A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions. Dust storms arise when a gust front or other strong wind blows loose sand and dirt from a dry surface. Fine particles are transported by saltation and suspension, a process that moves soil from one place and deposits it in another. Drylands around North Africa and the Arabian peninsula are the main terrestrial sources of airborne dust, it has been argued that poor management of the Earth's drylands, such as neglecting the fallow system, are increasing dust storms size and frequency from desert margins and changing both the local and global climate, impacting local economies. The term sandstorm is used most in the context of desert dust storms in the Sahara Desert, or places where sand is a more prevalent soil type than dirt or rock, when, in addition to fine particles obscuring visibility, a considerable amount of larger sand particles are blown closer to the surface; the term dust storm is more to be used when finer particles are blown long distances when the dust storm affects urban areas.
As the force of wind passing over loosely held particles increases, particles of sand first start to vibrate to saltate. As they strike the ground, they loosen and break off smaller particles of dust which begin to travel in suspension. At wind speeds above that which causes the smallest to suspend, there will be a population of dust grains moving by a range of mechanisms: suspension and creep. A study from 2008 finds that the initial saltation of sand particles induces a static electric field by friction. Saltating sand acquires a negative charge relative to the ground which in turn loosens more sand particles which begin saltating; this process has been found to double the number of particles predicted by previous theories. Particles become loosely held due to a prolonged drought or arid conditions, high wind speeds. Gust fronts may be produced by the outflow of rain-cooled air from an intense thunderstorm. Or, the wind gusts may be produced by a dry cold front, that is, a cold front, moving into a dry air mass and is producing no precipitation—the type of dust storm, common during the Dust Bowl years in the U.
S. Following the passage of a dry cold front, convective instability resulting from cooler air riding over heated ground can maintain the dust storm initiated at the front. In desert areas and sand storms are most caused by either thunderstorm outflows, or by strong pressure gradients which cause an increase in wind velocity over a wide area; the vertical extent of the dust or sand, raised is determined by the stability of the atmosphere above the ground as well as by the weight of the particulates. In some cases and sand may be confined to a shallow layer by a low-lying temperature inversion. In other instances, dust may be lifted as high as 20,000 feet high. Drought and wind contribute to the emergence of dust storms, as do poor farming and grazing practices by exposing the dust and sand to the wind. One poor farming practice which contributes to dust storms is dryland farming. Poor dryland farming techniques are intensive tillage or not having established crops or cover crops when storms strike at vulnerable times prior to revegetation.
In a semi-arid climate, these practices increase susceptibility to dust storms. However, soil conservation practices may be implemented to control wind erosion. A sandstorm can carry large volumes of sand unexpectedly. Dust storms can carry large amounts of dust, with the leading edge being composed of a wall of thick dust as much as 1.6 km high. Dust and sand storms which come off the Sahara Desert are locally known as a simoon; the haboob is a sandstorm prevalent in the region of Sudan around Khartoum, with occurrences being most common in the summer. The Sahara desert is a key source of dust storms the Bodélé Depression and an area covering the confluence of Mauritania and Algeria. Saharan dust storms have increased 10-fold during the half-century since the 1950s, causing topsoil loss in Niger, northern Nigeria, Burkina Faso. In Mauritania there were just two dust storms a year in the early 1960s, but there are about 80 a year today, according to Andrew Goudie, a professor of geography at Oxford University.
Levels of Saharan dust coming off the east coast of Africa in June 2007 were five times those observed in June 2006, were the highest observed since at least 1999, which may have cooled Atlantic waters enough to reduce hurricane activity in late 2007. Dust storms have been shown to increase the spread of disease across the globe. Virus spores in the ground are blown into the atmosphere by the storms with the minute particles and interact with urban air pollution. Short-term effects of exposure to desert dust include immediate increased symptoms and worsening of the lung function in individuals with asthma, increased mortality and morbidity from long-transported dust from both Saharan and Asian dust storms suggesting that long-transported dust storm particles adversely affects the circulatory system. Dust pneumonia is the result of large amounts of dust being inhaled. Prolonged and unprotected exposure of the respiratory system in a dust storm can cause silicosis, which, if left untreated, will lead to asphyxiation.
There is the danger of keratoconjunctivitis sicca which, in severe cases without immediate and proper treatment, can lead to blindness. Dust storms cause soil loss from the dry lands, worse, they preferentially remove organic matter and
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term originates from the Persian word bāzār; the term bazaar is sometimes used to refer to the "network of merchants and craftsmen" who work in that area. Although the current meaning of the word is believed to have originated in Persia, its use has spread and now has been accepted into the vernacular in countries around the world. In Balinese, the word pasar means "market." The capital of Bali province, in Indonesia, is Denpasar, which means "north market." Souq is another word used in the Middle East for commercial quarter. Evidence for the existence of bazaars dates to around 3,000 BCE. Although the lack of archaeological evidence has limited detailed studies of the evolution of bazaars, indications suggest that they developed outside city walls where they were associated with servicing the needs of caravanserai; as towns and cities became more populous, these bazaars moved into the city center and developed in a linear pattern along streets stretching from one city gate to another gate on the opposite side of the city.
