A diminutive is a word, modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment. A diminutive form is a word-formation device used to express such meanings. Diminutives are employed as nicknames and pet names, when speaking to small children, when expressing extreme tenderness and intimacy to an adult; the opposite of the diminutive form is the augmentative. Beyond the diminutive form of a single word, a diminutive can be a multi-word name, such as "Tiny Tim" or "Little Dorrit". In many languages, formation of diminutives by adding suffixes is a productive part of the language. For example, in Spanish gordo can be a nickname for someone, overweight, by adding an ito suffix, it becomes gordito, more affectionate. A double diminutive is a diminutive form with two diminutive suffixes rather than one. While many languages apply a grammatical diminutive to nouns, a few – including Dutch, Latin, Macedonian, Czech and Estonian – use it for adjectives and other parts of speech.
In English the alteration of meaning is conveyed through clipping, making the words shorter and more colloquial. Diminutives formed by adding affixes in other languages are longer and not understood. Diminutives in isolating languages may grammaticalize strategies other than prefixes. In Mandarin Chinese, for example, other than the nominal prefix 小 xiǎo and nominal suffixes 儿/兒 -r and 子 -zi, reduplication is a productive strategy, e.g. 舅 → 舅舅 and 看 → 看看. In formal Mandarin usage, the use of diminutives is infrequent, as they tend to be considered to be rather colloquial than formal; some Wu Chinese dialects use a tonal affix for nominal diminutives. In some contexts, diminutives are employed in a pejorative sense, to denote that someone or something is weak or childish. For example, one of the last of the Western Roman emperors was named Romulus Augustus, but this was diminuted to "Romulus Augustulus" to express his powerlessness. Affect Augmentative Comparison Diminutives in Australian English Hypocorism List of diminutives by language -ie ending
George Henry Kendrick Thwaites was an English botanist and entomologist. Thwaites was an accountant and studied botany during his spare time, he was interested in the lower plants such as the algae and the cryptogams. He became a recognised botanist when he showed that the diatoms are not algae. In 1846 he was lecturer on botany at the Bristol school of pharmacy and afterwards at the medical school. In March 1849, on the death of George Gardner, Thwaites was appointed superintendent of the botanical gardens at Peradeniya, Ceylon. A position he held for thirty years, until he resigned in 1879, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 June 1865 following the publication of his Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniæ, –. His notes form the most valuable portion of Frederic Moore's Lepidoptera of Ceylon, he established the Cinchona nurseries, Hakgala and was in the Board of Directors of the Alfred Model Farm Experimental Station that became the Royal Colombo Golf Course. The flowering plant genus the spider genus Thwaitesia are named after him.
A species of Sri Lankan lizard, Chalcidoseps thwaitesi, a butterfly Tapena thwaitesi, are named in his honor. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Thwaites, George Henry Kendrick". Dictionary of National Biography. 56. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Royal Society Library and Archive Catalog Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae
Diamond is the debut Japanese album by the South Korean girl group 4Minute. It was released in Japan on December 15, 2010, it was released in two editions, regular CD only, limited CD+DVD. The limited edition includes a 52-page photobook that highlights some of their single releases and Japanese debuts; the album sold 7,060 copies in Japan. The Korean edition of the album was released in January 25, 2011, but doesn't includes the Korean songs from their debut EP "For Muzik"; the first single from the album is a Japanese version of the song "Muzik". It was released on May 5, 2010 and included Japanese versions of the Korean hits "Muzik" and "Hot Issue", as well as the Korean version of "Muzik", it ranked at number 12 in Oricon's Daily Singles chart. 21 in the weekly chart, sold 8,234 copies. The music video for the song shows the members in a blue room with flashing lights, along with scenes filmed in a red room, it takes one of the Korean scenes where the members are together wearing the latex leggings.
The second single was a Japanese version of the song "I My Me Mine". It was released on July 28, 2010, it ranked #22 in Oricon Daily singles chart and #26 in Oricon Weekly singles chart with 4,742 copies sold in the first week. It sold a total of 10,945 copies; the single charted on South Korea's Gaon chart at number 15 overall and number 3 on the international chart. The third and last single from the album was "First/Dreams Come True", their first double A-side single, it ranked no. 28 in Oricon's Weekly singles chart. The single included the song "Highlight" from Hit Your Heart. "Dreams Come True" was not part of Diamond, was included on the compilation album Best of 4Minute. A Korean version of the song "First" was included on the group's first Korean album 4minutes Left. Lyrics credits feature both the original version where appropriate, they include "rap making". Music credits feature the arrangers. "First" Music Video on YouTube