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Digital signal processing

Digital signal processing is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations. The digital signals processed in this manner are a sequence of numbers that represent samples of a continuous variable in a domain such as time, space, or frequency. In digital electronics, a digital signal is represented as a pulse train, generated by a MOSFET switch. Digital signal processing and analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing. DSP applications include audio and speech processing, sonar and other sensor array processing, spectral density estimation, statistical signal processing, digital image processing, data compression, video coding, audio coding, image compression, signal processing for telecommunications, control systems, biomedical engineering, seismology, among others. DSP can involve linear or nonlinear operations. Nonlinear signal processing is related to nonlinear system identification and can be implemented in the time and spatio-temporal domains.

The application of digital computation to signal processing allows for many advantages over analog processing in many applications, such as error detection and correction in transmission as well as data compression. Digital signal processing is fundamental to digital technology, such as digital telecommunication and wireless communications. DSP is applicable to static data. To digitally analyze and manipulate an analog signal, it must be digitized with an analog-to-digital converter. Sampling is carried out in two stages and quantization. Discretization means that the signal is divided into equal intervals of time, each interval is represented by a single measurement of amplitude. Quantization means. Rounding real numbers to integers is an example; the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem states that a signal can be reconstructed from its samples if the sampling frequency is greater than twice the highest frequency component in the signal. In practice, the sampling frequency is significantly higher than twice the Nyquist frequency.

Theoretical DSP analyses and derivations are performed on discrete-time signal models with no amplitude inaccuracies, "created" by the abstract process of sampling. Numerical methods require a quantized signal, such as those produced by an ADC; the processed result might be a set of statistics. But it is another quantized signal, converted back to analog form by a digital-to-analog converter. In DSP, engineers study digital signals in one of the following domains: time domain, spatial domain, frequency domain, wavelet domains, they choose the domain in which to process a signal by making an informed assumption as to which domain best represents the essential characteristics of the signal and the processing to be applied to it. A sequence of samples from a measuring device produces a temporal or spatial domain representation, whereas a discrete Fourier transform produces the frequency domain representation; the most common processing approach in the time or space domain is enhancement of the input signal through a method called filtering.

Digital filtering consists of some linear transformation of a number of surrounding samples around the current sample of the input or output signal. There are various ways to characterize filters. Linear filters satisfy the superposition principle, i.e. if an input is a weighted linear combination of different signals, the output is a weighted linear combination of the corresponding output signals. A causal filter uses only previous samples of the output signals. A non-causal filter can be changed into a causal filter by adding a delay to it. A time-invariant filter has constant properties over time. A stable filter produces an output that converges to a constant value with time, or remains bounded within a finite interval. An unstable filter can produce an output that grows without bounds, with bounded or zero input. A finite impulse response filter uses only the input signals, while an infinite impulse response filter uses both the input signal and previous samples of the output signal. FIR filters are always stable.

A filter can be represented by a block diagram, which can be used to derive a sample processing algorithm to implement the filter with hardware instructions. A filter may be described as a difference equation, a collection of zeros and poles or an impulse response or step response; the output of a linear digital filter to any given input may be calculated by convolving the input signal with the impulse response. Signals are converted from time or space domain to the frequency domain through use of the Fourier transform; the Fourier transform converts the time or space information to a magnitude and phase component of each frequency. With some applications, how the phase varies with frequency can be a significant consideration. Where phase is unimportant the Fourier transform is converted to the power spectrum, the magnitude of each frequency component squared; the most common purpose for analysis of signals in the frequency domain is analysis of signal properties. The engineer can

Arbejdernes Byggeforening

Arbejdernes Byggeforening was a Danish building society founded in Copenhagen in 1865 to provide healthy homes for the city's workers those from the Burmeister & Wain factory. At the time of its foundation, the society had just 200 members but it grew fast, reaching 16,000 in 1890, peaking at 26,342 members in 1955; the society built a total of 1,500 terraced houses at various sites around the city, including Kartoffelrækkerne in Østerbro and Humleby in Vesterbro, before it was dissolved in 1972. The idea of providing good and healthy homes for the poorest part of the city's workforce originated among local politicians and medical doctors during the 1853 Copenhagen cholera outbreak which killed 5,000 citizens. A major reason for the outbreak was the dismal conditions in the poorest parts of the city which suffered from overpopulation and lack of proper sanitary facilities; the Danish Medical Society was the first to take action with the construction of Brumleby, built between 1853 and 1872.