Over time, these bazaars formed a network of trading centres which allowed for the exchange of produce and information. The rise of large bazaars and stock trading centres in the Muslim world allowed the creation of new capitals and new empires. New and wealthy cities such as Isfahan, Samarkand, Cairo and Timbuktu were founded along trade routes and bazaars. Street markets are the North American equivalents. Shopping at a bazaar or market-place remains a central feature of daily life in many Middle-Eastern and South Asian cities and towns and the bazaar remains the "beating heart" of Middle-Eastern city and South Asian life. A number of bazaar districts have been listed as World Heritage sites due to their historical and/or architectural significance. Visiting a bazaar or souq has become a popular tourist pastime; the origin of the word bazaar comes from Persian bāzār. from Middle Persian wāzār, from Old Persian vāčar, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *wahā-čarana. The term, spread from Persia into Arabia and throughout the Middle East.
In North America, the United Kingdom and some other European countries, the term can be used as a synonym for a "rummage sale", to describe charity fundraising events held by churches or other community organisations in which either donated used goods or new and handcrafted goods are sold for low prices, as at a church or other organisation's Christmas bazaar, for example. Although Turkey offers many famous markets known as "bazaars" in English, the Turkish word "pazar" refers to an outdoor market held at regular intervals, not a permanent structure containing shops. English place names translate "çarşı" as "bazaar" when they refer to an area with covered streets or passages. For example, the Turkish name for the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is "Kapalıçarşı", while the Spice Bazaar is the "Mısır Çarşısı"; the Arabic term, souk is a synonym for bazaar in Arab-speaking countries. Bazaars originated in the Middle East in Persia. Pourjafara et al. point to historical records documenting the concept of a bazaar as early as 3000 BC.
By the 4th century, a network of bazaars had sprung up alongside ancient caravan trade routes. Bazaars were situated in close proximity to ruling palaces, citadels or mosques, not only because the city afforded traders some protection, but because palaces and cities generated substantial demand for goods and services. Bazaars located along these trade routes, formed networks, linking major cities with each other and in which goods, culture and information could be exchanged; the Greek historian, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth. He described The Babylonian Marriage Market. Prior to the 10th century, bazaars were situated on the perimeter of the city or just outside the city walls. Along the major trade routes, bazaars were associated with the caravanserai. From around the 10th century and market places were integrated within the city limits; the typical bazaar was a covered area where traders could buy and sell with some protection from the elements.
Over the centuries, the buildings that housed bazaars became more elaborate. The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is cited as the world's oldest continuously-operating, purpose-built market. City bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city; the bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world. Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised. In pre-Islamic Arabia, two types of bazaar existed: permanent urban markets and temporary seasonal markets; the temporary seasonal markets were held at specific times of the year and became associated with particular types of produce. Suq Hijr in Bahrain was noted for its dates while Suq ` Adan was known for its perfumes. In spite of the centrality of the Middle East in the history of bazaars little is known due to the lack of archaeological evidence.
However, documentary sources point to permanent marketplaces in cities from as early as 550 BCE. Nejad has made a detailed study of early bazaars in Iran and identifies two distinct type
Kuran wa Munjan District
Kuran wa Munjan District is one of the 28 districts of Badakhshan Province in eastern Afghanistan. Located in the Hindu Kush mountains, the district is home to 8,000 residents; the district administrative center is Kuran wa Munjan. The district is in the southwest corner of the province, is bordered on its northeast side by the Jurm and Zebak Districts. Most of the district's boundaries are adjacent to other Afghan provinces, but a small section on the eastern edge of the district lies on the international border between Afghanistan and Pakistan; the epicenter of the October 26 2015 Hindu Kush earthquake was 45 km north of here. Map at the Afghanistan Information Management Services
Kochis or Kuchis are Pashtun nomads from the Ghilji tribal confederacy. Some of the most notable Ghilji Kochi tribes include Andar AkaKhel and nasar Ahmadzai. Sometimes Durrani tribes can be found among the Kochi, there may be some Baloch people among them that live a pastoral nomadic lifestyle. In the Pashto language, the terms are Kochian. In the Persian language, "Kochi" and "Kochiha" are the plural forms; the National Multi-sectoral Assessment of Kochi in 2004, estimated that there are about 2.4 million Kochis in Afghanistan, with around 1.5 million remaining nomadic, over 100,000 have been displaced due to natural disasters such as flood and drought in the past few years. The nomads and semi-nomads called Kuchi in Afghanistan keep sheep and goats; the produce of the animals is exchanged or sold in order to purchase grain, vegetables and other products of settled life. In this way an extensive network of exchange has developed along the main routes annually followed by the nomads; the merchant Powindah Pashtuns used to move annually from the Afghanistan mountains to the valley of the Indus.
