakers. The right-side of the device offers a port which allows a user to connect to another Game Boy system via a link cable, provided both users are playing the same game; the port can be used to connect a Game Boy Printer. The link cable was designed for players to play head-to-head two-player games such as in Tetris.
However, game developer Satoshi Tajiri would use the link cable technology as a method of communication and networking in the popular Pokémon video game series. CPU: Custom 8-bit Sharp LR35902 at 4.19 MHz. This processor is similar to an Intel 8080 in that none of the registers introduced in the Z80 are present. However, some of the Z80's instruction set enhancements over the 8080 bit manipulation, are present. Still other instructions are unique to this particular flavor of 8080/Z80 CPU. Parity flag, half of conditional and all input-output instructions were removed from 8080 instruction set also; the IC contains integrated sound generation. RAM: 8 kiB internal S-RAM Video RAM: 8 kiB internal ROM: On-CPU-Die 256-byte bootstrap; the unit only has one speaker. Display: Reflective STN LCD 160 × 144 pixels Frame rate: Approximately 59.7 frames per second Vertical blank duration: Approx 1.1 ms Screen size: 66 mm diagonal Color palette: 2-bit Communication: 2 Game Boys can be linked together via built-in serial ports, up to 4 with a DMG-07 4-player adapter.
And 16 in maximum. Power: 6 V, 0.7 W Dimensions: 90 mm × 148 mm × 32 mm / 3.5″ × 5.8″ × 1.3″ Weight: 220 g On March 20, 1995, Nintendo released several Game Boy models with colored cases, advertising them in the "Play It Loud!" campaign, known in Japan as Game Boy Bros. Specifications for this unit remain the same as the original Game Boy, including the monochromatic screen; this new line of colored Game Boys would set a precedent for Nintendo handhelds. Play It Loud! units were manufactured in red, black, white and clear or sometimes called X-Ray in the UK. Most common are the yellow, red and black, Green is scarce but blue and white are the rarest. Blue was a Europe and Japan only release, White was a Japanese majority release with UK Toys R Us s
Atari, Inc. was an American video game developer and home computer company founded in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney. Responsible for the formation of the video arcade and modern video game industries, the company was closed and its assets split in 1984 as a direct result of the American video game crash of 1983. In 1966, Nolan Bushnell saw Spacewar! for the first time at the University of Utah. By 1968, Bushnell had become an employee of Ampex in San Francisco, worked alongside Ted Dabney; the two found they had shared interests, including the game Go, Bushnell shared with Dabney his gaming-pizza parlor idea, had taken him to the computer lab at Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory to see the games on those systems. They jointly developed the concept of using a standalone computer system with a monitor and attaching a coin slot to it to play games on. Bushnell and Dabney worked with Nutting Associates to manufacture their product. Dabney developed a method of using video circuitry components to mimic functions of a computer for a much cheaper cost and a smaller space.
Bushnell and Dabney used this to develop a variation on Spacewar! called Computer Space where the player shot at two orbiting UFOs. Nutting helped to manufacture the fiberglass cabinet. While they were developing this, they took on duties under Nutting to repair pinball machines. Computer Space did not fare well commercially when it was placed in Nutting's customary market, bars. Feeling that the game was too complex for the average customer unfamiliar and unsure with the new technology, Bushnell started looking for new ideas, they decided to start a separate venture called the Syzygy Game Company, each putting in US$250 of their own funds to support it. They subsequently made sure that Nutting used "Syzygy Engineering" labels on each Computer Space game sold to reflect their work in the game. Bushnell began seeking other partners outside of Nutting, approached pinball game manufacturer Bally Manufacturing, who indicated interest in funding future efforts in arcade games by Bushnell and Dabney if Nutting was not involved.
The two quit established offices for Syzygy in Sunnyvale. Bally offered them a US$4,000 a month for six months to design a new video game and a new pinball machine. With those funds, they hired Al Alcorn as their first design engineer. Wanting to start Syzygy off with a driving game, Bushnell had concerns that it might be too complicated for the young Alcorn's first game. In May 1972, Bushnell had seen a demonstration of the Magnavox Odyssey, which included a tennis game. According to Alcorn, Bushnell decided to have him produce an arcade version of the Odyssey's Tennis game, which would go on to be named Pong. Bushnell had Alcorn use Dabney's video circuit concepts to help develop the game, believing it would be a first prototype, but Alcorn's success impressed both Bushnell and Dabney, leading them to believe they had a major success on hand and prepared to offer the game to Bally as part of the contract. In anticipation and Dabney went to incorporate the firm, but found that Syzygy existed in California.
Bushnell wrote down several words from Go choosing atari, a term that in the context of the game means a state where a stone or group of stones is imminently in danger of being taken by one's opponent. Atari was incorporated in the state of California on June 27, 1972. Bushnell and Dabney offered to license Pong to Bally, but the company had no idea what to do with the game, did not take the license. Instead and Dabney opted to create a test unit themselves and see how it was received at a local establishment. By August 1972, the first Pong was completed, it consisted of a black and white television from Walgreens, the special game hardware, a coin mechanism from a laundromat on the side which featured a milk carton inside to catch coins. It was placed in a Sunnyvale tavern by the name of Andy Capp's to test its viability; the Andy Capp test was successful, so the company created twelve more test units, ten which were distributed across other local bars. They found, they reported these numbers to Bally.
Bushnell and Dabney realized that they needed to expand on the game but formally needed to get out of their contract with Bally. Bushnell told Bally that they could offer to make another game for them, but only if they rejected Pong. After talks to release Pong through Nutting and several other companies broke down and Dabney decided to release Pong on their own, Atari, Inc. was established as a coin-op design and production company. Around 1973, Dabney felt. In March 1973, Dabney formally left Atari, selling his portion of the company for US$250,000. While Dabney would continue to work for Bushnell on other ventures, including Bushnell's Pizza Time Theater, the predecessor to Chuck E. Cheese's, he had a falling out with Bushnell and left the video game industry. Dabney's contributions towards Atari's founding generally