In Jainism, a tīrtha is used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha. A tirtha provides the inspiration to enable one to cross over from worldly engagement to the side of moksha. Jain tirthas are located throughout India. A tirtha has a number of temples as well as residences for the pilgrims and wandering monks and scholars. Tirtha sites include: Siddhakshetras or site of moksha liberation of an arihant or Tirthankaras like Ashtapada Hill, Girnar, Palitana, Mangi-Tungi and Champapuri Atishayakshetras where divine events have occurred like Mahavirji, Kundalpur, Aharji etc. Puranakshetras associated with lives of great men like Ayodhya, Vidisha and Rajgir Gyanakshetra: associated with famous acharyas or centers of learning like Mohankheda and Ladnu Geographically, the tirthas are divided into six quarters: North India: Hastinapur and Ashtapada South India: Shravanabelagola, Moodabidri, Anantnath Swami Temple, Gummileru Eastern India: Shikharji, Champapuri, Pundravardhana Western India: Palitana, Mount Abu, Shankheshwar, Mahudi Central India: Vidisha, Sonagiri, Muktagiri Overseas: Siddhachalam, Nava Ashtapada, Siddhayatan Jain temple Vividha Tirtha Kalpa Tirtha jainuniversity.org, Jain Tirtha all over India http://www.jainteerth.com http://tirth.jinvani.com http://www.jainpilgrimages.com http://www.jaintirths.com http://www.siddhayatan.org First Hindu-Jain Tirth in North America http://www.jainheritagecentres.com Shri Nageshwar Parshwanath Jain Tirth Darshan on jainreligion.in
Agamas are texts of Jainism based on the discourses of the tirthankara. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas; the discourse is recorded by Ganadharas, is composed of twelve angas. It is represented by a tree with twelve branches; this canons. These are believed to have originated from the first tirthankara; the earliest versions of Jain Agamas known were composed in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit. Agama is a Sanskrit word which signifies the'coming' of a body of doctrine by means of transmission through a lineage of authoritative teachers. Gautamasvami is said to have compiled the most sacred canonical scriptures comprising twelve parts referred to as eleven Angas and fourteen Pūrvas, since the twelfth Anga comprises the fourteen Pūrvas; these scriptures are said to have contained the most comprehensive and accurate description of every branch of learning that one needs to know. The knowledge contained in these scriptures was transmitted orally by the teachers to their disciple saints While some authors date the composition of Jain Agamas starting from the 6th century BCE, noted Indologist Hermann Jacobi holds that the composition of the Jaina siddhanta would fall somewhere about the end of the 4th or the beginning of the 3rd century BC.
The general consensus amongst western scholars, such as Ian Whicher and David Carpenter, is that the earliest portions of Jain siddhanta were composed around the 4th or 3rd century BCE. This may not be in agreement with Jain tradition according to which the agamic literature and the Purvas were passed from one heads of the order to his disciples for around 170 years after the nirvana of Mahavira. However, with time, it became difficult to keep the entire Jain literature committed to memory. In the 3rd century BCE, Chandragupta Maurya was the ruler of Magadha and Bhadrabahu, was the head of Jain community. Predicting a 12 year long famine, Bhadrabahu went south to Karnataka with his adherents and Sthulabhadra, another Jain monk remained behind. During this time the knowledge of the doctrine was getting lost. A council was formed at Pataliputra where eleven scriptures called Angas were compiled and the remnant of fourteen purvas were written down in 12th Anga, Ditthivaya by the adherents of Sthulbhadra.
