Field-programmable gate array
A Field-Programmable Gate Array is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing – hence the term "field-programmable". The FPGA configuration is specified using a hardware description language, similar to that used for an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit. Circuit diagrams were used to specify the configuration, but this is rare due to the advent of electronic design automation tools. FPGAs contain an array of programmable logic blocks, a hierarchy of "reconfigurable interconnects" that allow the blocks to be "wired together", like many logic gates that can be inter-wired in different configurations. Logic blocks can be configured to perform complex combinational functions, or simple logic gates like AND and XOR. In most FPGAs, logic blocks include memory elements, which may be simple flip-flops or more complete blocks of memory. Many FPGAs can be reprogrammed to implement different logic functions, allowing flexible reconfigurable computing as performed in computer software.
Contemporary Field-Programmable Gate Arrays have large resources of logic gates and RAM blocks to implement complex digital computations. As FPGA designs employ fast I/O rates and bidirectional data buses, it becomes a challenge to verify correct timing of valid data within setup time and hold time. Floor planning enables resource allocation within FPGAs to meet these time constraints. FPGAs can be used to implement any logical function; the ability to update the functionality after shipping, partial re-configuration of a portion of the design and the low non-recurring engineering costs relative to an ASIC design, offer advantages for many applications. Some FPGAs have analog features in addition to digital functions; the most common analog feature is a programmable slew rate on each output pin, allowing the engineer to set low rates on loaded pins that would otherwise ring or couple unacceptably, to set higher rates on loaded pins on high-speed channels that would otherwise run too slowly. Common are quartz-crystal oscillators, on-chip resistance-capacitance oscillators, phase-locked loops with embedded voltage-controlled oscillators used for clock generation and management and for high-speed serializer-deserializer transmit clocks and receiver clock recovery.
Common are differential comparators on input pins designed to be connected to differential signaling channels. A few "mixed signal FPGAs" have integrated peripheral analog-to-digital converters and digital-to-analog converters with analog signal conditioning blocks allowing them to operate as a system-on-a-chip; such devices blur the line between an FPGA, which carries digital ones and zeros on its internal programmable interconnect fabric, field-programmable analog array, which carries analog values on its internal programmable interconnect fabric. The FPGA industry sprouted from programmable read-only memory and programmable logic devices. PROMs and PLDs both had the option of being programmed in the field. However, programmable logic was hard-wired between logic gates. Altera was founded in 1983 and delivered the industry's first reprogrammable logic device in 1984 – the EP300 – which featured a quartz window in the package that allowed users to shine an ultra-violet lamp on the die to erase the EPROM cells that held the device configuration.
In December 2015, Intel acquired Altera. Xilinx co-founders Ross Freeman and Bernard Vonderschmitt invented the first commercially viable field-programmable gate array in 1985 – the XC2064; the XC2064 had programmable gates and programmable interconnects between gates, the beginnings of a new technology and market. The XC2064 had 64 configurable logic blocks, with two three-input lookup tables. More than 20 years Freeman was entered into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his invention. In 1987, the Naval Surface Warfare Center funded an experiment proposed by Steve Casselman to develop a computer that would implement 600,000 reprogrammable gates. Casselman was successful and a patent related to the system was issued in 1992. Altera and Xilinx continued unchallenged and grew from 1985 to the mid-1990s, when competitors sprouted up, eroding significant market share. By 1993, Actel was serving about 18 percent of the market. By 2013, Altera and Xilinx together represented 77 percent of the FPGA market.
The 1990s were a period of rapid growth for FPGAs, both in circuit sophistication and the volume of production. In the early 1990s, FPGAs were used in telecommunications and networking. By the end of the decade, FPGAs found their way into consumer and industrial applications. A recent trend has been to take the coarse-grained architectural approach a step further by combining the logic blocks and interconnects of traditional FPGAs with embedded microprocessors and related peripherals to form a complete "system on a programmable chip"; this work mirrors the architecture created by Ron Perlof and Hana Potash of Burroughs Advanced Systems Group in 1982 which combined a reconfigurable CPU architecture on a single chip called the SB24. Examples of such hybrid technologies can be found in the Xilinx Zynq-7000 All Programmable SoC, which includes a 1.0 GHz dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor embedded within the FPGA's logic fabric or in the Altera Arria V FPGA, which includes an 800 MHz dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore.