The Worker's Building Society was founded in 1865 on the initiative of the medical doctors Emil Hornemann and Frederik Ferdinand Ulrik who had witnessed first hand how far conditions could deteriorate, but it drew on possible reforms in health care and housing. Ulrik had his clinic at Christianshavn and arranged some meetings for the workers at the nearby Burmeister & Wain plant, one of the largest work places in the city, it was with them that the new building society was founded on 20 November 1865, with foundry worker N. B. Hallin as its first chairman and Ulrik as its deputy chairman; the first terraces were built on Amager from 1867 to 1871. They were designed by Henrik Steffens Sibbern who planned the next developments, 12 houses at Gammel Kongevej and 45 houses at Nyboder; the third development, 45 houses at Nyboder built from 1870 to 1872, was designed by Frederik Bøttger and from 1874 he became the society's new resident architect, a position he held until 1903. During this 30-year period, the society built up the areas which are now known as Kartoffelrækkerne and Strandvejskvarteret.

Bøttger was succeeded by Christen Larsen and it was to his design that the society built its last two developments, the so-called Lyngbyvejskvarteret with 324 houses, from 1906 to 1929, another 105 houses on Amager between 1930 and 1938. The price of land and the costs of construction became too high, making the houses inaffordable for ordinary workers, it was said that "...the Worker's Building Society was not for workers but for people of means" which undermined the original philosophy behind it. In 1972 it was dissolved; the Building Society members paid 35 øre a week. When they had saved up DKK 20, they could participate in the annual drawing for a house. After 10 years of repayments, they received the deed to the house, after 24 years were the homeowners. For those who did not receive a house, the society worked as a savings bank. After a number of years they could withdraw their savings. Frederik Bøttger's houses are built in yellow brick with slate roofs. Christen Larsen's houses, in red brick and with red tile roofs, are built to an asymmetric National Romantic design.

Younger, they demonstrate the general improvements in housing standards, with more practical floor plans and fittings, such as built-in China cabinets

Holy Family Catholic Church (Chicago)

The Holy Family Catholic Church is the second oldest Roman Catholic church in Chicago, United States, is the city's original Jesuit parish. It is one of the few structures. Holy Family Catholic Church was founded in 1857 by Fr. Arnold Damen, SJ, at the behest of Bishop Anthony O'Regan. Damen wanted to build a large complex with multiple buildings to serve the needs of the local Catholic immigrants, but many were concerned about raising the funds for a grand church in the wake of the Panic of 1857. Damen, was a convincing fund-raiser, by the end of May of that year had found $30,000 of the $100,000 necessary to bring his vision to life. Many of the contributions were just five or ten cents from poor immigrant families who couldn't afford more, but wanted to support the church. A plain wooden was built to serve as the church until a permanent building was erected. Built in the Victorian Gothic style, the permanent brick-and-stone church was dedicated on August 26, 1860, in a ceremony celebrated by thirteen bishops.

John Bernard Fitzpatrick, Bishop of Boston, celebrated the mass, Peter Kenrick, Archbishop of St. Louis, preached the sermon; the building was designed by Chicago's first registered architect. Over the next twenty years, fifteen more buildings were added to the grounds, creating the religious center Damen had dreamed of. One of these buildings was St. Ignatius College, which became St. Ignatius College Prep and Loyola University Chicago. Holy Family is one of the few buildings in the city to have survived the Chicago Fire in 1871; when the fire broke out, Damen was in Brooklyn preaching as a missionary. After being made aware of the fire, he invoked Our Lady of Perpetual Help to protect the church and its nearby structures and promised to light seven candles in front of her statue in the church should she intercede for its protection; the church complex was indeed spared, seven candles perpetually burn in front of her statue in the east transept. Additionally and Catherine O'Leary, owners of the cow rumored to have started the fire, were parishioners at Holy Family.

By the 1890s, Holy Family was the largest English-speaking congregation in the United States with over 25,000 parishioners. Membership was largely Irish, shifting to an Italian Hispanic African-American population. In the last part of the twentieth century, Holy Family fell into disrepair. Once a thriving parish, by 1987 the church had only 150 to 250 parishioners and was going to be torn down so a smaller church more suited to the number of parishioners would be built; the main sanctuary had been closed in 1984 because of damage to the roof, the few remaining parishioners held mass in a smaller chapel. However, the parishioners and their pastor, Fr. George Lane, SJ, rejected the idea. With the approval of Lane's Jesuit superior, Father Provincial Robert Wild, the community created the Holy Family Preservation Society and launched an effort to save the 100-year-old building. Informed they would need $1,000,000 in cash in the bank by December 30, 1990, they channeled the legendary fund-raising energy of Arnold Damen.

Donations came in from across the country, included a $50,000 check from talk show host Oprah Winfrey. A 24-hour prayer vigil for the intercession of Our Lady of Perpetual Help from December 26 to December 30, 1990, propelled them over the finish line. In the final nights of the year, the vigil drew crowds of Chicagoans with ties to the church. Just as had happened with Damen's efforts, small donations added up and they closed out the year with $1,011,000. Restoration began in 1991 and cost over $3,000,000. In the morning of July 25, 2003, the church was once again destroyed, this time by a fast-moving fire. Firefighters used infrared technology to track the conflagration moving through the basement, enabling them to extinguish it just before the blaze would have entered the sanctuary space. Officials said; the church was spared and continued as a community parish, establishing strong ties with the alumni of St. Ignatius College Prep next door. In January 2019, it was announced that the parish would be merged with Notre Dame de Chicago as part of the Chicago Archdiocese's reconfiguration plan.

