Igor of Kiev
Igor I was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus' from 912 to 945. Information about Igor comes from the Primary Chronicle; this document has Igor as the son of Rurik, the first ruler of Kievan Rus': 6378–6387. On his deathbed, Rurik bequeathed his realm to Oleg, who belonged to his kin, entrusted to Oleg's hands his son Igor', for he was young.6388–6390. Oleg set forth, taking with him many warriors from among the Varangians, the Chuds, the Slavs, the Merians and all the Krivichians, he thus arrived with his Krivichians before Smolensk, captured the city, set up a garrison there. Thence he went on and captured Lyubech, where he set up a garrison, he came to the hills of Kiev, saw how Askold and Dir reigned there. He hid his warriors in the boats, left some others behind, went forward himself bearing the child Igor', he thus came to the foot of the Hungarian hill, after concealing his troops, he sent messengers to Askold and Dir, representing himself as a stranger on his way to Greece on an errand for Oleg and for Igor', the prince's son, requesting that they should come forth to greet them as members of their race.
Askold and Dir straightway came forth. All the soldiery jumped out of the boats, Oleg said to Askold and Dir, "You are not princes nor of princely stock, but I am of princely birth." Igor' was brought forward, Oleg announced that he was the son of Rurik. They killed Askold and Dir, after carrying them to the hill, they buried them there, on the hill now known as Hungarian, where the castle of Ol'ma now stands. Igor' twice besieged Constantinople, in 941 and 944, although Greek fire destroyed part of his fleet, he concluded with the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII a favourable treaty, the text of which the chronicle has preserved. In 913 and 944 the Rus' plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions of the Rus', but it remains unclear whether Igor' had anything to do with these campaigns. Igor was killed while collecting tribute from the Drevlians in 945; the Byzantine historian and chronicler, Leo the Deacon, describes how Igor met his death: "They had bent down two birch trees to the prince's feet and tied them to his legs.
Igor's wife, Olga of Kiev, avenged his death by punishing the Drevlians. The Primary Chronicle blames his death on his own excessive greed, indicating that he tried to collect tribute for a second time in a month; as a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe. Drastically revising the chronology of the Primary Chronicle, Constantin Zuckerman argues that Igor reigned for three years, between summer 941 and his death in early 945, he explains the epic 33-year span of his reign in the chronicle to be the result of its author's faulty interpretation of Byzantine sources. Indeed, none of Igor's activities are recorded in the chronicle before 941. List of Ukrainian rulers List of Russian rulers
Society of Antiquaries of London
The Society of Antiquaries of London is a learned society "charged by its Royal Charter of 1751 with'the encouragement and furtherance of the study and knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other countries'." It is based at Burlington House, London, is a registered charity. Members of the society are known as fellows and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FSA after their names. Fellows are elected by existing members of the society, to be elected persons shall be "excelling in the knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other nations" and be "desirous to promote the honour and emoluments of the Society." The society retains a selective election procedure, in comparison with many other learned societies. Nominations for fellowship can come only from existing fellows of the society, must be signed by at least five and up to twelve existing fellows, certifying that, from their personal knowledge, the candidate would make a worthy fellow. Elections occur by anonymous ballot, a candidate must achieve a ratio of two'yes' votes for every'no' vote cast by fellows participating in the ballot to be elected as a fellow.
Fellowship is thus regarded as recognition of significant achievement in the fields of archaeology, antiquities and heritage. The first secretary for the society was William Stukeley; as of 2017, the society has a membership of 3,055 fellows. A precursor organisation, the College of Antiquaries, was founded c. 1586 and functioned as a debating society until it was forbidden to do so by King James I in 1614. The first informal meeting of the modern Society of Antiquaries occurred at the Bear Tavern on The Strand on 5 December 1707; this early group, conceived by John Talman, John Bagford, Humfrey Wanley, sought a charter from Queen Anne for the study of British antiquities. The proposal for the society was to be advanced by Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford, but his dismissal from government caused it to become idle; the formalisation of proceedings occurred in 1717, the first minutes at the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street, are dated 1 January 1718. Those attending these meetings examined objects, gave talks, discussed theories of historical sites.