Due to the twelve years of famine it was difficult for the Jain ascetics to preserve the entire canonical literature. The Purvas or the ancient texts were forgotten and lost after the famine. According to Svetambara tradition, the agamas were collected on the basis of collective memory of the ascetics in the first council of Pataliputra under the stewardship of Sthulibhadra in around to 463–367 BC. In 453 or 466 CE that the Vallabhi council of the Svetambara Jain monks recompiled the Agamas and recorded them as written manuscripts under the leadership of Acharya Shraman Devardhigani along with other 500 Jain scholars; the existing Svetambara texts are based on the Vallabhi council texts. Digambaras reject the authority of the Agamas compiled at Valabhi; the knowledge of Shruta-Jnana, may be of things which are contained in the Angas or of things outside the Angas. The Agamas were composed of the following forty-six texts: Twelve Angās Ācāranga sūtra Sūtrakrtanga Sthānānga Samavāyānga Vyākhyāprajñapti or Bhagavati sūtra Jnātrdhārmakathāh Upāsakadaśāh Antakrddaaśāh Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Praśnavyākaranani Vipākaśruta Drstivāda Six Chedasūtras Ācāradaśāh Brhatkalpa Vyavahāra Niśītha Mahāniśītha Jītakalpa Four Mūlasūtras Daśavaikālika Uttarādhyayana Āvaśyaka Pindaniryukyti Ten Prakīrnaka sūtras Catuhśarana Āturapratyākhyanā Bhaktaparijñā Samstāraka Tandulavaicarika Candravedhyāka Devendrastava Ganividyā Mahāpratyākhyanā Vīrastava Two Cūlikasūtras Nandī-sūtra Anuyogadvāra-sūtra The Jain literature includes both religious texts and books on secular topics such as sciences and grammar.
The Jains have used several languages in different regions of India. The earliest versions of Jain Agamas known were written in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit language. PrakritPrakrit literature includes the Aagams, Aagam-tulya texts, Siddhanta texts; the dialect used to compose many of these texts is referred to as Jain Prakrit. Composition in Prakrits ceased around the 10th century AD. For Jains, their scriptures represent the literal words of Mahāvīra and the other fordmakers only to the extent that the Agama is a series of beginning-less and fixed truths, a tradition without any origin, human or divine, which in this world age has been channelled through Sudharma, the last of Mahavira's disciples to survive. Jain Agamas Puruşārthasiddhyupāya List of Jain texts Silappatikaram Cort, John E. ed. Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-3785-X Cort, John E. Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1 Dundas, The Jains and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X Jain, Champat Rai, Risabha Deva - The Founder of Jainism, Allahabad: The Indian Press Limited, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain.
Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Umasvami's Tattvarthsutra, Uttarakhand: Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-2-1, This articl
Holi is a popular ancient Hindu festival, originating from the Indian subcontinent. It is celebrated predominantly in India and Nepal, but has spread to other areas of Asia and parts of the Western world through the diaspora from the Indian subcontinent. Holi is popularly known as the Indian "festival of spring", the "festival of colours", or the "festival of love"; the festival signifies the arrival of spring, the end of winter, the blossoming of love, for many a festive day to meet others and laugh, forget and forgive, repair broken relationships. The festival celebrates the beginning of a good spring harvest season, it lasts for a night and a day, starting on the evening of the Purnima falling in the Vikram Samvat Calendar, a Hindu calendar month of Phalgun, which falls around middle of March in the Gregorian calendar. The first evening is known as Holika Dahan or Chhoti Holi and the following day as Holi, Rangwali Holi, Dhulandi, or Phagwah. Holi is an ancient Hindu religious festival which has become popular with non-Hindus as well in many parts of South Asia, as well as people of other communities outside Asia.
In Mughal India, Holi was celebrated with such exuberance that commoners of all castes could throw colour on the Emperor. In addition to India and Nepal, the festival is celebrated by Indian subcontinent diaspora in countries such as Jamaica, Guyana and Tobago, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Fiji. In recent years the festival has spread to parts of Europe and North America as a spring celebration of love and colours. Holi celebrations start on the night before Holi with a Holika Dahan where people gather, perform religious rituals in front of the bonfire, pray that their internal evil be destroyed the way Holika, the sister of the demon king Hiranyakashipu, was killed in the fire; the next morning is celebrated as Rangwali Holi – a free-for-all festival of colours, where people smear each other with colours and drench each other. Water guns and water-filled balloons are used to play and colour each other. Anyone and everyone is fair game, friend or stranger, rich or poor, man or woman and elders.
