General Electric Company is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston. As of 2018, the company operates through the following segments: aviation, power, renewable energy, digital industry, additive manufacturing, venture capital and finance and oil and gas. In 2018, GE ranked among the Fortune 500 as the 18th-largest firm in the U. S. by gross revenue. In 2011, GE ranked among the Fortune 20 as the 14th-most profitable company but has since severely underperformed the market as its profitability collapsed. Two employees of GE—Irving Langmuir and Ivar Giaever —have been awarded the Nobel Prize. During 1889, Thomas Edison had business interests in many electricity-related companies including Edison Lamp Company, a lamp manufacturer in East Newark, New Jersey. P. Morgan and the Vanderbilt family for Edison's lighting experiments. In 1889, Morgan & Co. a company founded by J. P. Morgan and Anthony J. Drexel, financed Edison's research and helped merge those companies under one corporation to form Edison General Electric Company, incorporated in New York on April 24, 1889.
The new company acquired Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company in the same year. In 1880, Gerald Waldo Hart formed the American Electric Company of New Britain, which merged a few years with Thomson-Houston Electric Company, led by Charles Coffin. In 1887, Hart left to become superintendent of the Edison Electric Company of Missouri. General Electric was formed through the 1892 merger of Edison General Electric Company of Schenectady, New York, Thomson-Houston Electric Company of Lynn, with the support of Drexel, Morgan & Co. Both plants continue to operate under the GE banner to this day; the company was incorporated in New York, with the Schenectady plant used as headquarters for many years thereafter. Around the same time, General Electric's Canadian counterpart, Canadian General Electric, was formed. In 1896, General Electric was one of the original 12 companies listed on the newly formed Dow Jones Industrial Average, where it remained a part of the index for 122 years, though not continuously.
In 1911, General Electric absorbed the National Electric Lamp Association into its lighting business. GE established its lighting division headquarters at Nela Park in Ohio; the lighting division has since remained in the same location. Owen D. Young, through GE, founded the Radio Corporation of America in 1919, after purchasing the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, he aimed to expand international radio communications. GE used RCA as its retail arm for radio sales. In 1926, RCA co-founded the National Broadcasting Company, which built two radio broadcasting networks. In 1930, General Electric was charged with antitrust violations and decided to divest itself of RCA. In 1927, Ernst Alexanderson of GE made the first demonstration of his television broadcasts at his General Electric Realty Plot home at 1132 Adams Rd, New York. On January 13, 1928, he made what was said to be the first broadcast to the public in the United States on GE's W2XAD: the pictures were picked up on 1.5 square inch screens in the homes of four GE executives.
The sound was broadcast on GE's WGY. Experimental television station W2XAD evolved into station WRGB which, along with WGY and WGFM, was owned and operated by General Electric until 1983. Led by Sanford Alexander Moss, GE moved into the new field of aircraft turbo superchargers. GE introduced the first set of superchargers during World War I, continued to develop them during the interwar period. Superchargers became indispensable in the years prior to World War II. GE supplied 300,000 turbo superchargers for use in bomber engines; this work led the U. S. Army Air Corps to select GE to develop the nation's first jet engine during the war; this experience, in turn, made GE a natural selection to develop the Whittle W.1 jet engine, demonstrated in the United States in 1941. GE was ranked ninth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Although, their early work with Whittle's designs was handed to Allison Engine Company. GE Aviation emerged as one of the world's largest engine manufacturers, bypassing the British company, Rolls-Royce plc.
Some consumers boycotted GE light bulbs and other products during the 1980s and 1990s. The purpose of the boycott was to protest against GE's role in nuclear weapons production. In 2002, GE acquired the wind power assets of Enron during its bankruptcy proceedings. Enron Wind was the only surviving U. S. manufacturer of large wind turbines at the time, GE increased engineering and supplies for the Wind Division and doubled the annual sales to $1.2 billion in 2003. It acquired ScanWind in 2009. In 2015, GE Power garnered press attention when a model 9FB gas turbine in Texas was shut down for two months due to the break of a turbine blade; this model uses similar blade technology to GE's newest and most efficient model, the 9HA. After the break, GE developed heat treatment methods. Gas turbines represent a significant portion of GE Power's revenue, represent a significant portion of the power generation fleet of several utility companies in the United States. Chubu Electric of Japan and Électricité de France had units that were impacted.
