A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers' handles. Actors, voice-over artists and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to better channel a relevant energy, gain a greater sense of security and comfort via privacy, more avoid troublesome fans/"stalkers", or to mask their ethnic backgrounds.
In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin. A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene, Ellery Queen, Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A. Corey; the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον "false name", from ψεῦδος, "lie, falsehood" and ὄνομα, "name". A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s.
See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name. For example, in the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam. Some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames, in their families for generations; the politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud. Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post, "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth" and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or "nom de plume", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. The Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books. Anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell. Emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter O'Donnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
Hackers on Planet Earth
The Hackers on Planet Earth conference series is a hacker convention sponsored by the security hacker magazine 2600: The Hacker Quarterly, held at Hotel Pennsylvania, in Manhattan, New York City. Occurring biennially in the summer, there have been twelve conferences to date with the most recent occurring 20–23 July 2018. HOPE features talks, demonstrations and movie screenings. HOPE was inspired by the quadrennial Hack-Tic events in the Netherlands which inspired the annual Chaos Communication Congress held in Germany. Summercon was an influential predecessor. HOPE has been held at Hotel Pennsylvania in New York City every time except once since 1994; the event is always structured in a similar way. It consists of three days and three nights of activities, including talks and performances, it features hackerspace villages, a film festival, lock picking villages, a wide variety of vendors, art installations, live video, vintage computers, robots, an amateur/ham radio station, electronics workshops, book signings.
The closing ceremony is a regular part of the event, celebrating the event, the organizers, volunteers, but features performances. Since 2006, monochrom's Johannes Grenzfurthner is a regular performer at the closing ceremony. Held 13–14 August 1994 at the Hotel Pennsylvania, the first HOPE conference marked 2600: The Hacker Quarterly's 10th anniversary. Over 1,000 people attended, including speakers from around the world. Access to a 28.8 kbit/s local network was provided. This conference was visited and covered in the second episode of the "Your Radio Playhouse" show renamed This American Life; the 8–10 August 1997 Beyond HOPE conference was held at the Puck Building, in Manhattan, New York City. Attendance doubled, with 2,000 attendees. Bell Technology Group helped to support the hackers. A TAP reunion and a recorded live broadcast of Off the Hook took place. A 10 Mbit/s local network was provided to attendees; the 14–15 July 2000 HOPE returned to the Hotel Pennsylvania, where subsequent conferences have been held.
The conference ran 24 hours a day. Jello Biafra gave a keynote speech. In a cultural exchange between the punk rock icon/free speech activist and the hacker community, Jello drew connections between the two communities, despite his lack of computer experience; the EFF raised thousands of dollars. The conference provided a T1 link to the internet. H2K2, 12–14 July 2002, had a theme focused on U. S. Homeland Security Advisory System. H2K2 included two tracks of scheduled speakers, with a third track reserved for last-minute and self-scheduled speakers, a movie room, musical performances, a State of the World Address by Jello Biafra, keynotes by Aaron McGruder and Siva Vaidhyanathan and discussions on the DMCA and DeCSS. Freedom Downtime premiered on Friday evening; the conference provided wireless 802.11b coverage and wired Ethernet, an open computer area for access to a 24-hour link to the Internet at "T-1ish" speeds, made available by the DataHaven Project and an internal network. The Fifth HOPE, 9–11 July 2004, had a theme on propaganda, commemorated the anniversaries of both the H.
O. P. E. Conferences and Off the Hook. Keynotes speakers were Kevin Mitnick, Steve Wozniak, Jello Biafra. There was a presentation by "members" of the Phone Losers of America who celebrated their tenth anniversary; the Cult of the Dead Cow hacker collective celebrated its twentieth anniversary at the conference. The conference provided access to a four-layer public network with two T1 lines, plus backup links to the internet via a public terminal cluster, various wired connections, a WiFi network on three floors and a video network. HOPE Number Six, 21 -- 23 July 2006, included talks from Jello Biafra. Kevin Mitnick was scheduled to be at the conference but was unable to appear: while on vacation in Colombia an illness prevented his timely return to the U. S. Hope Number Six had a 100-megabit Internet connection. S. hacker conference. The event's theme was based on The Prisoner. Notable occurrences: Steve Rambam, a private investigator heading Pallorium, Inc. an online investigative service, was scheduled to lead a panel discussion titled "Privacy is Dead...
