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Dihydroxyacetone known as glycerone, is a simple saccharide with formula C3H6O3. DHA is used as an ingredient in sunless tanning products, it is derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, by the fermentation of glycerin. DHA is a hygroscopic white crystalline powder, it has a characteristic odor. It has no chiral center or optical activity; the normal form is a dimer, soluble in one part water and 15 parts ethanol. When freshly prepared, it reverts to the monomer in solution; the monomer is soluble in water, diethyl ether and acetone and toluene. DHA may be prepared, along with glyceraldehyde, by the mild oxidation of glycerol, for example with hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous salt as catalyst, it can be prepared in high yield and selectivity at room temperature from glycerol using cationic palladium-based catalysts with oxygen, air or benzoquinone acting as co-oxidants. Glyceraldehyde is a structural isomer of dihydroxyacetone, its phosphorylated form, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, takes part in glycolysis, it is an intermediate product of fructose metabolism.

DHA was first recognized as a skin coloring agent by German scientists in the 1920s. Through its use in the X-ray process, it was noted as causing the skin surface to turn brown when spilled. In the 1950s, Eva Wittgenstein at the University of Cincinnati did further research with dihydroxyacetone, her studies involved using DHA as an oral drug for assisting children with glycogen storage disease. The children received large doses of DHA by mouth, sometimes spat or spilled the substance onto their skin. Healthcare workers noticed. Eva Wittgenstein continued to experiment with DHA, painting liquid solutions of it onto her own skin, she was able to reproduce the pigmentation effect, noted that DHA did not appear to penetrate beyond the stratum corneum, or dead skin surface layer. Research continued on DHA's skin coloring effect in relation to treatment for patients suffering from vitiligo; this skin browning effect is non-toxic, is a result of a Maillard reaction. DHA reacts chemically with the amino acids in the protein keratin the major component of the skin surface.

Different amino acids react to DHA in different ways, producing different tones of coloration from yellow to brown. The resulting pigments are called melanoidins; these are similar in coloration to melanin, the natural substance in the deeper skin layers which brown or "tan", from exposure to UV rays. Both acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans use glycerol as a carbon source to form dihydroxyacetone. DHA is formed by ketogenesis of glycerol, it can affect the sensory quality of the wine with sweet/etherish properties. DHA can react with proline to produce a "crust-like" aroma. Dihydroxyacetone can affect the anti-microbial activity in wine, as it has the ability to bind SO2. Coppertone introduced; this product was called “Quick Tan” or “QT”. It was sold as an overnight tanning agent, other companies followed suit with similar products. Consumers soon tired of this product due to unattractive results such as orange palms and poor coloration; because of the QT experience, many people still associate sunless tanning with fake-looking orange tans.

In the 1970s the United States Food and Drug Administration added DHA permanently to their list of approved cosmetic ingredients. By the 1980s, new sunless tanning formulations appeared on the market and refinements in the DHA manufacturing process created products that produced a more natural looking color and better fading. Consumer concerns surrounding damage associated with UV tanning options spurred further popularity of sunless tanning products as an alternative to UV tanning. Dozens of brands appeared in numerous formulations. Today, DHA is the main active ingredient in many sunless tanning skincare preparations. Lotion manufacturers produce a wide variety of sunless tanning preparations that replace DHA with natural bronzing agents such as black walnut shell. DHA may be combined with other tanning components such as erythrulose. DHA is considered the most effective sun-free tanning additive. Sunless tanning products contain DHA in concentrations ranging from 1% to 20%. Most drugstore products range from 3% to 5%, with professional products ranging from 5% to 20%.

The percentages correspond with the product coloration levels from light to dark. Lighter products are more beginner-friendly, but may require multiple coats to produce the desired color depth. Darker products produce a dark tan in one coat, but are more prone to streaking, unevenness, or off-color tones; the artificial tan takes 2 to 4 hours to begin appearing on the skin surface, will continue to darken for 24 to 72 hours, depending on formulation type. Once the darkening effect has occurred, the tan will not wash away with soap or water, it will fade over 3 to 10 days. Exfoliation, prolonged water submersion, or heavy sweating can lighten the tan, as these all contribute to rapid dead skin cell exfoliation. Current sunless tanners are formulated into sprays, gels and cosmetic wipes. Professional applied products include spray tanning booths, airbrush tan applications, hand applied lotions, gels and wipes. For the 24 hours after self-tanner is applied, the skin