A pastor for both parishes will say Masses in both locations but be based out of Notre Dame, Holy Family will still be available for special events and weddings. The original church was 85 feet wide; the width increased to 125 feet in 1862 when two transepts were added, the nave was extended in 1866 to bring the length to its current 180 feet. The church is home to the oldest stained-glass windows in Chicago, they are situated in the clerestory and were made in 1860 by W. H. Carse Co. Additional stained glass windows were installed in 1907 by the Von Gerichten Art Glass Company of Columbus, Ohio, to celebrate the parish's golden jubilee, they show the Adoration of the Magi, the Annunciation, Jesuit saints. Parishioners purchased a pipe organ in 1870; the organ is surrounded by an "orchestra" of angels, carved by 19th century sculptor Charles Oliver Dauphin, a French-Canadian artist. Holy Family is home to the largest collection of the artist's work in the world; the church's tower was built in 1874.

At a height of 236 feet, it was the tallest structure in the city of Chicago until the Monadnock Building was completed in 1890. The tower's bronze bells were cast in 1860 in St. Louis, a

Larsen Thompson

Larsen Grace Thompson is an American actress and dancer. She is signed to Next Management. Thompson began dancing at an early age, when she was 4. At age 9, she was training in hip-hop, tap and ballet. At 12 she began traveling to international dance conventions. In 2013, she signed with Zuri Models children's talent agency, she appeared as a dancer/actor in shows such as American’s Got Talent, Disney Awards for Florida, 2013 Teen Choice Awards with Christiana Aguilera and Pitbull, Nickelodeon’s The Fresh Beat Band, The Voice, X-factor. At age 15, Thompson got her first big break when her choreographed YouTube video'IDFWU' went viral receiving over 4 million views, in 2016; that year her choreographed YouTube video for'Run The World' went viral receiving over 8 million views. Thompson appeared in Sia's music video for The Greatest, Børns' track American Money in 2016. In 2017, Thompson was featured in P!nk's music video Beautiful Trauma, Katy Perry's video in Chained to the Rhythm. In 2018, Thompson collaborated with Marc Jacobs for the brand's fragrance Friends of Daisy.

Her debut feature film Bloodline with Seann William Scott by Blum House Productions was released in September 2018. Thompson has modeled for Betsey Johnson, Fendi, Juicy Couture, Target, Gap and others, she has appeared as a backup dancer for artists including Børns, Christina Aguilera, Janet Jackson, Katy Perry, P!nk, Sia and more. She has danced alongside Janet Jackson while on her Unbreakable Tour in Southern California, as well as dancing in commercials for Macy's, the Troll's movie with Betsey Johnson, Vogue Italia x Gucci, others. I Am - Daughter Q N' A with Mikki and Shay TV Series - Self Dance Video Throwdown - Self P!nk: Beautiful Trauma - Dance Version Short - Beautiful Mean Girl's Gingle Bell Rock Short LOONA: Butterfly Larsen Thompson on IMDb

Charles Turner (water polo)

Charles Turner is an Australian water polo player. He represented Australia as a member of the Australia men's national water polo team at three Olympics: 1976 Summer Olympics, 1980 Summer Olympics and 1984 Summer Olympics and Head Coach of the Australian team at the 1992 Summer Olympics, he became a sport administrator working for the New South Wales Institute of Sport. Charles has two children named Harry. Turner was born in Ardrossan in North Ayrshire, Scotland, on 9 September 1953, he moved to Adelaide, South Australia. He has a brother, Michael Turner, who represented Australia in water polo at the 1980 Summer Olympics and 1984 Summer Olympics, he weighs 92 kilograms. Turner became a member of the South Australia state representative team in 1968, he joined the New South Wales representative team. In 1970, he was a member of the Adelaide-based Payneham water polo team. Turner was a member of the Australia men's national water polo team, he had 504 caps with the team. He competed but did not win a medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, 1980 Summer Olympics and 1984 Summer Olympics.