The frolic and fight with colours occurs in the open streets, open parks, outside temples and buildings. Groups carry drums and other musical instruments, go from place to place and dance. People visit family and foes to throw coloured powders on each other and gossip share Holi delicacies and drinks; some customary drinks include bhang, intoxicating. In the evening, after sobering up, people visit friends and family. There is a symbolic legend to explain why Holi is celebrated as a festival of triumph of good over evil in the honour of Hindu god Vishnu and his follower Prahlada. King Hiranyakashipu, according to a legend found in chapter 7 of Bhagavata Purana, was the king of demonic Asuras, had earned a boon that gave him five special powers: he could be killed by neither a human being nor an animal, neither indoors nor outdoors, neither at day nor at night, neither by astra nor by any shastra, neither on land nor in water or air. Hiranyakashipu grew arrogant, thought he was God, demanded that everyone worship only him.
Hiranyakashipu's own son, however, disagreed. He remained devoted to Vishnu; this infuriated Hiranyakashipu. He subjected Prahlada to cruel punishments, none of which affected the boy or his resolve to do what he thought was right. Holika, Prahlada's evil aunt, tricked him into sitting on a pyre with her. Holika was wearing a cloak; as the fire roared, the cloak flew from Holika and encased Prahlada, who survived while Holika burned. Vishnu, the god who appears as an avatar to restore Dharma in Hindu beliefs, took the form of Narasimha - half human and half lion, at dusk, took Hiranyakashyapu at a doorstep, placed him on his lap, eviscerated and killed the king with his lion claws; the Holika bonfire and Holi signifies the celebration of the symbolic victory of good over evil, of Prahlada over Hiranyakashipu, of the fire that burned Holika. In the Braj region of India, where the Hindu deity Krishna grew up, the festival is celebrated until Rang Panchmi in commemoration of the divine love of Radha for Krishna.
The festivities usher in spring, with Holi celebrated as a festival of love. There is a symbolic myth behind commemorating Krishna as well; as a baby, Krishna developed his characteristic dark skin colour because the she-demon Putana poisoned him with her breast milk. In his youth, Krishna despaired whether the fair-skinned Radha would like him because of his dark skin colour, his mother, tired of his desperation, asks him to approach Radha and ask her to colour his face in any colour she wanted. This she did, Radha and Krishna became a couple. Since, the playful colouring of Radha and Krishna's face has been commemorated as Holi. Beyond India, these legends help to explain the significance of Holi are common in some Caribbean and South American communities of Indian origin such as Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago, it is celebrated with great fervour in Mauritius. Among other Hindu traditions such as Shaivism and Shaktism, the legendary significance of Holi is linked to Shiva in yoga and deep meditation, goddess Parvati wanting to bring back Shiva into the world, seeks help from the Hin
The Dilwara Temples are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu, Rajasthan's only hill station. These Jain temples were built by Vimal Shah and designed by Vastupala-Tejpal, Jain ministers of Dholka, between the 11th and 13th centuries AD and are famous for their use of marble and intricate marble carvings; the five marble temples of Dilwara are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains. Some consider them to be one of the most beautiful Jain pilgrimage sites in the world; the temples have an opulent entranceway, the simplicity in architecture reflecting Jain values like honesty and frugality. The temples are in the midst of a range of forested hills. A high wall shrouds the temple complex. Although Jains built some beautiful temples at other places in Rajasthan, Dilwara temples are believed to be the most beautiful example of architectural perfection; the ornamental detail spreading over the minutely carved ceilings, doorways and panels is marvellous. There are five temples in each with its own unique identity.
Each is named after the small village. These are: Vimal Vasahi, dedicated to Shri Rishabhadev. Luna Vasahi, dedicated to the 22nd Jain Tirthankara, Shri Neminatha. Pittalhar, dedicated to the first Jain Tirthankar, Shri Rishabhadev. Parshvanath, dedicated to the 23rd Jain Tirthankara, Shri Parshvanatha. Mahavir Swami, dedicated to the last Jain Tirthankara, Shri Mahaviraswami. Among all the five legendary marble temples of Dilwara, the most famous of those are the Vimal Vasahi and the Luna Vasahi temples; this temple carved out of white marble was built in 1031 A. D. by Vimal Shah, a minister of Bhima I, the Chaulukya king of Gujarat. The temple is dedicated to Lord Rishabha; the temple stands in an open courtyard surrounded by a corridor, which has numerous cells containing smaller idols of the tirthankaras. The richly carved corridors, arches, and'mandaps' or porticoes of the temple are amazing; the ceilings feature engraved designs of lotus-buds, petals and scenes from Jain mythology. The Navchowki is a collection of nine rectangular ceilings, each containing beautiful carvings of different designs supported on ornate pillars.