A personal computer is a multi-purpose computer whose size and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician. Unlike large costly minicomputer and mainframes, time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers. Institutional or corporate computer owners in the 1960s had to write their own programs to do any useful work with the machines. While personal computer users may develop their own applications these systems run commercial software, free-of-charge software or free and open-source software, provided in ready-to-run form. Software for personal computers is developed and distributed independently from the hardware or operating system manufacturers. Many personal computer users no longer need to write their own programs to make any use of a personal computer, although end-user programming is still feasible; this contrasts with mobile systems, where software is only available through a manufacturer-supported channel, end-user program development may be discouraged by lack of support by the manufacturer.
Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and with Microsoft Windows. Alternatives to Microsoft's Windows operating systems occupy a minority share of the industry; these include free and open-source Unix-like operating systems such as Linux. Advanced Micro Devices provides the main alternative to Intel's processors; the advent of personal computers and the concurrent Digital Revolution have affected the lives of people in all countries. "PC" is an initialism for "personal computer". The IBM Personal Computer incorporated the designation in its model name, it is sometimes useful to distinguish personal computers of the "IBM Personal Computer" family from personal computers made by other manufacturers. For example, "PC" is used in contrast with "Mac", an Apple Macintosh computer.. Since none of these Apple products were mainframes or time-sharing systems, they were all "personal computers" and not "PC" computers.
The "brain" may one day come down to our level and help with our income-tax and book-keeping calculations. But this is speculation and there is no sign of it so far. In the history of computing, early experimental machines could be operated by a single attendant. For example, ENIAC which became operational in 1946 could be run by a single, albeit trained, person; this mode pre-dated the batch programming, or time-sharing modes with multiple users connected through terminals to mainframe computers. Computers intended for laboratory, instrumentation, or engineering purposes were built, could be operated by one person in an interactive fashion. Examples include such systems as the Bendix G15 and LGP-30of 1956, the Programma 101 introduced in 1964, the Soviet MIR series of computers developed from 1965 to 1969. By the early 1970s, people in academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a computer system in interactive mode for extended durations, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single person.
In what was to be called the Mother of All Demos, SRI researcher Douglas Engelbart in 1968 gave a preview of what would become the staples of daily working life in the 21st century: e-mail, word processing, video conferencing, the mouse. The demonstration required technical support staff and a mainframe time-sharing computer that were far too costly for individual business use at the time; the development of the microprocessor, with widespread commercial availability starting in the mid 1970's, made computers cheap enough for small businesses and individuals to own. Early personal computers—generally called microcomputers—were sold in a kit form and in limited volumes, were of interest to hobbyists and technicians. Minimal programming was done with toggle switches to enter instructions, output was provided by front panel lamps. Practical use required adding peripherals such as keyboards, computer displays, disk drives, printers. Micral N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008.
It was built starting in 1972, few hundred units were sold. This had been preceded by the Datapoint 2200 in 1970, for which the Intel 8008 had been commissioned, though not accepted for use; the CPU design implemented in the Datapoint 2200 became the basis for x86 architecture used in the original IBM PC and its descendants. In 1973, the IBM Los Gatos Scientific Center developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP based on the IBM PALM processor with a Philips compact cassette drive, small CRT, full function keyboard. SCAMP emulated an IBM 1130 minicomputer in order to run APL/1130. In 1973, APL was available only on mainframe computers, most desktop sized microcomputers such as the Wang 2200 or HP 9800 offered only BASIC; because SCAMP was the first to emulate APL/1130 performance on a portable, single user computer, PC Magazine in 1983 designated SCAMP a "revolutionary concept" and "the world's first personal computer". This seminal, single user portable computer now resides in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.
C.. Successful demonstrations of the 1973 SCAMP prototype led to the IBM 5100 portable microcomputer launched in 1975 with the ability to be programmed in both APL and BASIC for engineers, analysts and other business problem-solvers. In the late 1960s such a machine would have been nearly as large as two desks and would have weigh
International Organization for Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary and commercial standards, it is headquartered in Geneva and works in 164 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council; the International Organization for Standardization is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 164 member countries. It is the world's largest developer of voluntary international standards and facilitates world trade by providing common standards between nations. Over twenty thousand standards have been set covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety and healthcare. Use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality.
The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste. By enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis; the standards serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally. The three official languages of the ISO are English and Russian; the name of the organization in French is Organisation internationale de normalisation, in Russian, Международная организация по стандартизации. ISO is not an acronym; the organization adopted ISO as its abbreviated name in reference to the Greek word isos, as its name in the three official languages would have different acronyms. During the founding meetings of the new organization, the Greek word explanation was not invoked, so this meaning may have been made public later. ISO gives this explanation of the name: "Because'International Organization for Standardization' would have different acronyms in different languages, our founders decided to give it the short form ISO.