The Atmel FPSLIC is another such device, which uses an AVR processor in combination with Atmel's programmable logic architecture. The Mic
Speedpass is a keychain RFID device introduced in 1997 by Mobil Oil Corp. for electronic payment. It was developed by Verifone; as of 2004, more than seven million people possess Speedpass tags, which can be used at 10,000 Exxon and Esso gas stations worldwide. At one point, Speedpass was deployed experimentally in fast-food restaurants and supermarkets in select markets. McDonald's alone deployed Speedpass in over 400 Chicago area restaurants; the test was deemed a failure and McDonald's removed the scanners from all their restaurants in mid-2004. Additionally, the New England grocery chain Stop & Shop tested Speedpass at their Boston area stores. Speedpass has been available through a Speedpass Car Tag and a Speedpass-enabled Timex watch. Speedpass was one of the first deployed consumer RFID payment systems of its kind, debuting nationwide in 1997 far ahead of today's VISA and MasterCard RFID trials, the RFID/EPC privacy controversy; the ExxonMobil Speedpass is based on the Texas Instruments TIRIS RFID platform.
It was designed by Verifone in two configurations. The ExxonMobil Speedpass uses a cryptographically-enabled tag with a Digital Signature Transponder which incorporates a weak, proprietary encryption scheme to perform a challenge-response protocol. On January 29, 2005, RSA Security and a group of students from Johns Hopkins University broke the proprietary encryption algorithm used by the Exxon-Mobil Speedpass, they were able to copy a Speedpass and use the copied RFID tag to purchase gas. In an attempt to prevent fraud, Speedpass users are now required to enter their zip code into scanners at some gas stations. During the 1998 development of the RF250 convenience store reader, some prototype units were shipped from Verifone in Rocklin, California, to a Verifone office in Florida; the units were thought to have been lost in transit. They were found, despite each unit having a Verifone logo and being encased in boxes showing the Verifone logo. Rather, the units turned up via a query for "flying red horse" since the units displayed a small Mobil logo—and the Mobil logo was and is a red Pegasus.
The internal codename for the project was thus changed to "Flying Red Horse" Exxon Mobil has announced that the RFID based key tag will be retired by June 30, 2019. Exxon Mobil is directing users to use the Speedpass+ app on their smartphone; the smart phone app uses the phones location data to pay at the pump using the app. The app detects the users location which prompts the user to input the pump number they are using. Conversely if location services are not activated for the app, the user can scan a QR code on the pump to activate pay at the pump functionality. Pay at the pump Loyalty program ExxonMobil Speedpass site ExxonMobil Speedpass Location Finder site Business Week, Mar. 10, 1997
In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher. Ciphertext is known as encrypted or encoded information because it contains a form of the original plaintext, unreadable by a human or computer without the proper cipher to decrypt it. Decryption, the inverse of encryption, is the process of turning ciphertext into readable plaintext. Ciphertext is not to be confused with codetext because the latter is a result of a code, not a cipher. Let m be the plaintext message that Alice wants to secretly transmit to Bob and let E k be the encryption cipher, where k is a cryptographic key. Alice must first transform the plaintext into ciphertext, c, in order to securely send the message to Bob, as follows: c = E k. In a symmetric-key system, Bob knows Alice's encryption key. Once the message is encrypted, Alice can safely transmit it to Bob. In order to read Alice's message, Bob must decrypt the ciphertext using E k − 1, known as the decryption cipher, D k: D k = D k = m.
Alternatively, in a non-symmetric key system, not just Alice and Bob, knows the encryption key. Only Bob knows the decryption key D k, decryption proceeds as D k = m; the history of cryptography began thousands of years ago. Cryptography uses a variety of different types of encryption. Earlier algorithms were performed by hand and are different from modern algorithms, which are executed by a machine. Historical pen and paper ciphers used in the past are sometimes known as classical ciphers, they include: Substitution cipher: the units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext Polyalphabetic substitution cipher: a substitution cipher using multiple substitution alphabets Polygraphic substitution cipher: the unit of substitution is a sequence of two or more letters rather than just one Transposition cipher: the ciphertext is a permutation of the plaintext Historical ciphers are not used as a standalone encryption technique because they are quite easy to crack. Many of the classical ciphers, with the exception of the one-time pad, can be cracked using brute force.