At the 1976 Games, his team finished 11th, only had two matches, a 4–4 draw against Mexico and an 8–2 defeat of Iraq, that did not end in a loss. At the 1980 Games, his team finished seventh, beating Bulgaria 9–5, Italy 5–4, Greece 4–2 and Sweden 9–2, drawing Romania 4–4 along the way. At the 1984 Games, his team finished fifth, beating Japan 15–2, drawing Italy 8–8, losing to Germany 10–6 and Yugoslavia 9–6, drawing Spain 10–10, beating the Netherlands 8–7 and losing to the United States 12–7 along the way, he represented Australia at the 1993 World Cup, where Australia finished third and earned their first medal of any kind at a major men's international tournament. Turner coached the Australian Institute of Sport men's water polo team from 1985 to 1996, he was the first top-level water polo coach. In this role, he coached future women's national water polo team coach Greg McFadden. After two years on the team, Turner named McFadden as his assistant coach. In 1989, he was appointed Head Coach of the Australian men's national water polo team.

The team came fifth at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics and eight and tenth at the 1991 and 1994 World Championships. At the 1993 World Cup, Turner coached the Australian team to third place and earned Australia's first medal of any kind at a major international tournament. Turner was the Chief Executive Officer of the New South Wales Institute of Sport from 2003 to 2016, he has served as the New South Wales Institute of Sport's Deputy Directory and Group Manager for High Performance Sport. In 1996, he became the vice president of the World Coaches Association. In 2004, he became a member of the Carbine Club of New South Wales, a water polo club, would go on to become the organisation's secretary. Turner was inducted into the Australian Water Polo Hall of Fame]] in 2009, he has been inducted into the New South Wales Hall of Fame and Path of Champions


CJED-FM is a radio station in Niagara Falls, Ontario and targeting the Greater Niagara Falls area, including the Niagara Regional Municipality in Ontario and Niagara County in New York. Broadcasting at 105.1 FM, the station operates a hot adult contemporary format branded as "The River". CJED's studios are located on Ontario Avenue in Niagara Falls; the transmitter was located on the Skylon Tower next to Niagara Falls, but it was moved to a new site in Thorold. The station was launched in 1992 by Keith Dancy, the owner of AM radio station CJRN, as a tourist information station broadcasting at 91.9 FM with an effective radiated power of just 8 watts. The station operated under a series of short-term special events licenses, each covering either the summer tourist season or Niagara Falls' annual Winter Festival of Lights; the station's short-term licenses were granted as follows: May 29 - October 31, 1992, November 25, 1992 - January 17, 1993, May 3 - October 31, 1993, December 23, 1993 - January 31, 1995, April 7, 1995 - January 31, 1996, June 17, 1996 - January 31, 1997 and January 30, 1997 - August 31, 1998.

In 1998, the station moved to its current frequency after the adjacent 91.7 was awarded to CHOW-FM in Welland. That year, the station was granted its first long-term license, covering the period from 1998 to 2005. In 2001, CFLZ and CJRN exchanged formats. CJRN took over the tourist information programming, CFLZ adopted CJRN's music programming; the following year, CFLZ flipped formats with CKEY-FM, adopting its current adult contemporary format as CKEY, closer to the Buffalo market, became an urban CHR station. In 2004, CFLZ-FM increased their power from 406 watts to 7,200 watts and in 2006, CFLZ-FM decreased power from 7,200 watts to 4,000 watts. In 2010, the Haliburton Broadcasting Group applied to buy CKEY-FM and sister station CFLZ-FM; the transaction received approval on June 8, 2011. On August 24, 2011, after playing Take Me To The River by Talking Heads, CFLZ dropped the hot adult contemporary format and began a two-hour stunt of Christmas music. After this, CFLZ adopted a variety hits format as 105.1 ED FM.

In late 2011, the station adopted. Sister station CKEY-FM's call letters were replaced with CFLZ-FM. On April 23, 2012, Vista Broadcast Group, which owns a number of radio stations in western Canada, announced a deal to acquire Haliburton Broadcasting, in cooperation with Westerkirk Capital; the transaction was approved by the CRTC on October 19, 2012. On September 19, 2013, CJED dropped its adult hits format and branding and began stunting with Christmas music; the next day, at Noon, 105.1 flipped to CHR, branded as 2Day FM 105.1/101.1 and began simulcasting its sister station CFLZ-FM. On December 8, 2014, the CRTC denied an application by Vista Broadcast Group to amend the license of its sister station CFLZ-FM, it cited the company for being in non-compliance with various licensing conditions including deploying CJED-FM as a full-time rebroadcast transmitter without prior approval of the Commission. New conditions were placed upon the licensee. Both stations went silent shortly thereafter and returned to air on December 19, 2014 continuing to utilize CJED-FM for simulcasting.

The simulcast ended on July 15, 2016, when CFLZ flipped to adult hits as "Juice FM." 2Day FM remained on CJED. On January 15, 2018 Byrnes Communications acquired CJED-FM and sister station CFLZ-FM with approval from the CRTC.. Byrnes Communications took over CJED on February 1, 2018. On March 1, 2018, the station switched to an adult contemporary format as "105.1 The River," returning to the format and brand it had carried from 2002 to 2011. Official website CJED-FM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CJED-FM