The Ossetians or Ossetes are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the ethnolinguistic region known as Ossetia. They speak Ossetic, an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European languages family, with most fluent in Russian as a second language; the Ossetian language is neither related to nor mutually intelligible with any other language of the family today. Ossetic, a remnant of the Scytho-Sarmatian dialect group, once spoken across the Pontic–Caspian Steppe, is one of the few Iranian languages inside Europe; the Ossetians populate Ossetia, politically divided between North Ossetia–Alania in Russia, South Ossetia, a de facto independent state with partial recognition integrated in Russia and claimed by Georgia. Their closest relatives, the Jász, live in the Jászság region within the north-western part of the Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County in Hungary. Ossetians are Eastern Orthodox Christian, with sizable minorities professing Uatsdin or Islam; the Ossetians and Ossetia received their name from the Russians, who adopted the Georgian designations Osi and Oseti, used since the Middle Ages for the single Iranian-speaking population of the Central Caucasus and based on the old Alan self-designation "As".
As the Ossetians lacked any single inclusive name for themselves in their native language, these terms were accepted by the Ossetians themselves before their integration into the Russian Empire. This practice was put into question by the new Ossetian nationalism in the early 1990s, when the dispute between the Ossetian subgroups of Digoron and Iron over the status of the Digoron dialect made the Ossetian intellectuals search for a new inclusive ethnic name. This, combined with the effects of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, led to the popularization of "Alania", the name of the medieval Sarmatian confederation, to which the Ossetians traced their origin, inclusion of this name into the official republican title of North Ossetia in 1994. Iron in the east and south form a larger group of Ossetians, they speak Iron dialect. Irons are divided into several subgroups: Alagirs, Tagaurs, Tual and Chsan. Kudar are the southern group of Ossetians. Tual are in the central part of Ossetia. Chsan are in the east of South Ossetia.
Digoron in the west. Digors live in Digora district, Iraf district, some settlements in Kabardino-Balkaria and Mozdok district. Digors living in Digora district are Christian, they speak Digor dialect. The folk beliefs of the Ossetian people are rooted in their Sarmatian origin and Christian religion, with the pagan gods having been converted into Christian saints; the Nart saga serves as the basic pagan mythology of the region. The Ossetians descend from a Sarmatian tribe; the Alans were the only branch of the Sarmatians to keep their culture in the face of a Gothic invasion, those who remained built a great kingdom between the Don and Volga Rivers, according to Coon, The Races of Europe. Between 350 and 374 CE, the Huns destroyed the Alan kingdom, the Alan people were split in half. One half fled to the west, where they participated in the Barbarian Invasions of Rome, established short-lived kingdoms in Spain and North Africa, settled in many other places such as Orléans, France; the other half fled to the south and settled on the plains of the North Caucasus, where they established their medieval kingdom of Alania.
In the 8th century a consolidated Alan kingdom, referred to in sources of the period as Alania, emerged in the northern Caucasus Mountains in the location of the latter-day Circassia and the modern North Ossetia–Alania. At its height, Alania was a centralized monarchy with a strong military force and had a strong economy that benefited from the Silk Road. After the Mongol invasions of the 1200s, the Alans were forced out of their medieval homeland south of the River Don in present-day Russia. Due to this, the Alans migrated toward the Caucasus Mountains, where they would form three ethnographical groups; the Jassic people were a fourth group. In more-recent history, the Ossetians participated in the Ossetian–Ingush conflict and Georgian–Ossetian conflicts and in the 2008 South Ossetia war between Georgia and Russia. Key events: 1774 — North Ossetia becomes part of the Russian Empire. 1801 — Following the Treaty of Georgievsk, the modern-day territory of South Ossetia becomes part of the Russian Empire, along with Georgia.
1922 — Ossetia is divided into two parts: North Ossetia remains a part of the Russian SFSR, while South Ossetia remains a part of the Georgian SSR. 20 September 1990 – The independent Republic of South Ossetia is formed. Though it remained unrecognized, it detached itself from Georgia de facto. In the last years of the Soviet Union, ethnic tensions between Ossetians and Georgians in Georgia's former Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and between Ossetians and Ingush in North Ossetia evolved into violent clashes that left several hundred dead and wounded and created a large tide of refugees on both sides of the border; the Ossetian language belongs to the Eastern Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. Ossetian is divided into two main dialect groups: Ironian in South Ossetia. In these two groups are some subdialects, such as Tualian and Ksanian; the Ironian dial
Central Pashto is the standardized variety of Pashto which serves as a prestige Pashto dialect, is based on the northwestern or central dialect, spoken in the central Ghilji region, including the Afghan capital Kabul and some surrounding region. Central Pashto's vocabulary, however derives from Southern Pashto. Central Pashto is the literary variety of Pashto used in Afghan media. Central Pashto has been developed by Radio Television Afghanistan and Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan in Kabul, it has adopted neologisms to coin new terms from existing words or phrases and introduce them into the Pashto lexicon. Educated Standard Pashto is learned in the curriculum, taught in the primary schools in the country, it is used for written and formal spoken purposes, in the domains of media and government. This dialect of Pashto has been chosen as standard because the Pashtuns from north, south and west as well as those living in Pakistan and all around the world understand this dialect. There has been an effort to adopt a written form based on Latin script, but because of linking the Perso-Arabic based script with the religious views of Afghans, the effort of adapting a Roman alphabet has failed.