The Gudh mandap is a simple hall once you step inside its decorated doorway. Installed here is the idol of Adi Nath or Lord Rishabdev, as he is known; the mandap is meant for Aarti to the deity. The Hastishala was constructed by Prithvipal, a descendant of Vimalsha in 1147-49 and features a row of elephants in sculpture with the members of the family riding them; the Luna Vasahi temple is dedicated to Lord Neminath. This magnificent temple was built in 1230 by two Porwad brothers - Vastupal and Tejpal - both ministers of a Virdhaval, the Vaghela ruler of Gujarat; the temple built in memory of their late brother Luna was designed after the Vimal Vashi temple. The main hall or Rang mandap features a central dome from which hangs a big ornamental pendent featuring elaborate carving. Arranged in a circular band are 72 figures of Tirthankars in sitting posture and just below this band are 360 small figures of Jain monks in another circular band; the Hathishala or elephant cell features 10 beautiful marble elephants neatly polished and realistically modelled.
The Navchowki features some of the most magnificent and delicate marble stone cutting work of the temple. Each of the nine ceilings here seems to exceed the others in grace; the Gudh mandap features a black marble idol of the 22nd tirthankar Neminatha. The Kirthi Stambha is a big black stone pillar; the pillar was constructed by Maharana Kumbha of Mewar. The remaining three temples of Dilwara are smaller but just as elegant as the other two; this temple was built by a minister of Sultan Begada of Ahmedabad. A massive metal statue of the first tirthankara, Rishabha Dev, cast in five metals, is installed in the temple; the main metal used in this statue is'Pital', hence the name'Pittalhar'. The Shrine consists of a main Gudh mandap and Navchowki, it seems that the construction of the corridor was left unfinished. The old mutilated idol was replaced and installed in 1468-69 AD weighing 108 maunds according to the inscription on it; the image was cast by an artist'Deta', 8 ft. high, 5.5 ft. broad and the figure is 41 inches in height.
In Gudh Mandap on one side, a big marble Panch-Tirthi sculpture of Adinath is installed. Some shrines were constructed in 1490, before construction was abandoned; this temple, dedicated to Lord Parshvanath, was built by Mandlik and his family in 1458-59. It consists of the tallest of all the shrines at Dilwara. On all the four faces of the sanctum on the ground floor are four big mandaps; the outer walls of the sanctum comprise beautiful sculptures in gray sandstone, depicting Dikpals, Yakshinis and other decorative sculptures comparable to the ones in Khajuraho and Konark. This is a small structure dedicated to Lord Mahavira. Being small it is a marvelous temple with carvings on its walls. On the upper walls of the porch there are pictures painted in 1764 by the artists of Sirohi; the temples have undergone repairs time to time. Allauddin Khilji had attacked and damaged the temples in 1311. In 1321, Bijag and Lalag of Mandore had undertaken repairs. In 1906, Lallubhai Jaichand of Patan had the temples repaired and reconsecrated on April 25, 1906, under the supervision of Yati Hemasagar.
Extensive repairs were again undertaken during 1950-1965 by Anandji Kalyanji with the work done by the Sompura firm Amritlal Mulshankar Trivedi. The older marble has a yellow patina, where as
Shree Shantinatha was the sixteenth Jain tirthankar of the present age. Shree Shantinatha was born to Queen Achira at Hastinapur in the Ikshvaku dynasty, his birth date is the thirteenth day of the Jyest Krishna month of the Indian calendar. He was a Chakravartin and a Kamadeva, he ascended to throne. At the age of 50 years, he started his penance. According to Jain beliefs, he became a siddha, a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its karma. Shantinatha was born to King Visvasen and Queen Achira at Hastinapur in the Ikshvaku dynasty on thirteenth day of the Jyest Krishna month of the Indian calendar. During his time epidemic of epilepsy broke out and he helped people to control it giving him name of Shantinath. Shanitnath was the fifth Chakravartin and ruled for 25 years after which he decided to spend his life as ascetic. After one year of ascetism on the 9th bright day of month of Pausha, he achieved omniscience under a nandi tree; the yaksha and yakshi of Shantinatha are Kimpurusha and Mahamanasi according to Digambara tradition and Garuda and Nirvani according to Śvētāmbara tradition.
