Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th
Felipe Cazals is a Mexican film director and producer. His parents were from France but he is registered as born in Mexico, D. F, his wife is Rosa Eugenia Báez de Cazals. Together with Arturo Ripstein, Cazals is considered in Mexico one of the most representative film directors of his generation. With his films Las Inocentes, Las Poquianchis, El Apando and Canoa, he is considered to be one of the most creative and bitter-critic filmmaker in the history of Latin American movies. Canoa was entered into the 26th Berlin International Film Festival, where it won the Silver Bear - Special Jury Prize, his 1973 film Aquellos años was entered into the 8th Moscow International Film Festival where it won a Special Prize. Ciudadano Buelna Chico Grande Las Vueltas del citrillo Digna... hasta el último aliento Su alteza serenísima, His Most Serene Highness Kino Desvestidas y alborotadas Burbujas de amor La Furia de un dios Las Inocentes Testimonios de la revolución El Tres de copas La Dama solitaria Damian Dulce espiritu La Habitación que silva Pesadilla Los Motivos de Luz Centenario Bajo la metralla El Qué sabe, sabe Siete cucas, Las El Gran triunfo Rigo es amor El Año de la Peste La Guera Rodríguez Las Poquianchis The Heist Canoa Investigación cientifica Testimonios y documentos.
Felipe Cazals on IMDb
Berlin International Film Festival
The Berlin International Film Festival called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany. Founded in West Berlin in 1951, the festival has been held every February since 1978 and is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Cannes Film Festival. With around 300,000 tickets sold and 500,000 admissions each year, it has the largest public attendance of any annual film festival. Up to 400 films are shown in several sections across cinematic genres. Around twenty films compete for the festival's top awards, called the Golden Bear and several Silver Bears. Since 2001 the director of the festival has been Dieter Kosslick; the European Film Market, a film trade fair held to the Berlinale, is a major industry meeting for the international film circuit. The trade fair serves distributors, film buyers, financiers and co-production agents; the Berlinale Talents, a week-long series of lectures and workshops, is a gathering of young filmmakers held in partnership with the festival.
The film festival, EFM, other satellite events are attended by around 20,000 professionals from over 130 countries. More than 4200 journalists produce media coverage in over 110 countries. At some high-profile feature film premieres held during the festival, movie stars and celebrities are present on the red carpet; the Berlin International Film Festival was founded in West Berlin in 1951, with film historian Dr. Alfred Bauer as its first director, a position he would hold until 1976. Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca opened the first festival. Bauer was succeeded by film journalist Wolf Donner in 1976. After his first Berlinale in June 1977, he negotiated the shift of the festival from the summer to February, a change which has remained since. After only three years in the role, Donner was followed by Moritz de Hadeln who held the position from 1980 until current director Dieter Kosslick took over in 2001; the festival is composed of seven different film sections. Films are chosen in each category by a section director with the advice of a committee of film experts.
Categories include: Competition: comprises feature-length films yet to be released outside their country of origin. Films in the Competition section compete for several prizes, including the top Golden Bear for the best film and a series of Silver Bears for acting and production. Panorama: comprises new independent and arthouse films that deal with "controversial subjects or unconventional aesthetic styles". Films in the category are intended to provoke discussion, have involved themes such as LGBT issues. Forum: comprises experimental and documentary films from around the world with a particular emphasis on screening works by younger filmmakers. There are no format or genre restrictions, films in the Forum do not compete for awards. Generation: comprises a mixture of feature-length films aimed at children and youths. Films in the Generation section compete in two sub-categories: Generation Kplus and Generation 14plus. Awards in the section are determined by three separate juries—the Children's Jury, the Youth Jury and an international jury of experts—whose decisions are made independent of one another.
