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Digital Millennium Copyright Act

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act is a 1998 United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization. It criminalizes production and dissemination of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent measures that control access to copyrighted works, it criminalizes the act of circumventing an access control, whether or not there is actual infringement of copyright itself. In addition, the DMCA heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet. Passed on October 12, 1998, by a unanimous vote in the United States Senate and signed into law by President Bill Clinton on October 28, 1998, the DMCA amended Title 17 of the United States Code to extend the reach of copyright, while limiting the liability of the providers of online services for copyright infringement by their users; the DMCA's principal innovation in the field of copyright is the exemption from direct and indirect liability of Internet service providers and other intermediaries.

This exemption was adopted by the European Union in the Electronic Commerce Directive 2000. The Information Society Directive 2001 implemented the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty in the EU. DMCA Title I, the WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act, amends U. S. copyright law to comply with the WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, adopted at the WIPO Diplomatic Conference in December 1996. The treaties have two major portions. One portion includes works covered by several treaties in U. S. gave the title its name. For further analysis of this portion of the Act and of cases under it, see WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act; the second portion is known as the DMCA anti-circumvention provisions. These provisions changed the remedies for the circumvention of copy-prevention systems and required that all analog video recorders have support for a specific form of copy prevention created by Macrovision built in, giving Macrovision an effective monopoly on the analog video-recording copy-prevention market.

The section contains a number of specific limitations and exemptions, for such things as government research and reverse engineering in specified situations. Although, section 1201 of the title stated that the section does not change the underlying substantive copyright infringement rights, remedies, or defenses, it did not make those defenses available in circumvention actions; the section does not include a fair use exemption from criminality nor a scienter requirement, so criminal liability could attach to unintended circumvention for legitimate purposes. DMCA Title II, the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act, creates a safe harbor for online service providers against copyright infringement liability, provided they meet specific requirements. OSPs must adhere to and qualify for certain prescribed safe harbor guidelines and promptly block access to alleged infringing material when they receive notification of an infringement claim from a copyright holder or the copyright holder's agent.

OCILLA includes a counternotification provision that offers OSPs a safe harbor from liability to their users when users claim that the material in question is not, in fact, infringing. OCILLA facilitates issuing of subpoenas against OSPs to provide their users' identity. DMCA Title III modified section 117 of the copyright title so that those repairing computers could make certain temporary, limited copies while working on a computer, it reversed the precedent set in MAI Systems Corp. v. Peak Computer, Inc. 991 F.2d 511. DMCA Title IV contains an assortment of provisions: Clarified and added to the duties of the Copyright Office. Added ephemeral copy for broadcasters provisions, including certain statutory licenses. Added provisions to facilitate distance education. Added provisions to assist libraries with keeping phonorecords of sound recordings. Added provisions relating to collective bargaining and the transfer of movie rights. DMCA Title V added sections 1301 through 1332 to add a sui generis protection for boat hull designs.

Boat hull designs were not considered covered under copyright law because boats are useful articles whose form cannot be separated from their function. In addition to the safe harbors and exemptions the statute explicitly provides, 17 U. S. C. 1201 requires that the Librarian of Congress issue exemptions from the prohibition against circumvention of access-control technology. Exemptions are granted when it is shown that access-control technology has had a substantial adverse effect on the ability of people to make non-infringing uses of copyrighted works; the exemption rules are revised every three years. Exemption proposals are submitted by the public to the Registrar of Copyrights, after a process of hearings and public comments, the final rule is recommended by the Registrar and issued by the Librarian. Exemptions must be resubmitted for the next rulemaking cycle. Only the most recent rulemaking is valid, prior exemptions issued are no longer valid; as of 2017, the Copyright Office is considering re-authorizing such exemptions if no new evidence is submitted to the contrary.