Salesian College, Farnborough

Salesian College, is an independent Roman Catholic school in Farnborough, England. It admits boys from the age of 11 to 18, girls in the Sixth Form; the College was founded in 1901 as a small preparatory school for boys, but soon expanded to provide boarding secondary education owing to its increasing popularity. For the 2007–08 academic year, the College announced that it would admit girls into the Sixth Form for the first time; the college has a strong record of academic achievement, with a 100% pass rate at GCSE in 2015, 99.5% at A Level. In 1901, Bishop Cahill of the Diocese of Portsmouth invited the Salesians of Battersea to take over the orphanage, a former tin factory, in Queen's Road, Farnborough; this marked the beginning of the Salesians' work as a parish. By 1902 a reporter in Sheldrakes Military Gazette noted that the thirty'poor Catholic waifs and those sons of sore stricken Roman Catholic parents' had a home'comfortable in every respect', were learning trades to prepare them for life's struggles.

Under previous Headmaster, Mr Wilson, the College witnessed substantial structural growth, the most significant being the erection of the Sean Devereux Sixth Form Centre providing facilities for girls, with new classrooms built equipped with improved technology. Upon the announcement that girls were to be admitted for the first time in the Sixth Form, Mr Wilson was quoted as saying, "At this time more and more boys’ schools are finding that the advantages of single sex schooling up to the age of 16 are best followed by having ladies in the sixth form environment as a preparation for higher education." The College maintains links with the nearby Alton Convent School and organises joint activities and events together, such as the yearly Lower Sixth trip to Tregoyd and the Senior College Prom. The most recent addition to the college is the renovation of the old music school; the process began during the 2012–2013 academic year and the new Father Brendan McGuinness Music Building was completed and opened in September 2013.

It is named in honour of the college's former chaplain who has a long-standing affiliation with the college, lasting over half a century. Every Easter and girls from the Lower Sixth go on the HCPT Pilgrimage to Lourdes. In the past, students from Poland and Romania have joined the students from Salesian College. Among the College's alumni are the host of Britain's first-ever Prime Ministerial Debate, ITV News journalist and presenter Alastair Stewart,as well as the husband of Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe and Salesian missionary and aid-worker Sean Devereux, assassinated in Kismayu, Somalia in 1993 while working for UNICEF. There is a stained-glass window to work in the College Chapel. Racing driver and Big Brother: Celebrity Hijack contestant Jeremy Metcalfe attended the College. Neurosurgeon Sir Matthew Richard Fisher, famous for the discovery of the protein MMP in the brains of those suffering from dementia, who more has worked as a government adviser on plans to privatise parts of the NHS, is an alumnus as well.

England international rugby player Phil Taylor and musical theatre actor Daniel Boys attended the college. Naturalist and television presenter Steve Backshall attended for a few years in the 1980s. More 2012 - 2019 World Champion Paraclimber Matthew Phillips attended the college; the Farnborough Old Salesians Association is a society for former pupils who wish to contact other Old Boys. It has its foundations in the 1920s, with its first formal meeting held in 1927; the association has organised whole-year reunions. The association aims to provide all of its Old Boys around the world with information on other Old Boys, on events at the College, on the OSA's activities. For those Old Boys who live locally, the OSA organises activities throughout the year, such as a Remembrance Mass in November, OSA soccer matches and the soccer tour, OSA golf days and the golf tour, the Annual Reunion and AGM, a presence at the College's Garden Fete, as well as funding OSA Prizes at Prizegiving; the OSA assists the Salesian family in various local undertaking and around the world by activity or financial aid.

The OSA maintains links with the wider Salesian family by means of the Salesian Past Pupils UK and Ex Allievi di Don Bosco. In the 1970s the OSA donated a marble tablet in commemoration of the Old Boys who gave their lives in the Second World War; the tablet shows the OSA badge and the motto "Salesian Old Boys Let not the glory fade away Keep bright the flame of memory and honour them 1939–1945." The new President of the OSA is Greg Sudell. 1997–2014: Mr Patrick A. Wilson 2014–present: Mr Gerard Owens Salesian College, Hampshire, ISC Salesian College, Official Website Salesian College, Library Website

Nathan Mumm

Nathan Mumm is a Snohomish County multi-millionaire, having made his success in both property management and through early startup company expertise regarding the technology field. He was the original owner of the Snohomish County Explosion that played in the National Athletic Basketball League and International Basketball League, he is the President of Courtyard Media Foundation, a non-profit foundation in Snohomish County. Mumm is known as a key leader in Snohomish County regarding entertainment, he was the founder of the National Athletic Basketball League and the commissioner and compliance director. Growing up in the town of Marysville as a child he graduate from Marysville Pilchuck High School in 1992, he lives in the town of Snohomish, Washington. A graduate of Marysville Pilchuck High School, Nathan studied Business at Everett Community College, he left college early to work for Microsoft. He is a graduate of the Thunderbird School of Global Management with an Executive Certificate in International Marketing.