Modern ciphers are more secure than classical ciphers and are designed to withstand a wide range of attacks. An attacker should not be able to find the key used in a modern cipher if he knows any amount of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext. Modern encryption methods can be divided into the following categories: Private-key cryptography: the same key is used for encryption and decryption Public-key cryptography: two different keys are used for encryption and decryptionIn a symmetric key algorithm, the sender and receiver must have a shared key set up in advance and kept secret from all other parties. In an asymmetric key algorithm, there are two separate keys: a public key is published and enables any sender to perform encryption, while a private key is kept secret by the receiver and enables only him to perform correct decryption. Symmetric key ciphers can be divided into block ciphers and stream ciphers. Block ciphers operate on fixed-length groups of bits, called blocks, with an unvarying transformation.
Stream ciphers encrypt plaintext digits one at a time on a continuous stream of data and the transformation of successive digits varies during the encryption process. Cryptanalysis is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information, required to do so; this involves knowing how the system works and finding a secret key. Cryptanalysis is referred to as codebreaking or cracking the code. Ciphertext is the easiest part of a cryptosystem to obtain and therefore is an important part of cryptanalysis. Depending on what information is available and what type of cipher is being analyzed, crypanalysts can follow one or more attack models to crack a cipher. Ciphertext-only: the cryptanalyst has access only to a collection of ciphertexts or codetexts Known-plaintext: the attacker has a set of ciphertexts to which he knows the corresponding plaintext Chosen-plaintext attack: the attacker can obtain the ciphertexts corresponding to an arbitrary set of plaintexts of his own choosing Batch chosen-plaintext attack: where the cryptanalyst chooses all plaintexts before any of them are encrypted.
This is the meaning of an unqualified use of "chosen-plaintext attack". Adaptive chosen-plaintext attack: where the cryptanalyst makes a series of interactive queries, choosing subsequent plaintexts based on the information from the previous encryptions. Chosen-ciphertext attack: the attacker can obt
Radio-frequency identification uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags may operate hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method of automatic identification and data capture. RFID tags are used in many industries. For example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line. Since RFID tags can be attached to cash and possessions, or implanted in animals and people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised serious privacy concerns; these concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues. ISO/IEC 18000 and ISO/IEC 29167 use on-chip cryptography methods for untraceability and reader authentication, over-the-air privacy.
ISO/IEC 20248 specifies a digital signature data structure for RFID and barcodes providing data and read method authenticity. This work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques. Tags can be used in shops to expedite checkout, to prevent theft by customers and employees. In 2014, the world RFID market was worth US$8.89 billion, up from US$7.77 billion in 2013 and US$6.96 billion in 2012. This figure includes tags and software/services for RFID cards, labels and all other form factors; the market value is expected to rise to US$18.68 billion by 2026. In 1945, Léon Theremin invented a listening device for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with the added audio information. Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency. Though this device was a covert listening device, rather than an identification tag, it is considered to be a predecessor of RFID because it was passive, being energized and activated by waves from an outside source.
Similar technology, such as the IFF transponder, was used by the allies and Germany in World War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders are still used by most powered aircraft. Another early work exploring RFID is the landmark 1948 paper by Harry Stockman, who predicted that "... considerable research and development work has to be done before the remaining basic problems in reflected-power communication are solved, before the field of useful applications is explored." Mario Cardullo's device, patented on January 23, 1973, was the first true ancestor of modern RFID, as it was a passive radio transponder with memory. The initial device was passive, powered by the interrogating signal, was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port Authority and other potential users, it consisted of a transponder with 16 bit memory for use as a toll device. The basic Cardullo patent covers the use of RF, light as transmission media; the original business plan presented to investors in 1969 showed uses in transportation, banking and medical.
An early demonstration of reflected power RFID tags, both passive and semi-passive, was performed by Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle, Robert Frayman at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973. The portable system operated at 915 MHz and used 12-bit tags; this technique is used by the majority of today's microwave RFID tags. The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton in 1983. A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response. RFID tags can be either active or battery-assisted passive. An active tag periodically transmits its ID signal. A battery-assisted passive has a small battery on board and is activated when in the presence of an RFID reader. A passive tag is smaller because it has no battery. However, to operate a passive tag, it must be illuminated with a power level a thousand times stronger than for signal transmission.