ISO is derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal. Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of our name is always ISO."Both the name ISO and the ISO logo are registered trademarks, their use is restricted. The organization today known as ISO began in 1928 as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations, it was suspended in 1942 during World War II, but after the war ISA was approached by the formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization. ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISO's strategic objectives; the organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva. A Council with a rotating membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance, including setting the Central Secretariat's annual budget.
The Technical Management Board is responsible for over 250 technical committees, who develop the ISO standards. ISO has formed two joint committees with the International Electrotechnical Commission to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies. ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 was created in 1987 to "evelop, maintain and facilitate IT standards", where IT refers to information technology. ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 2 was created in 2009 for the purpose of "tandardization in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources". ISO has 163 national members. ISO has three membership categories: Member bodies are national bodies considered the most representative standards body in each country; these are the only members of ISO. Correspondent members are countries; these members do not participate in standards promulgation. Subscriber members are countries with small economies, they can follow the development of standards. Participating members are called "P" members, as opposed to observing members, who are called "O" members.
ISO is funded by a combination of: Organizations that manage the specific projects or loan experts to participate in the technical work. Subscriptions from member bodies; these subscriptions are in proportion to each country's gross national trade figures. Sale of standards. ISO's main products are international standards. ISO publishes technical reports, technical specifications, publicly available specifications, technical corrigenda, guides. International standards These are designated using the format ISO nnnnn: Title, where nnnnn is the number of the standard, p is an optional part number, yyyy is the year published, Title describes the subject. IEC for International Electrotechnical Commission is included if the standard results from the work of ISO/IEC JTC1. ASTM is used for standards developed in cooperation with ASTM International. Yyyy and IS are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard and may under some
International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology". IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, fibre optics, solar energy and marine energy as well as many others; the IEC manages three global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its International Standards. The IEC charter embraces all electrotechnologies including energy production and distribution, electronics and electromagnetics, multimedia, telecommunication and medical technology, as well as associated general disciplines such as terminology and symbols, electromagnetic compatibility and performance, dependability and development, safety and the environment; the first International Electrical Congress took place in 1881 at the International Exposition of Electricity, held in Paris.
At that time the International System of Electrical and Magnetic Units was agreed to. The International Electrotechnical Commission held its inaugural meeting on 26 June 1906, following discussions among the British Institution of Electrical Engineers, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, others, which began at the 1900 Paris International Electrical Congress, continued with Colonel R. E. B. Crompton playing a key role. In 1906, Lord Kelvin was elected as the first President of the International Electrotechnical Commission; the IEC was instrumental in developing and distributing standards for units of measurement the gauss and weber. It first proposed a system of standards, the Giorgi System, which became the SI, or Système International d’unités. In 1938, it published a multilingual international vocabulary to unify terminology relating to electrical and related technologies; this effort continues, the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary remains an important work in the electrical and electronic industries.
The CISPR – in English, the International Special Committee on Radio Interference – is one of the groups founded by the IEC. 82 countries are members while another 82 participate in the Affiliate Country Programme, not a form of membership but is designed to help industrializing countries get involved with the IEC. Located in London, the commission moved to its current headquarters in Geneva in 1948, it has regional centres in Latin America and North America. Today, the IEC is the world's leading international organization in its field, its standards are adopted as national standards by its members; the work is done by some 10,000 electrical and electronics experts from industry, academia, test labs and others with an interest in the subject. IEC standards have numbers in the range 60000–79999 and their titles take a form such as IEC 60417: Graphical symbols for use on equipment. Following the Dresden Agreement with CENELEC the numbers of older IEC standards were converted in 1997 by adding 60000, for example IEC 27 became IEC 60027.
Standards of the 60000 series are found preceded by EN to indicate that the IEC standard is adopted by CENELEC as a European standard. The IEC cooperates with the International Organization for Standardization and the International Telecommunication Union. In addition, it works with several major standards development organizations, including the IEEE with which it signed a cooperation agreement in 2002, amended in 2008 to include joint development work. Standards developed jointly with ISO such as ISO/IEC 26300, ISO/IEC 27001, CASCO ISO/IEC 17000 series, carry the acronym of both organizations; the use of the ISO/IEC prefix covers publications from ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 - Information Technology, as well as conformity assessment standards developed by ISO CASCO and IEC CAB. Other standards developed in cooperation between IEC and ISO are assigned numbers in the 80000 series, such as IEC 82045-1. IEC standards are being adopted by other certifying bodies such as BSI, CSA, UL & ANSI/INCITS, SABS, SAI, SPC/GB and DIN.