In 2011 Nathan was elected to the board of the National Athletic Basketball League and was elected as the first commissioner of the league. Mumm the original co-founder of the National Athletic Basketball League which started in 2010 sold the startup professional league to Productive Citizens Incorporated in summer of 2011. Considered the driving force behind the 2 year league, Mumm demonstrated great leadership to go along with his everlasting competitive spirit; the league decided to honor Nathan Mumm by naming its championship trophy after him. Mumm served for ten years on the Pacific Northwest Leadership board in Snohomish County. Mumm is working a new original sport called "Gridiron-Ball" and is looking to start up a league of this unique sport in the winter of 2020. Microsoft: 1994-2005 Mumm was a ten-year employee at Microsoft and served as Senior/Lead Program Manager, Product Manager and Executive Support technician at Microsoft for 10+ years. During this time he supervised many technology teams, collaborated on the development of the original Xbox and one of the product visionaries for the creation of SharePoint Technologies.

Courtyard Media Foundation: 2005-2007 Mumm as the President, working at Courtyard Media Foundation, was in charge of all aspects of the Basketball Operations for the Everett / Snohomish County Explosion Professional Minor league basketball team. Vulcan Inc: 2007-2013 Mumm worked as the Director of Executive Service directly for the Founder, Paul Allen and CEO. Mumm administered all of technology for the co-founder of Microsoft. Copiers Northwest | BluZEBRA Technology: 2014-2019 Mumm worked as the Chief Technology Officer CTO for the 40 million dollar private company in Seattle and oversaw all technical items related to Copiers Northwest internal Technology Department along with the Managed Service Provider, called BluZEBRA. Envision Executive Services: 2019 - Current Mumm works as the Chief Information Officer CIO for an Executive Services group based in the Greater Seattle area. Nathan has been involved with coaching basketball since 1991 and has been a head coach in the college and professional ranks for many years.

He now serves and volunteers as a basket official with the Snohomish County Basketball Officials SCBBO Coaching Record- Career Record: 431 wins, 92 losses Pro Career Record: 1 Year Head Coach - 2 Years Assistant Coach Record as Head Coach: 8 wins 3 losses Snohomish County Explosion of the National Athletic Basketball League Head Coach 2 Years Assistant Coach - 28 wins - 9 losses Nathan served two years as an associate head coach, in the Semi-Pro League of the IBL In 2006 and again in the 2008 season. College Career Record: 3 Years Head Coach/Athletic Director 2003-2005 Record as Head Coach: 27 wins 18 losses. In 2004 was the NACCA National Champions with a tournament championship win over Reed College from Oregon. Nathan was both Athletic Director at Puget Sound Christian College. Https:// Press Links: In 2007-2010, Mumm served as the Snohomish County Explosion Chairman and was the General Manager of the club in 2007-2008.

In 2008, Mumm serves as assistant coach to fix defensive problems on the court. In 2004, Mumm drops game to Alaska Fairbanks. Mumm and the Anchors drop their second game to NCAA Division II Alaska Fairbanks. Co-Founder and Commissioner of the NABL Nathan Mumm steps down as sale of the NABL moves to new ownership group led by Ty White. Mumm is the President of Courtyard Media Foundation. In 2006, Courtyard Media became the owner of the Snohomish County Explosion. In 2010, Nathan became the Head Coach of the Snohomish County Explosion. Courtyard Media Group, Inc. National Athletic Basketball League Courtyard Media Foundation. Nathan

McCovey Cove

McCovey Cove is the unofficial name of a section of San Francisco Bay beyond the right field wall of Oracle Park, home of the San Francisco Giants, named after famed Giants first baseman Willie McCovey. The proper name for the cove is China Basin, the mouth of Mission Creek as it meets the bay; the cove is bounded along the north by Oracle Park, with a ferry landing and a breakwater at the northeast end. The southern shore is lined by China Basin McCovey Point. To the east, it opens up to San Francisco Bay, while the west end of the cove is bounded by the Lefty O'Doul Bridge, named after San Francisco ballplayer and manager Lefty O'Doul; the name was coined thanks to two sportswriters. Mark Purdy of the San Jose Mercury News wrote an article suggesting naming the body of water after McCovey, though his original suggestions were'McCovey Channel,"McCovey Stream' or'McCovey Run.' Purdy noted the more'lyrical' name of'McCovey Cove' was suggested by his colleague Leonard Koppett, a writer for the Oakland Tribune.