That makes a difference in exposure to radiation. Tags may either be read-only, having a factory-assigned serial number, used as a key into a database, or may be read/write, where object-specific data can be written into the tag by the system user. Field programmable tags may be write-once, read-multiple. RFID tags contain at least three parts: an integrated circuit that stores and processes information and that modulates and demodulates radio-frequency signals; the tag information is stored in a non-volatile memory. The RFID tag includes either fixed or programmable logic for processing the transmission and sensor data, respectively. An RFID reader transmits an e
In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called a block, with an unvarying transformation, specified by a symmetric key. Block ciphers operate as important elementary components in the design of many cryptographic protocols, are used to implement encryption of bulk data; the modern design of block ciphers is based on the concept of an iterated product cipher. In his seminal 1949 publication, Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems, Claude Shannon analyzed product ciphers and suggested them as a means of improving security by combining simple operations such as substitutions and permutations. Iterated product ciphers carry out encryption in multiple rounds, each of which uses a different subkey derived from the original key. One widespread implementation of such ciphers, named a Feistel network after Horst Feistel, is notably implemented in the DES cipher. Many other realizations of block ciphers, such as the AES, are classified as substitution–permutation networks.
The publication of the DES cipher by the United States National Bureau of Standards in 1977 was fundamental in the public understanding of modern block cipher design. It influenced the academic development of cryptanalytic attacks. Both differential and linear cryptanalysis arose out of studies on the DES design; as of 2016 there is a palette of attack techniques against which a block cipher must be secure, in addition to being robust against brute-force attacks. A secure block cipher is suitable only for the encryption of a single block under a fixed key. A multitude of modes of operation have been designed to allow their repeated use in a secure way to achieve the security goals of confidentiality and authenticity. However, block ciphers may feature as building blocks in other cryptographic protocols, such as universal hash functions and pseudo-random number generators. A block cipher consists of two paired algorithms, one for encryption, E, the other for decryption, D. Both algorithms accept a key of size k bits.
The decryption algorithm D is defined to be the inverse function of encryption, i.e. D = E−1. More formally, a block cipher is specified by an encryption function E K:= E: k × n → n, which takes as input a key K of bit length k, called the key size, a bit string P of length n, called the block size, returns a string C of n bits. P is called the plaintext, C is termed the ciphertext. For each K, the function EK is required to be an invertible mapping on n; the inverse for E is defined as a function E K − 1:= D K = D: k × n → n, taking a key K and a ciphertext C to return a plaintext value P, such that ∀ K: D K = P. For example, a block cipher encryption algorithm might take a 128-bit block of plaintext as input, output a corresponding 128-bit block of ciphertext; the exact transformation is controlled using a second input – the secret key. Decryption is similar: the decryption algorithm takes, in this example, a 128-bit block of ciphertext together with the secret key, yields the original 128-bit block of plain text.
For each key K, EK is a permutation over the set of input blocks. Each key selects one permutation from the set of! Possible permutations. Most block cipher algorithms are classified as iterated block ciphers which means that they transform fixed-size blocks of plaintext into identical size blocks of ciphertext, via the repeated application of an invertible transformation known as the round function, with each iteration referred to as a round; the round function R takes different round keys Ki as second input, which are derived from the original key: M i = R K i where M 0 is the plaintext and M r the ciphertext, with r being the number of rounds. Key whitening is used in addition to this. At the beginning and the end, the data is modified with key material: M 0 = M ⊕ K 0 M i = R K
RSA Security LLC RSA Security, Inc. and doing business as RSA, is an American computer and network security company. RSA was named after the initials of its co-founders, Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman, after whom the RSA public key cryptography algorithm was named. Among its products are the RSA BSAFE cryptography libraries and the SecurID authentication token. RSA is known for incorporating backdoors developed by the NSA in its products, it organizes the annual RSA Conference, an information security conference. Founded as an independent company in 1982, RSA Security was acquired by EMC Corporation in 2006 for US$2.1 billion and operated as a division within EMC. When EMC was acquired by Dell Technologies in 2016, RSA became part of the Dell Technologies family of brands. RSA is based in Bedford, with regional headquarters in Bracknell and Singapore, numerous international offices. Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman, who developed the RSA encryption algorithm in 1977, founded RSA Data Security in 1982.
In 1994, RSA was against the Clipper Chip during the Crypto War. In 1995, RSA sent a handful of people across the hall to found Digital Certificates International, better known as VeriSign; the company called Security Dynamics acquired RSA Data Security in July 1996 and DynaSoft AB in 1997. In January 1997, it proposed the first of the DES Challenges which led to the first public breaking of a message based on the Data Encryption Standard. In February 2001, it acquired Xcert International, Inc. a held company that developed and delivered digital certificate-based products for securing e-business transactions. In May 2001, it acquired 3-G International, Inc. a held company that developed and delivered smart card and biometric authentication products. In August 2001, it acquired Securant Technologies, Inc. a held company that produced ClearTrust, an identity management product. In December 2005, it acquired Cyota, a held Israeli company specializing in online security and anti-fraud solutions for financial institutions.
