Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications known by the acronym DECT, is a standard used for creating cordless telephone systems. It originated in Europe, where it is the universal standard, replacing earlier cordless phone standards, such as 900 MHz CT1 and CT2. Beyond Europe, it has been adopted by Australia, most countries in Asia and South America. North American adoption was delayed by United States radio frequency regulations; this forced development of a variation of DECT, called DECT 6.0, using a different frequency range which makes these units incompatible with systems intended for use in other areas from the same manufacturer. DECT has universally replaced other standards in most countries where it is used, with the exception of North America. DECT was intended for fast roaming between networked base stations and the first DECT product was Net3 wireless LAN. However, its most popular application is single-cell cordless phones connected to traditional analog telephone in home and small office systems, though gateways with multi-cell DECT and/or DECT repeaters are available in many private branch exchange systems for medium and large businesses produced by Panasonic, Gigaset, Snom, BT Business, RTX Telecom.
DECT can be used for purposes other than cordless phones, such as baby monitors and industrial sensors. The ULE Alliance's DECT ULE and its "HAN FUN" protocol are variants tailored for home security and the internet of things; the DECT standard includes the generic access profile, a common interoperability profile for simple telephone capabilities, which most manufacturers implement. GAP-conformance enables DECT handsets and bases from different manufacturers to interoperate at the most basic level of functionality, that of making and receiving calls; the New Generation DECT standard, marketed as CAT-iq by the DECT Forum, provides a common set of advanced capabilities for handsets and base stations. CAT-iq allows interchangeability across IP-DECT base stations and handsets from different manufacturers, while maintaining backward-compatibility with GAP equipment, it requires mandatory support for wideband audio. The DECT standard was developed by ETSI in several phases, the first of which took place between 1988 and 1992 when the first round of standards were published.
These were the ETS 300-175 series in nine parts defining the air interface, ETS 300-176 defining how the units should be type approved. A technical report, ETR-178, was published to explain the standard. Subsequent standards were developed and published by ETSI to cover interoperability profiles and standards for testing. Named Digital European Cordless Telephone at its launch by CEPT in November 1987. In 1995, due to its more global usage, the name was changed from European to Enhanced. DECT is recognized by the ITU as fulfilling the IMT-2000 requirements and thus qualifies as a 3G system. Within the IMT-2000 group of technologies, DECT is referred to as IMT-2000 Frequency Time. DECT has since been adopted by many countries all over the World; the original DECT frequency band is used in all countries in Europe. Outside Europe, it is used in most of Asia and South America. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission in 2005 changed channelization and licensing costs in a nearby band, known as Unlicensed Personal Communications Services, allowing DECT devices to be sold in the U.
S. with only minimal changes. These channels are reserved for voice communication applications and therefore are less to experience interference from other wireless devices such as baby monitors and wireless networks; the New Generation DECT standard was first published in 2007. The ETSI TS 102 527 series comes in five parts and covers wideband audio and mandatory interoperability features between handsets and base stations, they were preceded by an explanatory technical report, ETSI TR 102 570. The DECT Forum maintains the CAT-iq certification program; the DECT Ultra Low Energy standard was announced in January 2011 and the first commercial products were launched that year by Dialog Semiconductor. The standard was created to enable home automation, security and energy monitoring applications that are battery powered. Like DECT, DECT ULE standard uses the 1.9 GHz band, so suffers less interference than Zigbee, Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi from microwave ovens, which all operate in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM band.
