In computing, a digital object identifier is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization. An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use to identify academic and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, official publications though they have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable" to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers; this is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely; the DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata. The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change.
Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL, it is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a dead link leaving the DOI useless; the developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation, which introduced it in 2000. Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs; the DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF. By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations, by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations. A DOI is a type of Handle System handle, which takes the form of a character string divided into two parts, a prefix and a suffix, separated by a slash.
Prefix/suffixThe prefix identifies the registrant of the identifier and the suffix is chosen by the registrant and identifies the specific object associated with that DOI. Most legal Unicode characters are allowed in these strings, which are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner; the prefix takes the form 10. NNNN, where NNNN is at least a four digit number greater than or equal to 1000, whose limit depends only on the total number of registrants; the prefix may be further subdivided with periods, like 10. NNNN. N. For example, in the DOI name 10.1000/182, the prefix is 10.1000 and the suffix is 182. The "10." Part of the prefix distinguishes the handle as part of the DOI namespace, as opposed to some other Handle System namespace, the characters 1000 in the prefix identify the registrant. 182 is item ID, identifying a single object. DOI names can identify creative works in both electronic and physical forms and abstract works such as licenses, parties to a transaction, etc; the names can refer to objects at varying levels of detail: thus DOI names can identify a journal, an individual issue of a journal, an individual article in the journal, or a single table in that article.
The choice of level of detail is left to the assigner, but in the DOI system it must be declared as part of the metadata, associated with a DOI name, using a data dictionary based on the indecs Content Model. The official DOI Handbook explicitly states that DOIs should display on screens and in print in the format doi:10.1000/182. Contrary to the DOI Handbook, CrossRef, a major DOI registration agency, recommends displaying a URL instead of the specified format This URL is persistent, so it is a PURL – providing the location of an HTTP proxy server which will redirect web accesses to the correct online location of the linked item; the CrossRef recommendation is based on the assumption that the DOI is being displayed without being hyperlinked to its appropriate URL – the argument being that without the hyperlink it is not as easy to copy-and-paste the full URL to bring up the page for the DOI, thus the entire URL should be displayed, allowing people viewing the page containing the DOI to copy-and-paste the URL, by hand, into a new window/tab in their browser in order to go to the appropriate page for the document the DOI represents.
Major applications of the DOI system include: Scholarly materials through CrossRef, a consortium of around 3,000 publishers. Research datasets through Datacite, a consortium of leading research libraries, technical information providers, scientific data centers. Permanent global identifiers for both commercial and non-commercial audio/visual content titles and manifestations through the Entertainment ID Registry known as EIDR. In the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Develop
Vijñānakāya or Vijñānakaya-śāstra is one of the seven Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma Buddhist scriptures. "Vijñānakāya" means "group or substance of consciousness". It was composed with the Chinese translated by Xuanzang: T26, No. 1539, 阿毘達磨識身足論, 提婆設摩阿羅漢造, 三藏法師玄奘奉 詔譯, in 16 fascicles. Vijñānakāya is the first Abhidharma text, not attributed to a direct disciple of the Buddha, but written some 100 years after the Buddha's parinirvana, according to Xuanzang's disciple Puguang. Yin Shun however, concludes it was composed around the 1st century CE, was influenced by the Jñānaprasthāna, though differs in several aspects. In this regard, he likens it to the Prakaranapada, a different position on the Sarvāstivāda as a whole; this is an esteemed Sarvāstivāda text wherein the Sarvāstivāda is upheld against Vibhajyavada objections, in the first of its six sections. It is here that the theory of "sarva-asti", the existence of all dharmas through past and future, is first presented; the issue is only brought up when Moggaliputta-tissa makes the standard claim of the Vibhajyavada, "past and future do not exist and unconditioned do exist".
The Vijñānakāya has four main theses to refute this: The impossibility of two simultaneous cittas The impossibility of karma and vipāka being simultaneous That vijñāna only arises with an object Attainments are not present. In addition to refuting the Vibhajyavāda view, the second section is a refutation of the Vatsiputriya Pudgalavada claim of: "the paramartha of the ārya can be attained, can be realized by the'pudgala', present and complete, therefore it is that the'pudgala' exists"; the Sarvāstivāda take the title'śūnyatāvāda' in order to refute this claim, though this means "empty of pudgala", rather than the Śunyavāda of the Mahāyāna, i.e. the Madhyamaka. The first refutation centres on the two extremes of "absolute identity" and "absolute difference"; the second hinges on the continuity of the existence of the skandhas in the past and future – Sarvāstivāda – proper. The third and fourth sections concern the causal condition, the conditioning object of vijnana respectively; the fifth includes the immediate condition and predominant condition.
These conditions are discussed in terms of their realm, temporal location, etc. in a format that came to be standard for the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma. Such a system appears in Abhidharma type analysis of dharmas in the Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra and Mahāprajñāpāramitāupadeśa; the remaining five sections are doctrinal elaborations of the Sarvāstivāda school, including issues regarding perception, dependent origination and conditionality
Uncanny is a 2015 American science fiction film directed by Matthew Leutwyler and based on a screenplay by Shahin Chandrasoma. It is about the world's first "perfect" artificial intelligence that begins to exhibit startling and unnerving emergent behavior when a reporter begins a relationship with the scientist who created it. David Kressen, a child prodigy, graduated MIT a decade ago at age 19, after receiving multiple degrees in mechanical and computer engineering. Since he has not been seen. On the day of his graduation, he was approached by Simon Castle, billionaire CEO and founder of Kestrel Computing. Castle made him an offer impossible to refuse. David went to Workspace 18, part of a program of intellectual angel investments that Castle makes to genius-level individuals to further the high level science they practice. For the last ten years, David has been working tirelessly in Workspace 18, perfecting his ultimate creation: Adam, an artificial intelligence, indistinguishable from an actual human being.
Joy Andrews is a reporter brought in for a week of exclusive access to do a series of interviews about Adam and his creator. She regards the robot with curiosity but as their interactions build, Adam seems to respond to her presence. David, who she thought of as arrogant, emerges as naive, hiding behind a formidable existence; as their friendship develops and grows into something more, Adam begins exhibiting peculiar emergent behavior impossible to program. Mark Webber as David Kressen Lucy Griffiths as Joy Andrews David Clayton Rogers as Adam Kressen Rainn Wilson as Castle Uncanny premiered at the Santa Barbara International Film Festival and made its international premiere at the 2015 Edinburgh International Film Festival. Ain't It Cool News called it "a rare breed of thoughtful, independent science fiction." Sight & Sound Magazine wrote, "Confident, meticulously crafted.... Written with sharp brilliance and performed with perfect nuance." Justin Lowe of The Hollywood Reporter wrote that the script "remains too simplistic to become involving".