In April 2006, it acquired PassMark Security. On September 14, 2006, RSA stockholders approved the acquisition of the company by EMC Corporation for $2.1 billion. In 2007, RSA acquired Valyd Software, a Hyderabad-based Indian company specializing in file and data security. In 2009, RSA launched the RSA Share Project; as part of this project, some of the RSA BSAFE libraries were made available for free. To promote the launch, RSA ran a programming competition with a US$10,000 first prize. In 2011, RSA introduced a new CyberCrime Intelligence Service designed to help organizations identify computers, information assets and identities compromised by trojans and other online attacks. In July 2013, RSA acquired Aveksa the leader in Identity and Access Governance sector On September 7, 2016, RSA was acquired by and became a subsidiary of Dell EMC Infrastructure Solutions Group through the acquisition of EMC Corporation by Dell Technologies in a cash and stock deal led by Michael Dell. On March 17, 2011 RSA disclosed an attack on its two-factor authentication products.
The attack was similar to the Sykipot attacks, the July 2011 SK Communications hack, the NightDragon series of attacks. RSA called it an Advanced Persistent Threat. RSA's relationship with the NSA has changed over the years. Reuter's Joseph Menn and cybersecurity analyst Jeffrey Carr have noted that the two once had an adversarial relationship. In its early years, RSA and its leaders were prominent advocates of strong cryptography for public use, while NSA and the Bush and Clinton administrations sought to prevent its proliferation. For 10 years, I've been going toe to toe with these people at Fort Meade; the success of this company is the worst thing. To them, we're the real enemy, we're the real target. We have the system. If the U. S. adopted RSA as a standard, you would have a international, unbreakable, easy-to-use encryption technology. And all those things together are so synergistically threatening to the N. S. A.'s interests. In the mid-1990s, RSA and Bidzos led a "fierce" public campaign against the Clipper Chip, an encryption chip with a backdoor that would allow the U.
S. government to decrypt communications. The Clinton administration pressed telecommunications companies to use the chip in their devices, relaxed export restrictions on products that used it. RSA joined civil libertarians and others in opposing the Clipper Chip by, among other things, distributing posters with a foundering sailing ship and the words "Sink Clipper!" RSA Security created the DES Challenges to show that the used DES encryption was breakable by well-funded entities like the NSA. The relationship shifted from adversarial to cooperative after Bidzos stepped down as CEO in 1999, according to Victor Chan, who led RSA's department engineering until 2005: "When I joined there were 10 people in the labs, we were fighting the NSA, it became a different company on." For example, RSA was reported to have accepted $10 million from the NSA in 2004 in a deal to use the NSA-designed Dual EC DRBG random number generator in their BSAFE library, despite many indications that Dual_EC_DRBG was both of poor quality and backdoored.
RSA Security released a statement about the Dual_EC_DRBG kleptographic backdoor: We made the decision to use Dual EC DRBG as the default in BSAFE toolkits in 2004, in the context of an industry-wide effort to develop newer, stronger methods of encryption. At that time, the NSA had a trusted role in the community-wide effort to strengthen, not weaken, e
Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins, his $7 million bequest —of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U. S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U. S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.
C. with international centers in Italy and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood; the medical school, the nursing school, the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university consists of the Peabody Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the School of Education, the Carey Business School, various other facilities. Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. Johns Hopkins University is cited as among the world's top universities; the university is ranked 10th among undergraduate programs at National Universities in U. S. News & World Report latest rankings, 10th among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2019 rankings, as well as 12th globally in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
Over the course of more than 140 years, 37 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014. On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States; the first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons for his father and that son would become the university's benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins."
Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh." The original board opted for an novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the Humboldtian model of higher education, the German education model of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it became dedicated to research. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States, its success shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and James B. Angell of Michigan, they each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University and he became the university's first president. Gilman, a Yale-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the University of California prior to this appointment.
In preparation for the university's founding, Gilman visited University of Freiburg and other German universities. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research, he dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are those who are free and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester. Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate support of faculty research; the new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations; the Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research-focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of acad