Reports on the dilapidation of significant buildings were produced. The society was concerned with the topics of heraldry and historical documents. In 1751, a successful application for a charter of incorporation was sought by its long-serving vice president Joseph Ayloffe, which allowed the society to own property; the society began to gather large collections of manuscripts and artefacts, housing such gifts and bequests while a proper institution for them did not exist. The acquisition of a large group of important paintings in 1828 preceded the establishment of the National Portrait Gallery by some 30 years. A gift of Thomas Kenwich, which included portraits of Edward IV, Mary Tudor, two of Richard III, reveal anti-Tudor bias in their portrayal. Following the London Blitz, the society organized many of the excavations of Roman and medieval ruins exposed by the bombing of the City, with annual surveys performed every year between 1946 and 1962. Among other finds, they discovered the unknown London citadel in the northwest corner of the London Wall.
The findings were summarized in 1968 by W. F. Grimes. In 2007, the society celebrated its tercentennial year with an exhibition at the Royal Academy entitled Making History: Antiquaries in Britain 1707-2007; the tercentenary was marked by two substantial publications: a collection of seventeen scholarly essays on the parallel themes of the history of the society itself and changing interpretations of the material relics of the past over the three centuries of its existence. The society's library is the major archaeological research library in the UK. Having acquired material since the early 18th century, the Library's present holdings number more than 100,000 books and around 800 received periodical titles; the catalogue include rare drawings and manuscripts, such as the inventory of all Henry VIII's possessions at the time of his death. As the oldest archaeological library in the country, the Library holds an outstanding collection of British county histories, a fine collection of 18th- and 19th-century books on the antiquities of Britain and other countries and an exceptionally wide-ranging collection of periodical titles with runs dating back to the early to mid-19th century.
In 1718, the society began to publish a series of illustrated papers on ancient buildings and artefacts those of Britain and written by members of the society, under the title Vetusta Monumenta. The series continued to appear on an irregular basis until 1906; the papers were published in a folio format, were notable for the inclusion of finely engraved views and reproductions of artefacts. An engraver was employed by the society from its inception – the earliest were George Vertue, James Basire and successors – labouring to produce the copperplate used in the printing of the folio editions; the prints were large and appealing, were intended to satisfy popular demand for archæological subject matter. A fellow of the society, Richard Gough, sought to expand and improve publication of the society's research, motivated by the steady dilapidation of examples
Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford
Christ Church Cathedral is the cathedral of the diocese of Oxford, which consists of the counties of Oxfordshire and Berkshire. It is the chapel of Christ Church at the University of Oxford; this dual role as cathedral and college chapel is unique in the Church of England. The cathedral was the church of St Frideswide's Priory; the site was presumed to be the location of the nunnery founded by St Frideswide, the patron saint of Oxford, the shrine now in the Latin Chapel containing relics translated at the rebuilding in 1180, was the focus of pilgrimage from at least the 12th until the early 16th century. In 1522, the priory was surrendered to Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, who had selected it as the site for his proposed college. However, in 1529 the foundation was taken over by Henry VIII. Work stopped. In 1546, Henry VIII transferred to it the created See of Oxford from Osney; the cathedral has the name of Ecclesia Christi Cathedralis Oxoniensis, given to it by Henry VIII's foundation charter. There has been a choir at the cathedral since 1526, when John Taverner was the organist and master of the choristers.
The statutes of Wolsey's original college called Cardinal College, mentioned 16 choristers and 30 singing priests. Christ Church Cathedral is one of the smallest cathedrals in the Church of England; the nave, main tower and transepts are late Norman. There are architectural features ranging from Norman to the Perpendicular style and a large rose window of the ten-part type; as of 28 January 2019: Dean — Martyn Percy Sub-Dean — Edmund Newey Diocesan Canon Precentor — Grant Bayliss Archdeacon of Oxford — Martin Gorick The university's four senior theology professors are ex officio Canons Residentiary: Regius Professor of Divinity — Graham Ward Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity — Carol Harrison Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theology — Nigel Biggar Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History — Sarah Foot The organ is a 43-rank, four-manual and pedal instrument built in 1979 by Austrian firm Rieger Orgelbau. First among the notable organists of Christ Church Cathedral is the Renaissance composer John Taverner, appointed as the first organist by Wolsey in 1526.
