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Digital subchannel

In broadcasting, digital subchannels are a method of transmitting more than one independent program stream from the same digital radio or television station on the same radio frequency channel. This is done by using data compression techniques to reduce the size of each individual program stream, multiplexing to combine them into a single signal; the practice is sometimes called "multicasting". The ATSC digital television standard used in the United States supports multiple program streams over-the-air, allowing television stations to transmit one or more subchannels over a single digital signal. A virtual channel numbering scheme distinguishes broadcast subchannels by appending the television channel number with a period digit; the suffix indicates that a television station offers additional programming streams. By convention, the suffix position ".1" is used to refer to the station's main digital channel and the ".0" position is reserved for analog channels. For example, most of the owned-and-operated stations/affiliates of Ion Television transmit six streams in the following format: The most of any large broadcaster in the United States, Trinity Broadcasting Network stations transmit five channels and its subchannel services Hillsong Channel, JUCE TV/Smile, TBN Enlace USA and TBN Salsa.

More programming streams can be fit into a single channel space at the cost of broadcast quality. Among smaller stations, KAXT-CD in San Francisco is believed to have the most feeds of any individual over-the-air broadcaster, offering twelve video and several audio feeds. WANN-CD in Atlanta, with ten video and six audio feeds, comes at a close second. Several cable-to-air broadcasters, such as those in Willmar and Cortez, have multiplexed more than five separate cable television channels into subchannels of one signal. Operating in a sector traditionally lacking subchannels, digital cable television provider Music Choice packages its nearly 50 music channels as digital subchannels of one channel; this is possible as the only information sent over each channel are audio feeds and a still slide which rotates every 20 seconds, displaying an advertisement and information about the current playing song on the individual channel. The audio feed and rotating stills occupy less bandwidth than video feeds, leaving space for more multiplexed content.

A broadcaster saves significant costs in power and bandwidth through multiplexing in comparison to the cost of operating additional analog television stations to accommodate the extra programming. In practice, operating extra stations is impossible due to the required channel and distance separations combined with the available number of channels. Most ATSC tuners will automatically add a new digital subchannel to their internal channel map, once it is tuned to the station carrying the new channel. However, some of these will not delete the channel. Mobile DTV is carried on ATSC stations, but as a separate service, according to the ATSC-M/H standard; the Federal Communications Commission considers all subchannels carried by a single station to have the same call letters for legal identification purposes. However, within the broadcast sales industry, to differentiate subchannels, the initial letter of a call sign changes per subchannel; as per Nielsen, digital stations identified with a "W" call letter will have their subchannels identified with an "E", "G", "H", "I" or "J".

Digital stations identified with a "K" call-letter will have their subchannels identified with an "N", "O", "Q", "R" or "S". For example, if the call letters are WFRC and the station broadcasts on channel 10 the 10.2 subchannel is identified as EFRC, 10.3 is GFRC, 10.4 is HFRC, 10.5 is IFRC and 10.6 is JFRC. If the call letters are KFRC and the station broadcasts on channel 10 10.2 is identified as NFRC, 10.3 is OFRC, 10.4 is QFRC, 10.5 is RFRC and 10.6 is SFRC. Although digital television services in Canada use the same ATSC technology as the United States, none of the stations broadcasting a digital signal transmit any subchannel other than a possible HD service or a standard definition simulcast of the main channel. Unlike the FCC in the United States, the body that governs Canadian broadcasting licenses, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, requires stations to file license amendments in order to be considered for permission to carry digital subchannels. On August 17, 2012, the CRTC gave approval to Leamington, Ontario community station CFTV-TV to broadcast four local subchannels on its digital signal, making it the first station in Canada to launch original content on its multiplex channels.

Some Mexican TV stations use digital subchannels. The Sistema Público de Radiodifusión del Estado Mexicano, a public broadcaster, operates 26 multiplexed transmitters throughout Mexico carrying five to six public television services, while XHTRES-TDT carries Imagen Radio audio on a subchannel. One notable experiment involving digital subchannels in Mexico was undertaken by TV Azteca, which used its three muxes in the Mexico City area to broadcast a service called Hi-TV, featuring several channels encoded in H.264 MPEG-4 encoding, which wh

Sacrifice (2000 film)

Sacrifice is a 2000 thriller television film, starring Michael Madsen. It was based on a novel by Mitchell Smith and directed by Mark L. Lester. Tyler Pierce, a convicted bank robber who just escaped the prison, joins with a former call girl to investigate the murder of his daughter, they soon discover. Michael Madsen as Tyler Pierce Bokeem Woodbine as Agent Gottfried Jamie Luner as Naomi Cohen Diane Farr as Karen Yeager Deborah Shelton as Margaret Sackett Andy Webb from The Movie Scene gave the film three out of five stars and wrote: "What this all boils down to is that "Sacrifice" is a bad movie, yet all the wrong stuff ends up being as entertaining as the right stuff which makes "Sacrifice" enjoyable." Richard Scheib from Moria.co gave it two stars. Michael Madsen’s central character is unusually conceived as a hero goes and the film is plotted keeping one’s interest. Alas, Sacrifice fails to sustain such interest for its full length. Indeed, despite the unusualness of the central character and an interesting plot set-up, by about halfway point all of this has dissipated and Sacrifice has become a routine policier."

Jack Sommersby from eFilmCritic gave the movie two stars and wrote: "The film isn't terrible, just dull, with a who-cares hero registering near zero on both the dramatic and charismatic scale. I'd be happy to predict that Madsen has a good film in him somewhere down the line, but after seeing his 2009 slate of no less than twenty-eight projects, it's safe to concretely conclude that here's an ultra-slumming actor preferring quantity over quality. A The Wrestler couldn't come along soon enough." Sacrifice on IMDb Sacrifice at Rotten Tomatoes

Microcrambus biguttellus

Microcrambus biguttellus, the gold-stripe grass-veneer, is a moth in the family Crambidae. It was described by William Trowbridge Merrifield Forbes in 1920, it is found in North America, where it has been recorded from Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, New Brunswick, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Nova Scotia, Oklahoma, Quebec, South Carolina, Texas, West Virginia and Wisconsin. It has been recorded from Cuba and Puerto Rico; the length of the forewings is about 8 mm. The forewings are white with angled lines near the costa. There are black dots along the inner margin of the median line. Adults are on wing between May and September in most of the range; the larvae feed on grasses