After much criticism, on December 29, 2015, the Copyright Office initiated a study to assess the operation of section 1201 and the triennial rulemaking process. This is different from usual public comments on exemption proposals, it includes the role of th

Mat (Russian profanity)

Mat is the term for vulgar, obscene, or profane language in Russian and some other Slavic language communities. The term mat derives from the Russian word for mother, a component of the key phrase "Ёб твою мать", "yob tvoyu mat'". In 2014, Roskomnadzor compiled a list of four words of the Russian language for Russia, which, in their opinion, are "absolutely unacceptable in the mass media": khuy. David Remnick believes that mat has thousands of variations but centers on those four words. All mat-words were included by the publisher Jan Baudouin de Courtenay in the 3rd and 4th editions of the Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language, printed 4 times in 1903–1909 and in 1911–1912, 1912–1914; the inclusion of rude and abusive words became an obstacle to the reprinting of this version of the dictionary in the Soviet Union for censorship reasons. Khuy means penis, or for an equivalent colloquial register: dick; the etymology of the term is unclear. Mainstream theories include from Proto-Indo European *ks-u-, related to хвоя, attributed to Pederson, 1908.

This was the etymology endorsed by the Soviet government and attributed to Maxim Gorky, who claimed it was a loan word, imposed during the Mongol yoke. Alexander Gorokhovski suggests the derivation from the Latin huic as a euphemism, because the old Russian "ud/uda" became taboo in the mid-18th century; the first volume of the Great Dictionary of Mat by the Russian linguist and folklorist Alexei Plutser-Sarno treats only expressions with the stem хуй, numbering over 500 entries. Another theory is; the word khuy appears in various other Slavic languages with the same meaning and pronunciation but not always the same spelling, such as the Polish chuj. Pizdá means cunt. Yebát' means "to fuck", "to copulate", "to have intercourse". Blyád' means whore. In the Old East Slavic the word блѧдь – blyad, meaning: "deception, insane, adulteress", is preserved in the Church Slavonic in three meanings: "deception, delusion", "idle talk, trivia" and "debauchery, adultery". Combined with the term "suka" to form "suka blyád" among Internet users and memes.

Obscenities are among the earliest recorded attestations of the Russian language. Mikhail Lermontov's 1834; the prologue to Luka Mudishchev written at some time in the mid 19th century, was ascribed to Ivan Barkov, an obscene poet who lived in the 18th century: Mat is used in humor or puns by juxtaposing innocent words so that the result will sound as if an obscene word was used. An example is a Cossack song cited in And Quiet Flows the Don by Mikhail Sholokhov: Щуку я, щуку я, щуку я поймала. Девица красная, уху я варила. Уху я, уху я, уху я варила. Here "Уху я варила" may be reinterpreted as "У хуя варила" or "Ух, хуй я варила"; the contemporaneous use of mat is widespread in the army, blue-collar workers, the criminal world, many other all-male milieus. An article by Victor Erofeyev analyzing the history and sociology of mat appeared in the 15 September 2003 issue of The New Yorker; as of 1 July 2014, mat has been banned in Russia from all movies, theatrical productions, concerts. In modern Russia, the use of mat is censored in the media and the use of mat in public constitutes petty hooliganism, a form of disorderly conduct, punishable under article 20.1.1 of the Offences Code of Russia, although there is no clear legal definition what constitutes "mat".

Despite the public ban, mat is used by Russians of all ages and nearly all social groups, with particular fervor in the male-dominated military and the structurally similar social strata. Russian joke: Taboo vocabulary Fenya Gopnik Leningrad, a Russian ska/punk band famous for its vulgar lyrics Grass Mud Horse Motherfucker Русский мат с Алексеем Плуцером-Сарно – online version of the Dictionary of Russian Mat by Alexei Plutser-Sarno Russian slang explained in English and German Cited portions of a The New Yorker article; the unique power of Russia's underground language, The New Yorker via'Dead Man's Bluff' by Mikhail Volokhov. Director Andrei Zhitinkin. First play in Russia to be written in profanities. Productions of this play have always been surrounded by controversy: in Russia by Andrei Zhitinkin, with actors Oleg Fomin and Sergei Chonishvili.

Airlines Tonga

Airlines Tonga was an airline based in Nukuʻalofa, Tonga. It operated services within Tonga and flights are operated on its behalf by Air Fiji; the airline started operations in December 2005 as a joint venture partnership between Air Fiji and Tongan travel agency Teta Tours. Airlines Tonga became the second domestic airline of Tonga after Peau Vavaʻu. On August 23, 2008, Airlines Tonga ceased all activity indefinitely, citing its inability to meet rising fuel costs, it does not intend, however to remain out of business permanently. Airlines Tonga operated services to the following destinations: Vava'u Ha'apai'Eua The airline operates the following aircraft: Harbin Y-12 Mark II twin engine turboprop aircraft Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante twin engine turboprop aircraft Airlines Tonga Air Fiji/Airlines Tonga