Get Over It." A few minutes before the start of the panel, Rambam was arrested by the FBI on charges that he unlawfully interfered with an ongoing case Federal prosecutors filed against Albert Santoro, a former Brooklyn assistant New York district attorney indicted in January 2003 on a count of money-laundering. The charges were dropped and the talk was subsequently held in November 2006, long after the conference. Jello Biafra began his talk by referring to the arrest of Steve Rambam, noting the convention had been more "spook heavy" than usual, he announced a "special message" to "any Federal agents that may be in the audience", mooned the convention. The "Last HOPE" took place 18–20 July 2008 at the Hotel Pennsylvania. A change from past years was the use of an Internet forum to facilitate community participation in the planning of the event; the conference name referred to the expectation that this would be the final H. O. P. E. Conference due to the scheduled demolition of its venue, the Hotel Pennsylvania.
The Save Hotel Pennsylvania Foundation was created to work toward keeping the building from being demolished by its then-new owner, Vornado Realty Trust. The "Next HOPE" was scheduled for Summer 2010. At the closing ceremony it was revealed that the use of the wor
Internet Relay Chat
Internet Relay Chat is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text. The chat process works on a client/server networking model. IRC clients are computer programs that users can install on their system or web based applications running either locally in the browser or on 3rd party server; these clients communicate with chat servers to transfer messages to other clients. IRC is designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but allows one-on-one communication via private messages as well as chat and data transfer, including file sharing. Client software is available for every major operating system; as of April 2011, the top 100 IRC networks served more than half a million users at a time, with hundreds of thousands of channels operating on a total of 1,500 servers out of 3,200 servers worldwide. IRC usage has been declining since 2003, losing 60% of its users and half of its channels. IRC was created by Jarkko Oikarinen in August 1988 to replace a program called MUT on a BBS called OuluBox at the University of Oulu in Finland, where he was working at the Department of Information Processing Science.
Jarkko intended to extend the BBS software he administered, to allow news in the Usenet style, real time discussions and similar BBS features. The first part he implemented was the chat part, which he did with borrowed parts written by his friends Jyrki Kuoppala and Jukka Pihl; the first IRC network was running on a single server named tolsun.oulu.fi. Oikarinen found inspiration in a chat system known as Bitnet Relay, which operated on the BITNET. Jyrki Kuoppala pushed Jarkko to ask Oulu University to free the IRC code so that it could be run outside of Oulu, after they got it released, Jyrki Kuoppala installed another server; this was the first "irc network". Jarkko got some friends at the Helsinki University and Tampere University to start running IRC servers when his number of users increased and other universities soon followed. At this time Jarkko realized that the rest of the BBS features wouldn't fit in his program. Jarkko got in touch with people at the University of Oregon State University.
They wanted to connect to the Finnish network. They had obtained the program from one of Jarkko's friends, Vijay Subramaniam—the first non-Finnish person to use IRC. IRC grew larger and got used on the entire Finnish national network—Funet—and connected to Nordunet, the Scandinavian branch of the Internet. In November 1988, IRC had spread across the Internet and in the middle of 1989, there were some 40 servers worldwide. In August 1990, the first major disagreement took place in the IRC world; the "A-net" included a server named eris.berkeley.edu. It required no passwords and had no limit on the number of connects; as Greg "wumpus" Lindahl explains: "it had a wildcard server line, so people were hooking up servers and nick-colliding everyone". The "Eris Free Network", EFnet, made the eris machine the first to be Q-lined from IRC. In wumpus' words again: "Eris refused to remove that line, it wasn't much of a fight. A-net was formed with the eris servers, EFnet was formed with the non-eris servers.
History showed most users went with EFnet. Once ANet disbanded, the name EFnet became meaningless, once again it was the one and only IRC network, it is around that time that IRC was used to report on the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt throughout a media blackout. It was used in a similar fashion during the Gulf War. Chat logs of these and other events are kept in the ibiblio archive. Another fork effort, the first that made a big and lasting difference, was initiated by'Wildthang' in the U. S. October 1992, it was meant to be just a test network to develop bots on but it grew to a network "for friends and their friends". In Europe and Canada a separate new network was being worked on and in December the French servers connected to the Canadian ones, by the end of the month, the French and Canadian network was connected to the US one, forming the network that came to be called "The Undernet"; the "undernetters" wanted to take ircd further in an attempt to make it less bandwidth consumptive and to try to sort out the channel chaos that EFnet started to suffer from.