Other organists have included Basil Harwood, Thomas Armstrong, W. H. Harris, Simon Preston, Francis Grier and Nicholas Cleobury; the post of organist is held by Stephen Darlington. The main choir, the Christ Church Cathedral Choir, consists of 12 men and 16 choristers, is directed by Steven Grahl, they sing in university term time, at Christmas and Easter, have an extensive touring and recording programme. Former choristers include the composer William Walton; the Cathedral Singers consists of volunteers and is directed by James Potter. They are in residence outside of term time when the choristers and academical clerks of the main choir are on holiday; the college choir sings every 1–2 weeks in term time and is made up of current undergraduates and postgraduates from the college. John Bankes, English lawyer and politician Robert Burton, author The Anatomy of Melancholy George Berkeley and Bishop of Cloyne John Fell, Bishop of Oxford Henry Gage Henry Liddell, father of Alice Liddell John Locke, philosopher Lady Elizabeth Montacute Edward Bouverie Pusey George Stewart, 9th Seigneur d'Aubigny, Cavalier Thomas Strong, Bishop of Oxford John Underhill, Bishop of Oxford John Urry, literary editor Peter Wyche, ambassador to the Ottoman Empire and member of the Privy Council List of cathedrals in the United Kingdom Christ Church, Oxford: more information on the College and the Cathedral Christ Church Cathedral School The Clerks of Christ Church Bishop of Oxford Diocese of Oxford Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England English Gothic architecture Romanesque architecture Church of England Christ Church Cathedral website Christ Church Cathedral Choir website Oxford Cathedral information A history of the choristers of Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford Sacred destinations photo gallery
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917. Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the Soviets; the February Revolution was a revolution focused around Petrograd, the capital of Russia at that time. In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government, dominated by the interests of large capitalists and the noble aristocracy; the army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, resulting in Tsar Nicholas's abdication. The Soviets, which were dominated by soldiers and the urban industrial working class permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias.
The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War, which left much of the Russian Army in a state of mutiny. A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower classes and the left-leaning urban middle class. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies and many strikes. Many socialist political organizations were engaged in daily struggle and vied for influence within the Duma and the Soviets, central among which were the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin who campaigned for an immediate end to the war, land to the peasants, bread to the workers; when the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions were able to exploit universal disdain towards the war effort as justification to advance the revolution further. The Bolsheviks turned workers' militias under their control into the Red Guards over which they exerted substantial control.
In the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks led an armed insurrection by workers and soldiers in Petrograd that overthrew the Provisional Government, transferring all its authority to the Soviets with the capital being relocated to Moscow shortly thereafter. The Bolsheviks had secured a strong base of support within the Soviets and, as the now supreme governing party, established a federal government dedicated to reorganizing the former empire into the world's first socialist republic, practicing Soviet democracy on a national and international scale; the promise to end Russia's participation in the First World War was honored promptly with the Bolshevik leaders signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. To further secure the new state, the Cheka was established which functioned as a revolutionary security service that sought to weed out and punish those considered to be "enemies of the people" in campaigns consciously modeled on similar events during the French Revolution.
Soon after, civil war erupted among the "Reds", the "Whites", the independence movements and the non-Bolshevik socialists. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists and thereafter reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party. In this way, the Revolution paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and Petrograd, there was a visible movement in cities throughout the state, among national minorities throughout the empire and in the rural areas, where peasants took over and redistributed land; the Russian Revolution of 1905 was said to be a major factor contributing to the cause of the Revolutions of 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered nationwide protests and soldier mutinies. A council of workers called. While the 1905 Revolution was crushed, the leaders of the St. Petersburg Soviet were arrested, this laid the groundwork for the Petrograd Soviet and other revolutionary movements during the lead up to 1917.
The 1905 Revolution led to the creation of a Duma, that would form the Provisional Government following February 1917. The outbreak of World War I prompted general outcry directed at Tsar Nicholas II and the Romanov family. While the nation was engaged in a wave of nationalism, increasing numbers of defeats and poor conditions soon flipped the nation's opinion; the Tsar attempted to remedy the situation by taking personal control of the army in 1915. This proved to be disadvantageous for the Tsar, as he was now held responsible for Russia's continuing defeats and losses. In addition, Tsarina Alexandra, left to rule in while the Tsar commanded at the front, was German born, leading to suspicion of collusion, only to be exacerbated by rumors relating to her relationship with the controversial mystic Grigori Rasputin. Rasputin's influence led to disastrous ministerial appointments and corruption, resulting in a worsening of conditions within Russia; this led to general dissatisfaction with the Romanov family, was a major factor contributing to the retaliation of the Russian Communists against th
Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head. Founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII, it is one of the larger colleges of the University of Oxford with 629 students in 2016, it is the second wealthiest college with an endowment of £550m as of 2018. Christ Church has a number of architecturally significant buildings including Tom Tower, Tom Quad, the Great Dining Hall, the seat of the parliament assembled by King Charles I during the English Civil War; the buildings have inspired replicas throughout the world in addition to being featured in films such as Harry Potter and The Golden Compass. This has helped Christ Church become the most popular Oxford college for tourists with half a million visitors annually. Christ Church has many notable alumni including thirteen British prime ministers, King Edward VII, King William II of the Netherlands, seventeen Archbishops, writers Lewis Carroll and W.