Reed Slatkin

Reed Eliot Slatkin was an initial investor and co-founder of EarthLink and the perpetrator of one of the largest Ponzi schemes in the United States since that conducted by Charles Ponzi himself. Slatkin had been an ordained Scientology minister since 1975. Around 1984 he changed from being a full-time minister to becoming a self-employed investor, many of his investment clients and victims were Scientologists. From 1986 to 2001, Slatkin raised $593 million from about 800 wealthy investors. Using the funds from investors, he paid one group of early investors $279M on their original $128M investment, citing investment success without making most of the claimed investments, he distributed millions in fees to associates as "consultants". He sustained the scheme until 2001, when it was shut down by an investigation by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission. In May 2001, the SEC shut down Slatkin's scheme by filing an enforcement action and obtaining a temporary restraining order freezing his remaining assets.

On the same day as the SEC action, the Federal Bureau of Investigation executed search warrants relating to Slatkin. The civil case was brought by the SEC in Civil Action No. 01-04823. The criminal case was brought by the U. S. Attorney for the Central District of California in U. S. v. Reed E. Slatkin, CR 02-313. Among his victims were actors Joe Pantoliano, Anne Archer and Giovanni Ribisi, producers Art Linson and Armyan Bernstein, two additional Scientologists, film composer Mark Isham and commentator Greta Van Susteren. as well as key people of EarthLink, including Gregory B. Abbott and Scientologist Sky Dayton, he funneled millions of dollars to the Church of their related entities. Slatkin pleaded guilty to mail fraud, wire fraud, money laundering, obstruction of justice and on September 2, 2003, he was sentenced to fourteen years in federal prison, his Federal Bureau of Prisons registration number was 24057-112 and he was incarcerated at the Taft Community Correctional Institution in Taft, California.

By 2010, he had been transferred to the Lompoc Federal Correctional Institution in Lompoc, California. Many of his victims were Scientologists. In his fraud case, his lawyers blamed his behavior on Scientology. In July 2013, he was released from a halfway house in California. On June 23, 2015, journalist Tony Ortega reported on his website that Slatkin had died from a heart attack. Ortega said. In February 2008, the television show American Greed featured the Slatkin case, which it titled "Stealing $$$ from Scientologists". CNBC. "Stealing $$$ From Scientologists and the Art of Fraud". American Greed. CNBC, Inc. Reed E. Slatkin sentenced to 14 years for running a $600 million Ponzi scheme and obstructing justice. U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission Litigation Release No. 18323, September 4, 2003. Reed Slatkin Media Resource Bankruptcy site set up by a group of Slatkin investors Top 75 Net gainers of Slatkin ponzi scheme

Jacob Joseph of Polonne

Rabbi Jacob Joseph of Polonne, or Rabbi Yaakov Yosef of Pollonye, was one of the first and most known of the disciples of the founder of Hasidic Judaism, the Baal Shem Tov. Yaakov Yosef had been a fervent adherent to the school of Lurianic Kabbalah, he was an accomplished scholar when he attached himself to the Besht, his becoming a disciple engendered much controversy, indeed some persecution. At that time, he was the rabbi of the city of Shargorod for several years, he was expelled from his position on a Friday afternoon in 1748. In several of his responsa, which he wrote in Rashkov, where he took up residence after his banishment from Sharogrod, he reveals the suffering which he had undergone, he was appointed rabbi in Nemirov, a center of Hasidism, where he practiced daily fasting for five years, until the Besht came upon him. His book, Toldos Yaacov Yosef, was the first chassidic work published. In it repeats the phrase, "I have heard from my teacher", 249 times, he is one of the foremost sources for teachings from the Baal Shem Tov.