For the latter purpose, the Undernet implemented timestamps, new routing and offered the CService—a program that allowed users to register channels and attempted to protect them from troublemakers. The first server list presented, from February 15, 1993, includes servers from USA, France and Japan. On August 15, the new user count record was set to 57 users. In May 1993, RFC 1459 was published and details a simple protocol for client/server operation, one-to-one and one-to-many conversations, it is notable that a significant number of extensions like CTCP, colors and formats are not included in the protocol specifications, nor is character encoding, which led various implementations of servers and clients to diverge. In fact, software implementation varied from one network to the other, each network implementing their own policies and standards in their own code bases. During the summer of 1994, the Undernet was itself forked; the new network was called DALnet, formed for better user service and more user and channel protections.
One of the more significant changes in DALnet was use of lo
In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or impact upon thousands of people across an entire continent. Two linked cases of a rare infectious disease may be sufficient to constitute an outbreak. Outbreaks include epidemics, which term is only used for infectious diseases, as well as diseases with an environmental origin, such as a water or foodborne disease, they may affect a group of countries. Pandemics are near-global disease outbreaks; when investigating disease outbreaks, the epidemiology profession has developed a number of accepted steps. As described by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, these include the following: Identify the existence of the outbreak Verify the diagnosis related to the outbreak Create a case definition to define who/what is included as a case Map the spread of the outbreak using Information technology as diagnosis is reported to insurance Develop a hypothesis Study hypotheses Refine hypothesis and carry out further study Develop and implement control and prevention systems Release findings to greater communitiesThe order of the above steps and relative amount of effort and resources used in each varies from outbreak to outbreak.
For example and control measures are implemented early in the investigation before the causative agent is known. In many situations, promoting good hygiene and hand-washing is one of the first things recommended. Other interventions may be added as the investigation moves forward and more information is obtained. Waiting until the end of an investigation to implement prevention and control measures is a sure way to lose ones job. In outbreaks identified through notifiable disease surveillance, reports are linked to laboratory results and verifying the diagnosis is straight forward. In outbreaks of unknown etiology and verifying the diagnosis can be a significant part of the investigation with respect to time and resources. Several steps are going on at any point in time during the investigation. Steps may be repeated. For example, initial case definitions are established to be intentionally broad but refined as more is learned about the outbreak; the above list has 9 steps, others have more. Implementing active surveillance to identify additional cases is added.
Outbreak debriefing and review has been recognized as an additional final step and iterative process by the Public Health Agency of Canada. There are several outbreak patterns, which can be useful in identifying the transmission method or source, predicting the future rate of infection; each has histogram of case infections and deaths. Common source – All victims acquire the infection from the same source. Continuous source – Common source outbreak where the exposure occurs over multiple incubation periods Point source – Common source outbreak where the exposure occurs in less than one incubation period Propagated – Transmission occurs from person to person. Outbreaks can be: Behavioral risk related Zoonotic – The infectious agent is endemic to an animal population. Patterns of occurrence are: Endemic – a communicable disease, such as influenza, mumps, colds, characteristic of a particular place, or among a particular group, or area of interest or activity. Epidemic – when this disease is found to infect a larger number of people at the same time than is common at that time, among that population, may spread through one or several communities.