His death is traditionally called by Jains as separation of soul from cycles of rebirths. He died atop Shikharji on 13th day of the dark half of the month Jyestha, known contemporaneously as the Parasnath Hills in northern Jharkhand. King Srisena Yugalika in Uttar Kurukshetra Deva in Saudharma heaven Amitateja, prince of Arkakirti Heavenly deva in 10th heaven Pranat Aparajit Baldeva in East Mahavideha Heavenly Indra in 12th heaven Achyuta Vajrayudh Chakri, the son of Tirthankar Kshemanakar in East Mahvideha Heavenly deva in Navgraivayak heaven Megharath, the son of Dhanarath in East Mahavideh in the area where Simandhar Swami is moving at present Heavenly deva in Sarvartha Siddha Heaven The Shantinatha Charitra, by Acharya Ajitprabhasuri, this text has been declared as a global treasure by UNESCO. Shantipurana written in around 10th century by Sri Ponna. Shantinatha is depicted in a sitting or standing meditative posture with the symbol of a deer or antelope beneath him; every Tīrthankara has a distinguishing emblem that allows worshippers to distinguish similar-looking idols of the Tirthankaras.
The deer or antelope emblem of shantinath is carved below the legs of the Tirthankara. Like all Tirthankaras, Shantinath is depicted with downcast eyes. Shantinatha Temple, Khajuraho - a UNESCO World Heritage site Prachin Bada Mandir, Hastinapur - birthplace of Shantinatha Shantinath Temple, Deogarh Shantinatha Basadi, Jinanathapura Shantinath Jain Teerth Aharji Jain Teerth Shantinath Jain temple, Kothara Shantinath Jain Temple in Leicester - Jainism in the United Kingdom God in Jainism Arihant Jainism and non-creationism Johnson, Helen M. Shantinathacaritra, Baroda Oriental Institute Titze, Kurt. Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-violence. Motilal Banarsidass. Shah, Umakant Premanand. Jaina-Rupa Mandana: Jaina Iconography:, Volume 1. India: Shakti Malik Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-208-X. Tukol, T. K.. Compendium of Jainism. Dharwad: University of Karnataka. Shantinatha Purana. Shantinatha Charitra. Jain, Arun Kumar, Faith & Philosophy of Jainism, Gyan Publishing House, ISBN 9788178357232, retrieved 2017-10-08 Tandon, Om Prakash, Jaina Shrines in India, New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, ISBN 81-230-1013-3 Mittal, J.
P. History Of Ancient India From 4250 BC To 637 AD, 2, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, ISBN 9788126906161 Sangave, Vilas Adinath, Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society and Culture, Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, ISBN 978-81-7154-839-2 Jacobi, Max Muller, ed. Jaina Sutras, Motilal Banarsidass Cort, John E. Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1 Jain, Kailash Chand, Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8 Shah, Umakant Premanand, Jaina-rūpa-maṇḍana:, 1, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 9788170172086 Krishna, Sacred Animals of India, Penguin UK, ISBN 9788184751826 Dalal, The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths, Penguin Books India, ISBN 9780143415176 Britannica Tirthankar Definition, Encyclopædia Britannica Doniger, Wendy, ed. Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster, ISBN 0-87779-044-2 Moore, Albert C. Iconography of Religions: An Introduction, Chris Robertson, ISBN 9780800604882 Wilson, Tom.