The name did not take long to become popular, although the moniker has never become official. On game days, fans take to the water of McCovey Cove in boats and in kayaks with fishing nets in the hope of collecting a home run ball; this echoes. Before Candlestick Park's upper deck was extended, the area behind right field was occupied by three small bleacher sections and a lot of open space. Kids in those bleachers would gather behind the right field fence when "Stretch" would come to the plate. There may be a link to the fact that Willie McCovey was one of only a few that hit home runs over the scoreboard and into a public swimming pool at Montreal's Jarry Park, the Expos' home from 1969 to 1976; the fact that balls can be hit into a water basin over the right field wall in San Francisco is somewhat of a tribute/salute to Willie McCovey's legend when he visited Montreal. Just beyond the wall is a public waterfront promenade. Across the cove from the ballpark is McCovey Point and China Basin Park, featuring a statue of McCovey at the mouth of the Cove.

At his feet are small plaques commemorating the winners of the Willie Mac Award, named in McCovey's honor. Along the southern shore of the cove, between McCovey Point and the O'Doul Bridge, is a walkway featuring plaques showing the Opening Day Roster of every Giants team from 1958 through 1999. Just south of the statue of Willie McCovey is Barry Bonds Junior Giants Field, a t-ball sized baseball diamond. "Splash hits" are recorded only when Giants players hit home runs that land in McCovey Cove on the fly. These hits are tallied on an electronic counter on the right field wall; as of August 29, 2019, 81 "splash hits" have been hit into the Bay by Giants players since the park opened. The only Giants other than Bonds to have reached the Cove more than once are Pablo Sandoval and Brandon Belt with eight each, Denard Span with five, six players with two each: Felipe Crespo, Michael Tucker, Ryan Klesko, Aubrey Huff, Andrés Torres, Brandon Crawford. Eleven other Giants' players have accomplished the feat just once.

Carlos Beltrán's "Splash Hit" on September 14, 2011, marked his 300th career home run. Klesko is the only player to have splash hits as both a Giant and as an opposing player through the 2012 season. Tyler Colvin's "splash hit" on May 12, 2014, was his first hit for the Giants and came off his first at bat at Oracle Park since joining the team; when the stadium hosted the 2007 Home Run Derby, McCovey Cove was featured in promotional materials, the namesake slugger presented each participant with special bats before the competition. However, the difficulty of hitting McCovey Cove with a home run was shown, as none of the eight sluggers competing were able to hit water, all four left-handed batters were eliminated in the first round of the contest; the only player to hit water was Prince Fielder of the Milwaukee Brewers. Fielder would hit McCovey Cove with a fair ball on July 20, 2008, as the 17th visiting player to hit a home run into the Cove. No right-handed hitter has hit an opposite field home run into McCovey Cove, though Giants catcher Buster Posey has come close several times.

36 non-Giants players have hit the cove 51 times. Of visiting players who have hit the cove, Carlos Delgado, Carlos González and Adam LaRoche have performed the feat the most, doing it three times each. Current Major League baseball players Max Muncy and Curtis Granderson and former Major League baseball players Luis Gonzalez and Cliff Floyd are the only other visiting players to do so twice. Rick Ankiel hit the water on the fly in the 11th inning of Game 2 of the 2010 National League Division Series on October 8, 2010. David Ortiz, Mitch Moreland, Adam Dunn are the only three American League players to hit the cove. Bryce Harper hit the water on the fly in the 7th inning of Game 4 of the 2014 National League Division Series on October 7, 2014 to tie the game, on August 9, 2019, he hit his second one out of the cove. Kevin Correia is the only pitcher to have given up a splash hit both as a Giant and as a visiting pitcher. On May 12, 2014, players from opposing teams hit home runs into McCovey Cove in the same game for the first time.