Pandemic -- occurs. Outbreak legislation is still in its infancy and not many countries have had a direct and complete set of the provisions. However, some countries do manage the outbreaks using relevant acts, such as public health law. 1947 New York City smallpox outbreak 1993 Four Corners hantavirus outbreak 2003 Midwest monkeypox outbreak 2007 Yap Islands zika virus outbreak 2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak Super-spreader Plague of Suspicion, audio hour on media coverage of outbreaks and epidemics
David Blake known as StankDawg, is the founder of the hacking group Digital DawgPound and a long-time member of the hacking community. He is known for being a regular presenter at multiple hacking conferences, but is best known as the creator of the "Binary Revolution" initiative, including being the founding host and producer of Binary Revolution Radio, a long-running weekly Internet radio show which ran 200 episodes from 2003 to 2007. Blake was born in Newport News, Virginia on September 13, 1971, he received an AAS degree from the University of Kentucky 1992, has a BS in Computer Science from Florida Atlantic University as well as a CEH certificate. He presently works as a computer programmer/analyst in Orlando, Florida. Blake is a member of the International High IQ society. StankDawg is a staff writer for the well-known hacker periodical 2600: The Hacker Quarterly, as well as the now-defunct Blacklisted! 411 magazine. He has been a contributing writer to several independent zines such as Outbreak and Radical Future.
He has been a frequent co-host of Default Radio and was a regular on Radio Freek America, has appeared on GAMERadio, The MindWar, Phreak Phactor, HPR. He has presented at technology conferences such as DEF CON, H. O. P. E. and Interz0ne. He has been outspoken about many topics, many of which have gotten some negative feedback from different sources, his most controversial article was entitled "Hacking google Adwords" at DefCon13 which drew criticism from such people as Jason Calacanis. Among others, his presentation at the fifth H. O. P. E. Conference drew some surprise from the AS/400 community. StankDawg appeared as a subject on the television show The Most Extreme on Animal Planet where he demonstrated the vulnerabilities of wireless internet connections. Blake chose the handle "StankDawg" in college, where he started a local hacking group which became known as the "Digital DawgPound"; the Digital DawgPound is a group of hackers, best known for a series of articles in hacker magazines such as 2600: The Hacker Quarterly and Make, the long-running webcast Binary Revolution Radio, a active set of forums with posts from high-profile hackers such as Strom Carlson, Phiber Optik and many more.
The stated mission of the DDP is to propagate a more positive image of hackers than the negative mass media stereotype. The group welcomes new members who want to learn about hacking, attempts to teach them more positive aspects and steer them away from the negative aspects by reinforcing the hacker ethic, their goal is to show that hackers can, do, make positive contributions not only to technology, but to society as a whole. The DDP was named by StankDawg, his stated reasons were that he had made many friends in the hacking scene and thought that it would be useful to have everyone begin working together in a more organized fashion. He was motivated by the fact that there had been other well-known Hacker Groups in the 1980s who had accomplished great things in the hacking world such as the LoD and the MoD. In 1988, while a junior in high school, StankDawg came up with the name on his way to the "Sweet 16" computer programming competition, he jokingly referred to his teammates as "The Digital Dawgpound".
StankDawg lurked in the shadows of the hacking world for many years throughout college under many different pseudonyms. In 1997 he popped his head out into the public and began becoming more active on IRC and many smaller hacking forums, he saw some people who he thought were insanely brilliant individuals who seemed to have the same mindset and positive attitude towards hacking that he did so he decided to approach a couple of them to see if anyone would be interested in forming a group and working together. There was always a huge emphasis not only on technical competence and variety, but on strength of character and integrity; the team was a mix of hackers, phone phreakers, security professionals, artists. They had experience in operating systems. DDP members are not only good programmers and hackers, but more good people. By 1999 the DDP had its first official members and from this partnership, creativity flowed; the DDP communicated and worked together on StankDawg's personal site, open to anyone who wanted to join in on the fun.
StankDawg was never comfortable with the fact that it was his name, on the domain and that many people who were coming to the site were coming because of his articles or presentations but not appreciating all of the other great contributions from other community members that were around. In 2002, after watching the web site grow it was decided that a new community needed to be created for these like-minded hackers who were gathering; this was the start of the biggest DDP project called Binary Revolution, an attempt at starting a true "community" of hackers. As the site grew, so did the DDP roster. Over the years, DDP membership has included several staff writers for 2600: The Hacker Quarterly and Blacklisted! 411 magazine including StankDawg and bland_inquisitor. They publish articles, provide content, appear on many media sources across the global Interweb. DDP members are regular speakers at hacking conferences such as DEF CON, H. O. P. E. Interzone and many more smaller and more regional cons.