However, Pashto is written in Latin script outside Afghanistan by the 2nd and 3rd generation of Pashtun refugees many of whom never learned how to read and write the Perso-Arabic based Pashto alphabet. Pashto alphabet List of Pashto-language poets List of Pashto-language singers Pre-Islamic scripts in Afghanistan khyber.org pcgn.org.uk loc.gov abnea.com eki.ee Pashto English-English Pashto Dictionary Phrasebook Romanized
The Republic of North Ossetia – Alania is a federal subject of Russia. Its population according to the 2010 Census was 712,980, its capital is the city of Vladikavkaz. In the last years of the Soviet Union, as nationalist movements swept throughout the Caucasus, many intellectuals in the North Ossetian ASSR called for the revival of the name of Alania, a medieval kingdom of the Alans; the term of "Alania" became popular in Ossetian daily life through the names of various enterprises, a TV channel and civic organizations, publishing house, football team, etc. In November 1994, the name of "Alania" was added to the republic's title; the republic is located in the North Caucasus. The northern part of the republic is situated in the Stavropol Plain. 22% of the republic's territory is covered by forests. Area: 8,000 square kilometers Borders: internal: Kabardino-Balkaria, Stavropol Krai, Ingushetia international: Georgia Highest point: Mount Kazbek Maximum north-south distance: 130 kilometers Maximum east-west distance: 120 kilometers All of the republic's rivers belong to the drainage basin of the Terek River.
Major rivers include: Terek River Urukh River Ardon River Kambileyevka River Gizeldon River Fiagdon River Sunzha River All of the mountains located on the territory of the republic are a part of the Caucasus. Mount Kazbek is the highest point, with Mount Dzhimara being the second-highest. Natural resources include minerals, mineral waters, hydroelectric power, untapped reserves of oil and gas; the climate is moderately continental. Average January temperature: −5 °C Average July temperature: +24 °C Average annual precipitation: 400–700 millimeters in the plains; the territory of North Ossetia was first inhabited by Caucasian tribes. Some Nomadic Alans settled in the region in the 7th century, it was converted to Christianity by missionaries from Byzantium. Alania profited from the Silk Road which passed through its territory. After the Middle Ages, the Mongols' and Tartars' repeated invasions decimated the population, now known as the Ossetians. Islam was introduced to the region in the 17th century by Kabardians.
Conflicts between the Khanate of Crimea and the Ottoman Empire pushed Ossetia into an alliance with Imperial Russia in the 18th century. Soon, Russia established a military base in the capital, making it the first Russian-controlled area in the northern Caucasus. By 1806, Ossetia was under complete Russian control; the Russians' rule led to rapid development of industry and railways. The first books from the area came during the late 18th century, became part of the Terskaya Region of Russia in the mid-19th century; the Russian Revolution of 1917 resulted in North Ossetia being merged into the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921. It became the North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast on 7 July 1924 merged into the North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 5 December 1936. In World War II, it was subject to a number of attacks by Nazi German invaders unsuccessfully trying to seize Vladikavkaz in 1942; the North Ossetian ASSR declared itself the autonomous republic of the Soviet Union on 20 June 1990.
Its name was changed to the Republic of North Ossetia – Alania in 1994. The dissolution of the Soviet Union posed particular problems for the Ossetian people, who were divided between North Ossetia, part of the Russian SFSR, South Ossetia, part of the Georgian SSR. In December 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Georgia abolished the autonomous Ossetian enclave amid the rising ethnic tensions in the region, further fanned by the Moscow; some 70,000 South Ossetian refugees were resettled in North Ossetia, sparking clashes with the predominantly Ingush population in the Prigorodny District, which sparked the Ossetian–Ingush conflict. As well as dealing with the effects of the conflict in South Ossetia, North Ossetia has had to deal with refugees and the occasional spillover of fighting from the wars around them. In recent years, North Ossetia – Alania's economic development has been successful; the nature and climatic conditions of the republic contribute to the successful development of various economic sectors, compounded by the abundance of natural resources.