Perspektive Deutsches Kino: comprises a wide variety of German films, with an emphasis on highlighting current trends in German cinema. There are few entry requirements, enabling emerging filmmakers to display their work to domestic and international audiences. Berlinale Shorts: comprises domestic and international short films those that demonstrate innovative approaches to filmmaking. Films in the category compete for the Golden Bear for the best short film, as well as a jury-nominated Silver Bear. Retrospective: comprises classic films shown at the Berlinale, with films collated from the Competition, Forum and Generation categories; each year, the Retrospective section is dedicated to important filmmakers. The special Homage series examines past cinema, with a focus on honouring the life work of directors and actors. In addition to the seven sections, the Berlinale contains several linked "curated special series", including the Berlinale Special, Gala Special, Forum 5, Culinary Cinema and the Homage.
Since 2002 a 50-second trailer opens the performances in all sections of the festival with the exception of the Retrospective. The Golden Bear is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival. Golden Bear Best Motion Picture Best Short Film Lifetime Achievement Silver Bear The Silver Bear was introduced in 1956 as an award for individual achievements in direction and acting, for best short film. In 1965 a special film award for the runner-up to the Golden Bear was introduced. Although its official name was the Special Jury Prize from 1965 to 1999, has been the Jury Grand Prix since 2000, it is known as the Silver Bear as it is regarded as a second place award after the Golden Bear. In 2002 a Silver Bear for best film music, in 2008 an award for best screenplay. Jury Grand Prix Alfred Bauer Prize: in memory of the Festival Founder—for a feature film that opens new perspectives on cinematic art Best Director Best Actor Best Actress Best Short Film Outstanding Artistic Contribution - Not awarded every year, in some years more than one award is made.
Outstanding Single Achievement - Not a
Cinema of Mexico
The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the ending of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events – most the Mexican Revolution – and produced some movies that have only been rediscovered. During the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, Mexico all but dominated the Latin American film industry; the Guadalajara International Film Festival is the most prestigious Latin American film festival and is held annually In Guadalajara, Mexico. Mexico has twice won the highest honor at the Cannes Film Festival, having won the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film for Maria Candelaria in 1946 and the Palme d'Or in 1961 for Viridiana, more than any other Latin American nation. Mexico City is the fourth largest film and television production center in North America, as well as the largest in Latin America. In 2019, Roma became the first Mexican film and third Latin American film winning the Oscar for best Foreign language film.
The first "moving picture", according to sources by film historian Jim Mora, was viewed in 1895 using Thomas Edison's kinetoscope. A year the cinematographe projector was introduced by Auguste Lumière. Mexico's first queues appeared in cinemas in the capital to see international one-minute films such as The Card Players, Arrival of a Train, The Magic Hat; the "silent film" industry in Mexico produced several movies. The origins of early Mexican filmmaking is associated with Salvador Toscano Barragán. In 1898 Toscano made the country's first film with a plot, titled Don Juan Tenorio. During the Mexican Revolution, Toscano recorded several clips of the battles, which would become a full-length documentary in 1950, assembled by his daughter. Other short films were either influenced from French film-makers. By 1906, 16 movie salons opened their doors to accommodate the popularity of cinema in Mexico City. Carpas, or tent shows, were popular beginning in 1911 where lower-class citizens would perform picaresque humor and theatrical plays, a place for training for aspiring actors.
Politically affiliated films appearing in 1908 deemed propagandistic by today's terms. Significant battles were filmed and broadcast during the Revolution which fueled Mexicans' excitement in cinema; the popularity that cinema had experienced in the early 20th century continued to grow and by 1911 fourteen movie houses were erected over and above those of just the year prior. It was during this period that the documentary techniques were mastered as is evident in the Alva brother's production entitled Revolución orozquista; the film was shot in the camps of the rebel and federal forces during the battle between General Huerta and the rebel leader Pascual Orozco. However, despite the relative advancement of cinema during this period, the moralistic and paternalist ideology of Madero led to his campaign to save the lower classes from immorality through censorship. Hence, in late September and early October 1911, city council members appointed additional movie house inspectors, whose wages would be paid by the exhibitioners.