DECT ULE uses a simple star network topology, so many devices in the home are connected to a single control unit. Future revisions of the standard are expected to include high reliability low-latency DECT ULE for industry machine-to-machine application, high bitrate ultra reliable low latency protocols for professional wireless audio applications using point-to-point or multicast communications, high-throughput QAM-1024 modulation; the effort aims to adopt the updated
Draugen is an oil field in the Norwegian Sea with a sea depth of 250 metres. It has been operating by A/S Norske Shell until sold to AS OKEA in 2018; the field has been developed with integrated topside. Stabilized oil is stored in tanks in the base of the facility. Two flowlines connect the facility to a floating loading buoy; the Garn Vest and Rogn Sør deposits have been developed with a total of five subsea wells connected to the main facility at Draugen. The field has six subsea water injection wells. Additional resources in the Garn Vest structure came on stream in December 2001, while development of additional resources at the Rogn Sør structure were approved in the spring of 2001, coming on stream in January 2003; the major reservoir is the Rogn Formation, a shallow marine sand bar of the Late Jurassic at around 1,600 metres, while on the western side of the field is the Garn Formation of the Middle Jurassic. They are all producing reservoirs with good characteristics; the platform consists of a concrete monocolumn with integrated deck.
Oil transport is accomplished through tanker via floating buoy. The Asgard transport pipeline is used for transport of natural gas to Kårstø. In January 2008, a small amount of oil was spilled; the oil being loaded into the Navion Scandia tanker was spilled when the pipeline pressure became too high. The oil spilled. New production wells are being drilled and more is being considered to increase output. Gas injection and water injection are used to increase production. CO2 injection has been rejected. List of oil fields Draugen Oil Field in Offshore Technology Draugen in Interactive Energy Map
Bergslagen Military District V Military District was a Swedish military district, a command of the Swedish Armed Forces that had operational control over the informal Bergslagen region, for most time of its existence corresponding to the area covered by the counties of Värmland, Örebro and Kopparberg. The headquarters of Milo B were located in Karlstad. Milo B was created in 1966 along with five other military districts as part of a reorganisation of the administrative divisions of the Swedish Armed Forces, it can be seen as the successor of V Military District created in 1942, but that did not have the same tasks as Milo B. The military district consisted of the land covered by the above-mentioned counties. In 1991, the number of military districts of Sweden was decreased to five, as a consequence of that, Milo B was merged with Eastern Military District to create a new military district, Middle Military Area. In peacetime the Bergslagen Military District consisted of the following units, which were training recruits for wartime units: Bergslagen Military District, in Karlstad I 2/Fo 52 – Värmland Regiment / Värmland Defense District, in Karlstad I 3/Fo 51 – Life Regiment Grenadiers / Örebro Defense District, in Örebro I 13/Fo 53 – Dalarna Regiment / Kopparberg Defense District, in Falun A 9 – Bergslagen Artillery Regiment, in Kristinehamn ArtSS - Artillery School Training Center, in ÄlvdalenIn wartime the Bergslagen Military District would have activated the following major land units, as well as a host of smaller units: IB 2 - Värmland Brigade, in Karlstad, a Type 77 infantry brigade based on the I 2 - Värmland Regiment IB 3 - Life Brigade, in Örebro, a Type 66M infantry brigade based on the I 3 - Life Regiment Grenadiers NB 13 - Dalarna Brigade, in Falun, a Type 85 Norrland Brigade based on the I 13 - Dalarna Regiment IB 33 - Närke Brigade, in Örebro, a Type 77 infantry brigade based on the I 3 - Life Regiment Grenadiers IB 43 - Kopparberg Brigade, in Falun, a Type 66M infantry brigade based on the I 13 - Dalarna Regiment The coat of arms of the Bergslagen Military District Staff 1983–1991.
Blazon: "Azur, an erect sword with the area letter surrounded by an open chaplet of oak leaves, all or." Military district Braunstein, Christian. Heraldiska vapen inom det svenska försvaret. Skrift / Statens försvarshistoriska museer, 1101-7023. Stockholm: Statens försvarshistoriska museer. ISBN 91-971584-9-6. LIBRIS 10099224. Holmberg, Björn. Arméns regementen, skolor och staber:: en sammanställning. Arvidsjaur: Svenskt militärhistoriskt bibliotek. ISBN 91-972209-0-6. LIBRIS 7796532. Kjelldorff, Lennart. "Försvarets utveckling från Gustav Wasa till vår tid". Försvarets Historiska Telesamlingar. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2007-01-12