Gross regional product pro capita of the region in 2006 was 61,000 rubles and increased 30% in the 2005–2007 time period. GRP pro capita in 2007 was 76,455 rubles. In 2005–2007, the average monthly wage in North Ossetia – Alania doubled, with the actual cash earnings increased by 42.5 percent. In terms of the average monthly wage growth, the Republic ranks first in the North Caucasus; the regional government's economic priorities include industrial growth, development of small enterprise, r
Vladikavkaz known as Ordzhonikidze and Dzaudzhikau, is the capital city of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic at the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, situated on the Terek River. Population: 311,693 . Vladikavkaz is one of the most populous cities in the North Caucasus; the city is transportation center. Manufactured products include processed zinc and lead, chemicals and food products; the city was founded in 1784 as a fortress during the Russian conquest of the Caucasus and was for many years the main Russian military base in the region. The Georgian Military Highway, crossing the mountains, was constructed in 1799 to link the city with Georgia to the south, in 1875 a railway was built to connect it to Rostov-on-Don and Baku in Azerbaijan. Vladikavkaz has become an important industrial center for the region, with smelting, refining and manufacturing industries; the city is one of the largest in the Russian-controlled Caucasus, along with Grozny, was the capital of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, a Soviet Republic established after the annexation of the Mountainous Republic of the North Caucasus.
The puppet state existed from 1921 to 1924 and was part of, in some cases incorporated, the modern-day territories of Chechnya, North Ossetia and Kabardino-Balkaria. From 1931 to 1944 and from 1954 to 1990, its name in both Russian and Ossetic languages was Ordzhonikidze, from 1944 to 1954 it was called Dzaudzhikau in Russian and in Ossetic. Vladikavkaz resumed its old Russian name, in 1990, shortly before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Vladikavkaz was fought over in both the Russian Civil War and World War II. In February 1919, the anti-Communist Volunteer Army under General Anton Denikin seized the city, before being expelled by the Red Army in March 1920. In November 1942, the forces of Nazi Germany tried unsuccessfully to seize the city but were repelled. On November 26, 2008, Vitaly Karayev, the mayor of Vladikavkaz was killed by an unidentified gunman. On December 31, 2008, his successor, Kazbek Pagiyev, was killed by unidentified gunmen. Vladikavkaz is the capital of the republic.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with six rural localities, incorporated as Vladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Vladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction is incorporated as Vladikavkaz Urban Okrug; the city is served by the bus network. There are tram and trolleybus networks, plus the main Vladikavkaz railway station; the city is served by Beslan Airport located about 9 kilometres from the city. The Georgian Military Road, a part of European route E117, starts in Vladikavkaz and it connects the city with the South Caucasus. According to the results of the 2010 Census, the city population of Vladikavkaz was 330,148. Census 1873 23,766 The ethnic makeup of city's population was: Ossetians: 1,800 |210,104 Russians: 17,601 |80,945 Armenians: 1,698 |11,697 Georgians: |7,014 Ingush: 41 |3,225 Azerbaijanians: |2,212 Ukrainians: |1,857 Greeks: |1,819 German: 731 Polish: 439 Jews: 743 Persian: 631 Chechen: 76 Others: 7 |11,275 FC Alania Vladikavkaz is an association football club based in Vladikavkaz, who won the Russian Premier League in 1995.
In Vladikavkaz, there is a guyed TV mast, 198 meters tall, built in 1961, which has six crossbars with gangways in two levels running from the mast structure to the guys. North Ossetian State University is in the city; the city's primary religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, followed by Russians and some of the Ossetians. The rest of the Ossetian population adheres to the next largest religion, Uatsdin, an Ossetian folk religion, which nationwide is followed by 29% of the population; the remainder follow Protestantism, Armenian Orthodoxy and other beliefs. Vladikavkaz is twinned with: Asheville, North Carolina, United States Kardzhali, Bulgaria Makhachkala, Russia Nalchik, Russia Ardahan, Turkey Vladikavkaz experiences a humid continental climate with warm, wet summers and cold, drier winters. Lado Davidov — Soviet soldier, Hero of the Soviet Union Murat Gassiev — a professional boxer, undefeated unified cruiserweight world champion Valery Gazzaev — Russian football manager and former footballer Valery Gergiev — Russian conductor and opera company director Vitaly Kaloyev — a convicted murderer and a former architect Issa Pliyev — Soviet military commander, twice Hero of the Soviet Union Vyacheslav Voronin - Russian high jumper, gold medallist at the 1999 World Championships in Athletics Верховный Совет Республики Северная Осетия.