Furthermore, the head of the Entertainment Commission, proposed the implementation of censorship. Although Huerta's reign was brief, the cinema experienced significant changes within this period such as the further establishment of censorship and a shift away from documentary films to entertainment films; the Alva brothers' production of Aniversario del fallecimineto de la suegra de Enhart is indicative of the change in the aim of Mexican cinematographers. In regards to censorship, the Huerta government imposed a moral and political decree of censorship in June 1913; this decree was imposed a few days after convencionista soldiers shot at the screen during a viewing of El aguila y la serpiente. The decree stated that films that showed the following were prohibited: "views representing crimes, if they do not include punishment of the guilty parties, views which directly or indirectly insult an authority or person, morality or good manners, provoke a crime or offence, or in any way disturb the public order."
As a result of the limitations placed on film content as well as the radicalization of the parties involved in the armed conflicts and producers began to display their opinion through the films they produced. For instance, favoritism towards the Zapatistas was illustrated in the film Sangre Hermana. Due to the sensational content of this film, it is evident that the producers had no interest in displaying the events in such a way that the audience could come to their own conclusions; the cinematic productions of this period were reflective of the Italians style film d'art, which were fiction-based melodramas. The film La Luz was the first film that attempted to adopt this style though it was viewed as a plagiarism of Piero Fosco's Il Fuoco. Paranaguá attributes the influence that the Italian had on the Mexican cinema with the similarities between the situations of both countries. Both countries were in a state of chaos and disorder – there was a war in Italy and a revolution in Mexico. Once again censorship was re-established on October 1, 1919.
Films which illustrated acts of immortality or induced sympathy for the criminal were prohibited. In 1917, the former vaudeville star Mimí Derba, founded the Azteca Studios which realized notable films between 1917 and 1923; the most successful of these films was En defensa Propia. Government budget had to be trimmed as a result of the rebellion and cinematographic departm
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
Vanessa Bauche is a Mexican television and film actress. Bauche was born Alma Vanessa Bauche Chavira, named after actress Vanessa Redgrave, her father was a Gypsy who married a woman who aspired to be a dancer and singer. At the time of the marriage, her mother was sixteen years old and her father was a junior in high school; the couple divorced. After the divorce and her brother, spent three years traveling with their father, she and her brother settled down with their mother in Mexico City. Bauche went to the Centro de Educación Artística. In 2012, she was on the cover of Playboy Mexico, she received her starring role in a film as a drug-addicted prostitute in El Patrullero. After starring in a number of telenovelas she played a lead role in the international success Amores Perros. While Bauche has found success in both film and television, she maintains a steady career in theater. Ariel Award 1995: Nominated, "Best Supporting Actress" - Hasta morir 1999: Won, "Best Actress in a Minor Role" - Un embrujo 2002: Won, "Best Supporting Actress" - De la calle 2005: Nominated, "Best Actress" - Digna: Hasta el último alientoLleida Latin-American Film Festival 2006: Won, "Best Actress" - Al Otro Lado and Las vueltas del citrilloWestern Heritage Awards 2006: Won, "Outstanding Theatrical Motion Picture" - The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada Vanessa Bauche on IMDb
Secretariat of Culture
The Secretariat of Culture known as the National Council for Culture and Arts, is a Mexican government agency in charge of the nation's museums and monuments and protecting the arts, managing the national archives. It was a decentralized body of the Secretariat of Public Education. On December 18, 2015, CONACULTA was elevated to a secretariat following the passage of a law promoted three months earlier by President Enrique Peña Nieto. Diplomat and lawyer Rafael Tovar y de Teresa was the first culture secretary. Subsidiaries of the Secretariat of Culture include the Biblioteca Vasconcelos, the National Fund for Culture and the Arts, the Instituto Mexicano de la Cinematografía, the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia and Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura. Upon its creation, the Secretariat of Culture took control of CONACULTA's television station Canal 22, seen on air in Mexico City and relayed by 25 SPR transmitters, as well as Radio Educación, part of the SEP. Both stations transmit educational content.
Secretaría de Cultura —