Reb Yaacov Yosef was somewhat known for his abrupt temperament, yet his teachings on the Zaddik, the saint-mystic and holy leader, provide an example of attainment of the highest degree of spiritual solitude, while exemplifying the piety of a respected leader at the center of the community. Rabbi Jacob Joseph's son was Rabbi Samson of Raszkow. Rabbi Jacob Joseph addresses the question regarding the dual requirement in Judaism to both love and fear God. Rabbi Jacob Joseph resolves this matter by asserting that when one reaches a high level of inwardness, both fear and love of God coalesce into one, becoming indistinguishable from one another, eliminating the need to give priority to one over the other. Rabbi Jacob Josef authored four books: Toledot Yaakov Yosef Ben Porat Yosef Tzafnat Paneach Ketonet Pasim published posthumouslyThe titles of these four works are all biblical allusions to Rabbi Jacob Joseph's name

List of Pittsburgh Pirates first-round draft picks

The Pittsburgh Pirates are a Major League Baseball franchise based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They play in the National League Central division. Since the establishment of the Rule 4 Draft the Pirates have selected 54 players in the first round. Known as the "First-Year Player Draft", the Rule 4 Draft is MLB's primary mechanism for assigning players from high schools and other amateur clubs to its franchises; the draft order is determined based on the previous season's standings, with the team possessing the worst record receiving the first pick. In addition, teams which lost free agents in the previous off-season may be awarded compensatory or supplementary picks. Of these 54 players, 21 have been the most of any position. 13 outfielders and eleven shortstops were selected. The Pirates have drafted five catchers, three first basemen, a third baseman, but have never selected a second baseman in the first round. Eight players came from high schools or universities in the state of California, while seven came from Florida.

Three Pirates' first-round picks have won championships with the franchise. Richie Hebner won a World Series title on the 1971 championship team, Steve Nicosia and Dale Berra won with the 1979 team. No Pirates' first-round pick has won the Rookie of the Year Award. None of their picks have been elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, but Barry Bonds won seven Most Valuable Player awards, more than any other player, including two with Pittsburgh. Bonds won 12 Silver Sluggers, 8 Gold Gloves, holds both the single-season and career home run records; the Pirates have made five selections in the supplemental round of the draft and have made the first overall selection four times. The Pirates have failed once in signing a draft pick; this occurred in 2012, when the Pirates selected RHP Mark Appel from Stanford University, who sought a significant bonus which, according to new MLB rules, would have cost the Pirates a future draft pick. The Pirates will receive the 9th overall pick in the 2013 draft for their failure to sign Appel.

Pedro Alvarez nearly went unsigned as he faced a contentious process in which Alvarez and the Pirates reached an initial deal after the signing deadline. The Pirates have had seven compensatory picks overall since the first draft in 1965; these additional picks are provided when a team loses a valuable free agent in the previous off-season, or, more if a team fails to sign a draft pick from the previous year. Pittsburgh Pirates minor league players V Through the 2012 draft, free agents were evaluated by the Elias Sports Bureau and rated "Type A", "Type B", or not compensation-eligible. If a team offered arbitration to a player but that player refused and subsequently signed with another team, the original team was able to receive additional draft picks. If a "Type A" free agent left in this way, his previous team received a supplemental pick and a compensatory pick from the team with which he signed. If a "Type B" free agent left in this way, his previous team received only a supplemental pick.

Since the 2013 draft, free agents are no longer classified by type. However, if the free agent's last team acquired the player in a trade during the last year of his contract, it is ineligible to receive compensatory picks for that player. A The Pirates gained a compensatory first-round pick in 1978 from the Los Angeles Dodgers as compensation for losing free agent Terry Forster. B The Pirates lost their first-round pick in 1979 to the Los Angeles Dodgers as compensation for signing free agent Lee Lacy. C The Pirates gained a compensatory first-round pick in 1980 from the Los Angeles Angels as compensation for losing free agent Bruce Kison. D The Pirates gained a supplemental first-round pick in 1990 for losing free agent Jim Gott. E The Pirates gained a supplemental first-round pick in 1992 for losing free agent Bobby Bonilla. F The Pirates gained a supplemental first-round pick in 1993 for losing free agent Doug Drabek. G The Pirates gained a supplemental first-round pick in 1993 for losing free agent Barry Bonds.

H The Pirates gained a supplemental first-round pick in 2009 for failing to sign Tanner Scheppers. I The Pirates gained a supplemental first-round pick in 2012 for losing free agent Ryan Doumit. J The Pirates gained a supplemental first-round pick in 2013 for failing to sign Mark Appel. K The Pirates gained a compensatory first-round pick in 2015 for losing free agent Russell Martin. General references"MLB First Round Draft Picks". ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved January 28, 2011. "Pittsburgh Pirates 1st Round Picks in the MLB June Amateur Draft". Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved January 28, 2011. In-text citations