Learning to Live Well Together: Case Studies in Interfaith Diversity. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 9781784504670. INTERNATIONAL MEMORY OF THE WORLD REGISTER - Shāntinātha Charitra, UNESCO Das, Sisir Kumar, A History of Indian Literature, 500-1399: From Courtly to the Popular, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 9788126021710
In Jainism, a tirthankara is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma. The word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha, a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths, the saṃsāra. According to Jains, a tirthankara is a rare individual who has conquered the saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, on their own, made a path for others to follow. After understanding the true nature of the Self or soul, the Tīrthaṅkara attains Kevala Jnana, the first Tirthankara refounds Jainism. Tirthankara provides a bridge for others to follow the new teacher from saṃsāra to moksha; the tirthankara Māllīnātha is believed to be a woman named Malli bai by Svetambara Jains while the Digambara sect believes all 24 tirthankara to be men including Māllīnātha. Digambara tradition believes a woman can reach to the 16th heaven and can attain liberation only being reborn as a man. In Jain cosmology, the wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī or ascending time cycle and avasarpiṇī, the descending time cycle.
In each half of the cosmic time cycle twenty-four tirthankaras grace this part of the universe. There have been an infinite number of tirthankaras in the past time periods; the first tirthankara in this present time cycle was Rishabhanatha, credited for formulating and organising humans to live in a society harmoniously. The 24th and last tirthankara of present half-cycle was Mahavira. History records the existence of Mahavira and his predecessor, the twenty-third tirthankara. A tirthankara organises the sangha, a fourfold order of male and female monastics, srāvakas and śrāvikās; the tirthankara's teachings form the basis for the Jain canons. The inner knowledge of tirthankara is believed to be perfect and identical in every respect and their teachings do not contradict one another. However, the degree of elaboration varies according to the spiritual advancement and purity of the society during their period of leadership; the higher the spiritual advancement and purity of mind of the society, the lower the elaboration required.
While tirthankaras are documented and revered by Jains, their grace is said to be available to all living beings, regardless of religious orientation. Tīrthaṅkaras are arihants. An Arihant is called Jina, one who has conquered inner enemies such as anger, attachment and greed, they dwell within the realm of their Soul, are free of kashayas, inner passions, personal desires. As a result of this, unlimited siddhis, or spiritual powers, are available to them – which they use for the spiritual elevation of living beings. Through darśana, divine vision, deshna, divine speech, they help others in attaining kevalajñana, moksha to anyone seeking it sincerely; the word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha which means a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths. Tirthankaras are variously called "Teaching Gods", "Ford-Makers", "Crossing Makers" and "Makers of the River-Crossing. Jain texts propound that a special type of karma, the tīrthaṅkara nama-karma, raises a soul to the supreme status of a Tīrthaṅkara.
Tattvartha Sutra, a major Jain text, list down sixteen observances which lead to the bandha of this karma: Purity of right faith Reverence Observance of vows and supplementary vows without transgressions Ceaseless pursuit of knowledge Perpetual fear of the cycle of existence Giving gifts Practising austerities according to one's capacity Removal of obstacles that threaten the equanimity of ascetics Serving the meritorious by warding off evil or suffering Devotion to omniscient lords, chief preceptors and the scriptures Practice of the six essential daily duties Propagation of the teachings of the omniscient Fervent affection for one's brethren following the same path. Five auspicious events called, Pañca kalyāṇaka marks the life of every tirthankara: Gārbha kalyāṇaka: When ātman of a tirthankara comes into his mother's womb. Janma kalyāṇaka: Birth of a tirthankara. Indra performs a ceremonial bath on tirthankara on Mount Meru. Tapa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara renounces all worldly possessions and become an ascetic.