Some DDP members hold memberships in the International High IQ society. StankDawg is proud of the diversity of the team and has spoken to this many times on Binary Revolution Radio. Members are from both coasts of the United States to Europe and have had members
2600: The Hacker Quarterly
2600: The Hacker Quarterly is an American seasonal publication of technical information and articles, many of which are written and submitted by the readership, on a variety of subjects including hacking, telephone switching systems, Internet protocols and services, as well as general news concerning the computer "underground." With origins in the phreaking community and late 20th century counterculture, 2600 and its associated conference transitioned to coverage of modern hacker culture, the magazine has become a platform for speaking out against increased digital surveillance and advocacy of personal and digital freedoms. The magazine's name comes from the phreaker discovery in the 1960s that the transmission of a 2600 hertz tone over a long-distance trunk connection gained access to "operator mode," and allowed the user to explore aspects of the telephone system that were not otherwise accessible; the magazine was given its name by David Ruderman, who co-founded the magazine with his college friend, Eric Corley.
Ruderman ended his direct involvement with the magazine three years later. The magazine traces its origins to early Bulletin Board Systems as a place for hackers to share information and stories with each other, it was launched in 1984, coinciding with the book of the same name and the break-up of AT&T. It is published and edited by its co-founder Emmanuel Goldstein and his company 2600 Enterprises, Inc. 2600 is released on the first Friday of the month following a season change January, April and October. Goldstein has published a compilation of articles from the magazine entitled The Best of 2600: A Hacker Odyssey; the book, an 888-page hardcover, has been available from July 28, 2008 in the US and August 8, 2008 in the UK and is published by Wiley. In the usage of 2600 and affiliates, the loaded term "hacking" refers to grey hat hacking, understood to be any sort of technological utilization or manipulation of technology which goes above and beyond the capabilities inherent to the design of a given application.
This usage attempts to maintain neutrality, as opposed to the politically charged and contentious terms white hat hacking, black hat hacking (which some consider "hacking" motivated by malicious or selfish intentions--such as electronic theft, hijacking of websites, other types of cybercrime. Other hackers believe that hat-color labels are an oversimplification and unnecessary designation, best suited for use by the media, suggest that people who use hacking to commit crimes are have a label--that of criminal. 2600 established the H. O. P. E. Conference in 1994, marking the publication's tenth anniversary; the conference is held at the Hotel Pennsylvania, in Manhattan, New York City, has occurred every two years with the exception of the second HOPE in 1997, held at the Puck Building in Manhattan. The convention features events such as presentations, talks and workshops. Speakers have included computer security figures and hackers such as Kevin Mitnick, Steven Levy, Richard Stallman, Steve Wozniak, as well as whistleblowers William Binney, Daniel Ellsberg, Edward Snowden, countercultural figures like Jello Biafra and The Yes Men.
There are monthly meetings in over 24 countries. The meetings are listed in the back of the magazine, are advertised as being open to anyone regardless of age or level of expertise. 2600 Films has made a feature-length documentary about famed hacker Kevin Mitnick, the Free Kevin movement and the hacker world, entitled Freedom Downtime, is working on one titled Speakers' World. Corley is host of Off The Wall and Off the Hook, two New York talk radio shows. Both shows can be downloaded or streamed via the 2600 site, are broadcast on various radio stations: Off the Hook is broadcast on WBAI Off The Wall is broadcast on WUSB. In the 1995 movie Hackers, the character of Emmanuel Goldstein / aka'Cereal Killer' was portrayed by Matthew Lillard. 2600 has been involved in many court cases related to technology and freedom of speech alongside the Electronic Frontier Foundation most Universal v. Reimerdes involving the distribution of DVD copy protection tool DeCSS, where courts upheld the constitutionality of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act anti-circumvention provisions.
The magazine itself received a copyright claim for the ink spatter stock image featured on the Spring 2012 issue from Trunk Archive, an image licensing agency, using an automated image tracking toolkit. While Trunk Archive identified its own image that featured the ink spatter as the source, it was discovered that the original ink spatter was created by the Finnish artist Jukka Korhonen, on DeviantArt, who had released it into the public domain. Trunk Archive retracted the claim and sent a letter to 2600 apologizing for the mistake. Official website ISSN 0749-3851 2600 Index or 2600 Index mirror a searchable index of 2600 The Hacker Quarterly magazine article information