Unraveling the scientific secrets of the elusive'Splash Hit' Splash Hits:

Geoffrey Hosking

Geoffrey Alan Hosking is a British historian of Russia and the Soviet Union and Leverhulme Research Professor of Russian History at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies at University College, London. He co-founded Nightline. Born in Troon, Scotland, Hosking studied Russian at King's College, earning an MA, before studying Russian history at Moscow State University, he studied European history at St. Antony's College, before earning a PhD in modern Russian history at Cambridge, he taught at the University of Essex as a Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Reader from 1966 to 1984, before joining SSEES, where he held the established chair of Russian History from 1984 to 2007. He held a Leverhulme Research Professorship in Russian History at SSEES from 1999 to 2004, he has been a visiting lecturer in political science at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, a research fellow at Columbia University's Russian Institute, a visiting professor at the University of Cologne. Hosking presented the BBC Reith Lectures in 1988.

His aim was to explain the dramatic changes of the Mikhail Gorbachev era in their historical context. Most of Hosking's works until this point had dealt with twentieth-century Russia and the Soviet Union, but after the collapse of the Soviet system he turned his attention to earlier periods of Russian history, producing Russia: People and Empire, 1552-1917 and Russia and the Russians. In these books, Hosking emphasized the polarity between the Russian Imperial idea and Russia's ethnic nationhood. According to Hosking, the development of the Russian Empire prevented the development of Russia as a nation state. In his next book Rulers and Victims - The Russians in the Soviet Union, Hosking examined aspects of this polarity in the Soviet context. Hosking retired from UCL SSEES in December 2007; the established chair that he held was reinaugurated in 2008 as the Sir Bernard Pares chair of Russian History. Its first incumbent was Simon Dixon. Hosking was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2015 New Year Honours for services to higher education and to students.

The Russian Constitutional Experiment - Government and the Duma 1907-1914 Beyond Socialist Realism: Soviet Fiction since Ivan Denisovich A History of the Soviet Union The Awakening of the Soviet Union The First Socialist Society: A History of the Soviet Union from Within Russia: People and Empire, 1552-1917 Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-78119-8 Russia and the Russians Rulers and Victims - The Russians in the Soviet Union Trust: Money and Society A History of the USSR: 1917-1991 Profile on SSEES website

John Lewis (department store founder)

John Lewis was an English businessman and councillor, known for being the founder of the John Lewis department store on Oxford Street and the national John Lewis department store chain. John Lewis was born in Shepton Mallet, Somerset and became an orphan at the age of seven, he was brought up by Miss Ann Speed. Having served as an apprentice to a local draper from the age of fourteen he moved to London to become a silk buyer in the capital, working in Peter Robinson's Department Store at Oxford Circus by the time he was 20. In 1864 John Lewis opened his own small drapery shop, John Lewis & Co. at 132 Oxford Street, on part of the same site as the present John Lewis department store. The business flourished and expanded and was rebuilt in the 1880s to form an all-encompassing department store, it is said that in 1905 John Lewis walked from Oxford Street to Sloane Square with twenty £1000 notes in his pocket and bought Peter Jones. Sales at Peter Jones had been falling since its new owner failed to reverse the trend.

In 1914 he handed control of the store to his son Spedan. Lewis engaged in a protracted legal dispute with the ground landlord of his Holles Street premises, Lord Howard de Walden; the litigation cost Lewis 40,000 pounds. At one point he was sent to Brixton Jail for contempt of court, De Walden sued him for libel following his erection of placards at this stores; the case was settled amicably. Lewis was regarded as an autocratic employer, prone to dismissing staff arbitrarily; the stores had difficulty retaining staff and performed poorly compared to his rivals such as Whiteleys and Owen Owen. His management style led to conflict with his sons, it was only after his death that the company was transformed into the John Lewis Partnership, a worker co-operative. Politically, Lewis was a Liberal. In 1888 he was nominated to St Marylebone Vestry, remained a member of that body, the successor Metropolitan Borough Council until 1919. From 1901– 1907 he was a member of the London County Council, representing West Marylebone on behalf of the Liberal-backed majority Progressive Party.

In 1884 John Lewis married Eliza Baker, a schoolmistress from a family of West Country drapers and alumna of Girton College, Cambridge. They had two children, John Spedan, born 1885, Oswald, born 1887. John Lewis remained in full control of his Oxford Street store until his death, he died at his Hampstead home "Spedan Towers" in 1928 at the age of 92. John Lewis store website Stories about John Lewis at John Lewis & Partners Memory Store British Pathé documentary film footage The Oxford Street Shop Strike