Jñāna kalyāṇaka: The event when a tirthankara attains kevalajñāna. A samavasarana is erected from where he restores sangha after that. Nirvāṇa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara leaves his mortal body, it is known as nirvana, it is followed by moksha. Their souls dwells in Siddhashila after that. After attaining kevalajñāna, a tirthankara preaches the path to liberation in the samavasarana. According to Jain texts, the heavenly pavilion is erected by devas where devas and animals assemble to hear the tirthankara. A tirthankara's speech is heard by all animals in their own language, it is believed. Jainism postulates that time has no end, it moves like the wheel of a cart. The wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī and Avasarpiṇī. 24 tirthankaras are born in each half of this cycle. In Jain tradition the tirthankaras were royal in their final lives, Jain texts record details of their previous lives, their clan and families are among those recorded in early, or legendary, Hindu history. Jain canons state that Rishabhanatha, the fir
Anekāntavāda refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India. It states that reality is complex and has multiple aspects. Anekantavada has been interpreted to mean non-absolutism, "intellectual Ahimsa", religious pluralism, as well as a rejection of fanaticism that leads to terror attacks and mass violence; some scholars state that modern revisionism has attempted to reinterpret anekantavada with religious tolerance and pluralism. According to Jainism, no single, specific statement can describe the nature of existence and the absolute truth; this knowledge, is comprehended only by the Arihants. Other beings and their statements about absolute truth are incomplete, at best a partial truth. All knowledge claims, according to the anekāntavāda doctrine must be qualified in many ways, including being affirmed and denied. Anekāntavāda is a fundamental doctrine of Jainism; the origins of anekāntavāda can be traced back to the teachings of Mahāvīra, the 24th Jain Tīrthankara.
The dialectical concepts of syādvāda "conditioned viewpoints" and nayavāda "partial viewpoints" arose from anekāntavāda in the medieval era, providing Jainism with more detailed logical structure and expression. The details of the doctrine emerged in Jainism in the 1st millennium CE, from debates between scholars of Jain and Hindu schools of philosophies; the word anekāntavāda is a compound of two Sanskrit words: vāda. The word anekānta itself is composed of three root words, "an", "eka" and "anta", together it connotes "not one ended, sided", "many-sidedness", or "manifoldness"; the word vāda means "doctrine, speak, thesis". The term anekāntavāda is translated by scholars as the doctrine of "many-sidedness", "non-onesidedness", or "many pointedness"; the term anekāntavāda is not found in early texts considered canonical by Svetambara tradition of Jainism. However, traces of the doctrines are found in comments of Mahavira in these Svetambara texts, where he states that the finite and infinite depends on one's perspective.
The word anekantavada was coined by Acharya Siddhasen Divakar to significant the teaching of Mahavira that truth can be expressed in infinite ways. The earliest comprehensive teachings of anekāntavāda doctrine is found in the Tattvarthasutra by Acharya Umaswami, is considered to be authoritative by all Jain sects. In the Digambara tradition texts. The'two-truths theory' of Kundakunda provides the core of this doctrine; the Jain doctrine of anekāntavāda known as anekāntatva, states that truth and reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is naya, or "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth. From truth, according to Māhavira, language not the other way around. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it still remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete".
In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced. The anekāntavāda premises of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññaphala Sutta; the Jain āgamas suggest that Māhavira's approach to answering all metaphysical philosophical questions was a "qualified yes". These texts identify anekāntavāda doctrine to be one of the key differences between the teachings of the Māhavira and those of the Buddha; the Buddha taught the Middle Way, rejecting extremes of the answer "it is" or "it is not" to metaphysical questions. The Māhavira, in contrast, taught his followers to accept both "it is" and "it is not", with "perhaps" qualification and with reconciliation to understand the absolute reality. Syādvāda and Nayavāda of Jainism expand on the concept of anekāntavāda. Syādvāda recommends the expression of anekānta by prefixing the epithet syād to every phrase or expression describing the nature of existence.
The Jain doctrine of anekāntavāda, according to Bimal Matilal, states that "no philosophic or metaphysical proposition can be true if it is asserted without any condition or limitation". For a metaphysical proposition to be true, according to Jainism, it must include one or more conditions or limitations. Syādvāda is the theory of conditioned predication, the first part of, derived from the Sanskrit word syāt, the third person singular of the optative tense of the Sanskrit verb as,'to be', which becomes syād when followed by a vowel or a voiced consonant, in accordance with sandhi; the optative tense in Sanskrit has the same meaning as the present tense of the subjunctive mood in most Indo-European languages, including Hindi, Russian, etc. It is used; the subjunctive is commonly used in Hindi, for example, in'kya kahun?','what to say?'. The subjunctive is commonly used in conditional constructions. Syat can be translated into English as meaning "perchance, may be, perhaps"; the use of the verb'as' in