IEC standards adopted by other certifying bodies may have some noted differences from the original IEC standard. The IEC is made up of members, called national committees, each NC represents its nation's electrotechnical interests in the IEC; this includes manufacturers, providers and vendors, consumers and users, all levels of governmental agencies, professional societies and trade associations as well as standards developers from national standards bodies. National committees are constituted in different ways; some NCs are public sector only, some are a combination of public and private sector, some are private sector only. About 90% of those who prepare IEC standards work in industry. IEC Member countries include: Source: In 2001 and in response to calls from t
IBM Personal System/2
The Personal System/2 or PS/2 is IBM's third generation of personal computers. Released in 1987, it replaced the IBM PC, XT, AT, PC Convertible in IBM's lineup. Many of the PS/2's innovations, such as the 16550 UART, 1440 KB 3.5-inch floppy disk format, Model M Keyboard layout, 72-pin SIMMs, the PS/2 keyboard and mouse ports, the VGA video standard, went on to become standards in the broader PC market. The PS/2 line was created by IBM in an attempt to recapture control of the PC market by introducing the advanced yet proprietary Micro Channel architecture on higher-end models; these models were in the strange position of being incompatible with the IBM-compatible hardware standards established by IBM and adopted in the PC industry. However IBM's initial PS/2 computers were popular with target market corporate buyers, by 30th September 1988 IBM reported that it had sold 3 million PS/2 machines; this was. Most major PC manufacturers balked at IBM's licensing terms for MCA-compatible hardware the per-machine royalties.
In 1992, Macworld stated that "IBM lost control of its own market and became a minor player with its own technology."The OS/2 operating system was announced at the same time as the PS/2 line and was intended to be the primary operating system for models with Intel 80286 or processors. However, at the time of the first shipments, only IBM PC DOS 3.3 was available. OS/2 1.0 and Microsoft's Windows 2.0 became available several months later. IBM released AIX PS/2, a UNIX operating system for PS/2 models with Intel 386 or processors. 1981 IBM PC 1983 IBM PC XT 1984 IBM PCjr 1984 IBM PC AT 1986 IBM PC XT 286 IBM's PS/2 was designed to remain software compatible with their PC/AT/XT line of computers upon which the large PC clone market was built, but the hardware was quite different. PS/2 had two BIOSes: one named ABIOS which provided a new protected mode interface and was used by OS/2, CBIOS, included to be software compatible with the PC/AT/XT. CBIOS was so compatible that it included Cassette BASIC.
While IBM did not publish the BIOS source code, it did promise to publish BIOS entry points. With certain models to the IBM PS/2 line, Micro Channel Architecture was introduced. MCA was conceptually similar to the channel architecture of the IBM System/360 mainframes. MCA was technically superior to ISA and allowed for higher speed communications within the system; the majority of MCA's features would be seen in buses with the exception of: streaming-data procedure, channel-check reporting, error logging and internal bus-level video pass-through for devices like the IBM 8514. Transfer speeds were on par with the much PCI standard. MCA allowed one-to-one, card to card, multi-card to processor simultaneous transaction management, a feature of the PCI-X bus format. Bus mastering capability, bus arbitration, a primitive form of plug-and-play BIOS management of hardware were all benefits of MCA. (One book from the year 2000 writes: "MCA used an early version of what we know now as'Plug-N′-Play', requiring a special setup disk for each machine and each card."
MCA never gained wide acceptance outside of the PS/2 line due to IBM's anti-clone practices and incompatibilities with ISA. IBM offered to sell an MCA license to anyone. However, royalties were required for every MCA-compatible machine sold and a payment for every IBM-compatible machine the particular maker had made in the past. There was nothing unique in IBM insisting on payment of royalties on the use of its patents applied to Micro Channel-based machines. Up until that time, some companies had failed to pay IBM for the use of its patents on the earlier generation of Personal Computer; the PS/2 IBM Model M keyboard used the same 101-key layout of the previous IBM PC/AT Extended keyboard, itself derived from the original IBM PC keyboard. European variants had 102 keys with the addition of an extra key to the right of the left Shift key; the Model M, using a buckling spring mechanism, is still being manufactured by Unicomp. PS/2 systems introduced a new specification for the keyboard and mouse interfaces, which are still in use today and are thus called "PS/2" interfaces.