These long-distance migrations were stopped in the early 1960s when the border with Afghanistan and Pakistan were closed, but many Kuchis are still allowed to cross as border officials recognize the Kuchi migrations which occur seasonally and allow them to pass in times of political turmoil. In recent decades, migrations inside Afghanistan continue, although trucks are now being used to transport livestock and family from one place to another. Kochis abstained from politics, because they are nomadic, but under Afghanistan's constitution, they were given ten seats in parliament. Provisions are written into the Afghanistan Constitution aimed at improving the welfare of Kochis, including provisions for housing and education. According to the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, before the 30 years of war, Kochis owned 30 per cent of the country's goats and sheep and most of the camels for years, they were responsible for the supply of slaughter animals, wool and quroot to the national economy.
Kochis were favored by the Kings of Afghanistan, who were themselves ethnic Pashtuns, since the late 1880s. They were awarded "firman," or royal proclamations, granting them use of summer pastures all over Afghanistan including the northern parts of the country. During the Taliban era, Kochis were a main factor and supporter of the Taliban and their leader Mohammed Omar As a result, the northern ethnic groups have a long-standing distrust of the Kochi; this political dispute has been deepened over the decades of Kochi transhumance, whereby some Kochis became absentee landlords in their summer areas in the north through customary seizure procedures to attach debtors' land. However, the Kochis themselves see the northern minority groups as a non-Afghan race, claims the Kochis were natives of northern Afghan region, that during many years of invasion such as Genghis Khan and Timur, they escaped south. Kochis have been identified by the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan as one of the largest vulnerable populations in the country.
As Afghanistan's population grows, competing claims over summer pastures, both for rainfed cultivation and for grazing of the settled communities' livestock, have created conflict over land across central and northern Afghanistan. Paying head-count fees for each animal crossing someone else's property is exacting a harsh economic toll on the Kochi way of life, one, having to contend with recurrent droughts that are now occurring with increasing frequency. There are communities of Pashtun Kochi origin in other parts of the world as well, including in the Caribbean and Europe. In Pakistan, some Kochis are found in Karachi in Sindh. According to a classified cable sent by U. S. Ambassador to Afghanistan Karl Eikenberry—revealed by WikiLeaks—Abdul Wahab Sulemankheil, Director General of the Independent Directorate of Kochis, declared that more than half of the Taliban are Kochis, a figure doubted by Eikenberry: The DG noted the Kuchis have always played an important role in Afghan society, both in living the traditional nomadic lifestyle of the ancient Afghans, in their involvement in the wars and revolutions that have torn Afghanistan apart.
The Kuchis continue to play such a role now. Opponents of the various Afghan governments have manipulated and played on Kuchi dissatisfaction to incite revolution and fuel opposition to foreign involvement in Afghanistan; the DG said the Taliban have gained Kuchi support by manipulating Kuchi dissatisfaction with the government. The DG estimated that over 1/2 of Taliban are Kuchis, persuaded to side with the Taliban out of ignorance. For example, in his home province of Paktika, the majority of Taliban commanders are Kuchis. (Comment: The Other Government Agency office estimates Kuchis comprise only a single-digit percentage of the Taliban. The DG may be inflating the participation of the Kuchis in the Taliban movement to ensure Kuchi interests are considered in any peace-promotion efforts. Vogelsang, Willem. 2002. The Afghans. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford. ISBN 0-631-19841-5 Lifestyle of Kuchi community AFGHANISTAN: Threat of ethnic clashes over grazing land Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit
Sharana Sharan or Kharana, is the capital of Paktika Province, Afghanistan. It is located at an altitude of 2,200 meters, its population was estimated to be 2,200 in 2006. The city of Sharana has a population of 15,651, it has a total land area of 5,893 hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city are 1,739. With an influence from the local steppe climate, Sharana features a cold semi-arid climate under the Köppen climate classification; the average temperature in Sharana is 10.8 °C. September is the driest month with 1 mm of rainfall, while March, the wettest month, has an average precipitation of 54 mm. July is the warmest month of the year with an average temperature of 23.6 °C. The coldest month January has an average temperature of -4.5 °C, with the average lows at -10.9 °C. Barren land and agriculture account for 73% of total land. Sharana has the largest share of land classified as institutional of any Afghan provincial capital. Sharana District Paktika Province
Wakhan District is one of the 28 districts of Badakhshan Province in eastern Afghanistan. The total population for the district is about 13,000 residents; the district has three international borders: Tajikistan to the north, Pakistan to the south, Afghanistan's only border with China to the east. The capital of the district is the village of Khandud, which has a population of 1,244. Wakhan Wakhan Corridor Map at the Afghanistan Information Management Services