12 ноября 1994 г. «Республика Северная Осетия-Алания. Конституция.», в ред. Конституционного Закона №5-РКЗ от 4 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Северная Осетия–Алания». Вступил в с
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Digor (District), Kars
Digor, is a district of Kars Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey, the name of the small town, the district's administrative capital. The population of the town is 2,647; the mayor is Ekrem Bingül. Some suggests. Digoron People Yazidis in Armenia Governor's Office for Digor
Avestan known as Zend, refers to two languages: Old Avestan and Younger Avestan. The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture, from which they derive their name. Both are early Iranian languages, a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European family, its immediate ancestor was the Proto-Iranian language, a sister language to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, with both having developed from the earlier Proto-Indo-Iranian. As such, Old Avestan is quite close in grammar and lexicon with Vedic Sanskrit, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan language; the Avestan text corpus was composed in ancient Arachosia, Aria and Margiana, corresponding to the entirety of present-day Afghanistan, parts of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The Yaz culture of Bactria-Margiana has been regarded as a archaeological reflection of the early "Eastern Iranian" culture described in the Avesta. Avestan's status as a sacred language has ensured its continuing use for new compositions long after the language ceased to be a living language.
"Avestan, associated with northeastern Iran, Old Persian, which belongs to the southwest, together constitute what is called Old Iranian." Scholars traditionally classify Iranian languages as "old", "middle" and "new" according to their age, as "eastern" or "western" according to geography, within this framework Avestan is classified as Eastern Old Iranian. But the east-west distinction is of limited meaning for Avestan, as the linguistic developments that distinguish Eastern from Western Iranian had not yet occurred. Avestan does not display some typical Western Iranian innovations visible in Old Persian, so in this sense, "eastern" only means "non-western". Old Avestan is related to Old Persian and agrees morphologically with Vedic Sanskrit; the old ancestor dialect of Pashto was close to the language of the Gathas. The Avestan language is attested in two forms, known as "Old Avestan" and "Younger Avestan". Younger Avestan did not evolve from Old Avestan; every Avestan text, regardless of whether composed in Old or Younger Avestan, underwent several transformations.
Karl Hoffmann traced the following stages for Avestan. In chronological order: The natural language of the composers of the Gathas, the Yasna Haptanghaiti, the four sacred prayers. Changes precipitated by slow chanting Changes to Old Avestan due to transmission by native speakers of Younger Avestan The natural language of the scribes who wrote grammatically correct Younger Avestan texts Deliberate changes introduced through "standardization" Changes introduced by transfer to regions where Avestan was not spoken Adaptions/translations of portions of texts from other regions Composition of ungrammatical late Avestan texts Phonetic notation of the Avestan texts in the Sasanian archetype Post-Sasanian deterioration of the written transmission due to incorrect pronunciation Errors and corruptions introduced during copyingMany phonetic features cannot be ascribed with certainty to a particular stage since there may be more than one possibility; every phonetic form that can be ascribed to the Sasanian archetype on the basis of critical assessment of the manuscript evidence must have gone through the stages mentioned above so that "Old Avestan" and "Young Avestan" mean no more than "Old Avestan and Young Avestan of the Sasanian period."
The script used for writing Avestan developed during the 3rd or 4th century AD. By the language had been extinct for many centuries, remained in use only as a liturgical language of the Avesta canon; as is still the case today, the liturgies were recited by rote. The script devised to render Avestan was natively known as Din dabireh "religion writing", it is written right-to-left. Among the 53 characters are about 30 letters that are – through the addition of various loops and flourishes – variations of the 13 graphemes of the cursive Pahlavi script, known from the post-Sassanian texts of Zoroastrian tradition; these symbols, like those of all the Pahlavi scripts, are in turn based on Aramaic script symbols. Avestan incorporates several letters from other writing systems, most notably the vowels, which are derived from Greek minuscules. A few letters were free inventions, as were the symbols used for punctuation; the Avestan alphabet has one letter that has no corresponding sound in the Avestan language.
The Avestan script is alphabetic, the large number of letters suggests that its design was due to the need to render the orally recited texts with high phonetic precision. The correct enunciation of the liturgies was considered necessary for the prayers to be effective; the Zoroastrians of India, who represent one of the largest surviving Zoroastrian communities worldwide transcribe Avestan in Brahmi-based scripts. This is a recent development first seen in the ca. 12th century texts of Neryosang Dhaval and other Parsi Sanskritist theologians of that era, which are contemporary with the oldest surviving manuscripts in Avestan script. Today, Avestan is most typeset in the Gujarati script; some Avestan letters with no corresponding symbol are synthesized with additional diacritical marks, for example, the /z/ in zaraϑuštra is written with j with a dot below. Aves