The PS/2 keyboard interface, inspired by Apple's ADB interface, was electronically identical to the long-established AT interface, but the cable connector was changed from the 5-pin DIN connector to the smaller 6-pin mini-DIN interface. The same connector and a similar synchronous serial interface was used for the PS/2 mouse port; the initial desktop Model 50 and Model 70 featured a new cableless internal design, based on use of interposer circuit boards to link the internal drives to the planar. Additionally these machines could be disassembled and reassembled for service without tools. Additionally, the PS/2 introduced a new software data area known as the Extended BIOS Data Area, its primary use was to add a new buffer area for the dedicated mouse port. This required making a change to the "traditional" BIOS Data Area, required to point to the base address of the EBDA. Another new PS/2 innovation was the introduction of bidirectional parallel ports which in addition to their traditional use for connecting a printer could now function as a high speed data transfer interface.
This allowed the use of new hardware such as parallel port scanners, CD-ROM drives, enhanced the capabilities of printers by allowing them to communicate with the host PC and send back signals instead of being a passive output device. Most of the initial range of PS/2 models
Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley. It is the world's second largest and second highest valued semiconductor chip manufacturer based on revenue after being overtaken by Samsung, is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel ranked No. 46 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Intel supplies processors for computer system manufacturers such as Apple, Lenovo, HP, Dell. Intel manufactures motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphics chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. Intel Corporation was founded on July 18, 1968, by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove; the company's name was conceived as portmanteau of the words integrated and electronics, with co-founder Noyce having been a key inventor of the integrated circuit.
The fact that "intel" is the term for intelligence information made the name appropriate. Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, which represented the majority of its business until 1981. Although Intel created the world's first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer that this became its primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During this period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs and was known for aggressive and anti-competitive tactics in defense of its market position against Advanced Micro Devices, as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry; the Open Source Technology Center at Intel hosts PowerTOP and LatencyTOP, supports other open-source projects such as Wayland, Mesa3D, Intel Array Building Blocks, Threading Building Blocks, Xen. Client Computing Group – 55% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in desktop and notebook computers.
Data Center Group – 29% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in server and storage platforms. Internet of Things Group – 5% of 2016 revenues – offers platforms designed for retail, industrial and home use. Non-Volatile Memory Solutions Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – manufactures NAND flash memory and 3D XPoint, branded as Optane, products used in solid-state drives. Intel Security Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – produces software security, antivirus software. Programmable Solutions Group – 3% of 2016 revenues – manufactures programmable semiconductors. In 2017, Dell accounted for about 16% of Intel's total revenues, Lenovo accounted for 13% of total revenues, HP Inc. accounted for 11% of total revenues. According to IDC, while Intel enjoyed the biggest market share in both the overall worldwide PC microprocessor market and the mobile PC microprocessor in the second quarter of 2011, the numbers decreased by 1.5% and 1.9% compared to the first quarter of 2011. In the 1980s, Intel was among the top ten sellers of semiconductors in the world.
In 1992, Intel became the biggest chip maker by revenue and has held the position since. Other top semiconductor companies include TSMC, Advanced Micro Devices, Texas Instruments, Toshiba and STMicroelectronics. Competitors in PC chipsets include Advanced Micro Devices, VIA Technologies, Silicon Integrated Systems, Nvidia. Intel's competitors in networking include NXP Semiconductors, Broadcom Limited, Marvell Technology Group and Applied Micro Circuits Corporation, competitors in flash memory include Spansion, Qimonda, Toshiba, STMicroelectronics, SK Hynix; the only major competitor in the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices, with which Intel has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge after a certain time. However, the cross-licensing agreement is canceled in the event of takeover; some smaller competitors such as VIA Technologies produce low-power x86 processors for small factor computers and portable equipment.
However, the advent of such mobile computing devices, in particular, has in recent years led to a decline in PC sales. Since over 95% of the world's smartphones use processors designed by ARM Holdings, ARM has become a major competitor for Intel's processor market. ARM is planning to make inroads into the PC and server market. Intel has been involved in several disputes regarding violation of antitrust laws, which are noted below. Intel was founded in Mountain View, California, in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore, a chemist, Robert Noyce, a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit. Arthur Rock helped. Moore and Noyce had left Fairchild Semiconductor to found Intel. Rock was not an employee; the total initial investment in Intel was $10,000 from Rock. Just 2 years Intel became a public company via an initial public offering, raising $6.8 million. Intel's third employee was Andy Grove, a chemical engineer, who ran the company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s. In dec