H. Auden, philosopher John Locke, scientist Robert Hooke. Christ Church is partly responsible for the creation of University College Reading, which gained its own Royal Charter and became the University of Reading; the first female undergraduates matriculated at Christ Church in 1980. In 1525, at the height of his power, Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal Archbishop of York, suppressed the Priory of St Frideswide in Oxford and founded Cardinal College on its lands, using funds from the dissolution of Wallingford Priory and other minor priories, he planned the establishment on a magnificent scale, but fell from grace in 1529, with the buildings only three-quarters complete, as they were to remain for 140 years. In 1531 the college was itself suppressed, but it was refounded in 1532 as King Henry VIII's College by Henry VIII, to whom Wolsey's property had escheated. In 1546 the King, who had broken from the Church of Rome and acquired great wealth through the dissolution of the monasteries in England, refounded the college as Christ Church as part of the reorganisation of the Church of England, making the demolished priory church the cathedral of the created Diocese of Oxford.
Christ Church's sister college in the University of Cambridge is Trinity College, founded the same year by Henry VIII. Since the time of Queen Elizabeth I the college has been associated with Westminster School; the dean remains to ex officio member of the school's governing body. Major additions have been made to the buildings through the centuries, Wolsey's Great Quadrangle was crowned with the famous gate-tower designed by Sir Christopher Wren. To this day the bell in the tower, Great Tom, is rung 101 times at 9 pm at the former Oxford time every night, for the 100 original scholars of the college. In former times this was done at midnight, signalling the close of all college gates throughout Oxford. Since it took 20 minutes to ring the 101, Christ Church gates, unlike those of other colleges, did not close until 12:20; when the ringing was moved back to 9:00 pm, Christ Church gates still remained open until 12.20, 20 minutes than any other college. Although the clock itself now shows GMT/BST, Christ Church still follows Oxford time in the timings of services in the cathedral.
King Charles I made the Deanery his palace and held his Parliament in the Great Hall during the English Civil War. In the evening of 29 May 1645, during the second siege of Oxford, a "bullet of IX lb. weight" shot from the Parliamentarians warning-piece at Marston fell against the wall of the north side of the Hall. Several of Christ Church's deans achieved high academic distinction, notably Owen under the Commonwealth and Fell in the Restoration period and Gaisford in the early 19th century and Liddell in the high Victorian era. For over four centuries Christ Church admitted men only. Christ Church, formally titled "The Dean and Students of the Cathedral Church of Christ in Oxford of the Foundation of King Henry the Eighth", is the only academic institution in the world, a cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Oxford; the Visitor of Christ Church is the reigning British sovereign, the Bishop of Oxford is unique among English bishops in not being the Visitor of his own cathedral. The head of the college is the Dean of Christ Church, an Anglican cleric appointed by the crown as dean of the cathedral church.
There are a senior and a junior censor the former of whom is responsible for academic matters, the latter for undergraduate discipline. A censor theologiae is appointed to act as the dean's deputy; the form "Christ Church College" is considered incorrect, in part because it ignores the cathedral, an integral part of the unique dual foundation. The governing body of Christ Church consists of the dean and chapter of the cathedral, together with the "Students of Christ Church", who are not junior members but rather the equivalent of the fellows of the other colleges; until the 19th century, the students differed from fellows in that they had no governing powers in their own college, these residing with the dean and chapter. Christ Church si
The term Byzantine commonwealth was coined by 20th-century historians to refer to the area where Byzantine general influence was spread during the Middle Ages by Byzantine statehood and missionaries. This area covers the modern-day countries of Greece, Cyprus, R. Macedonia, Serbia, Romania, Ukraine, southwestern Russia, Georgia; the most important treatment of the concept is a study by Dimitri Obolensky, The Byzantine Commonwealth. In his book Six Byzantine Portraits he examined life and works of six persons mentioned in The Byzantine Commonwealth, he described the commonwealth as the international community within the sphere of authority of the Byzantine emperor, bound by the same profession of Eastern Christianity, accepted the principles of the Romano-Byzantine law. There are scholars, who criticize this conceptualization, disputing the notion of an unchallenged superiority of the Byzantine empire, it is argued that the complex and multi-faceted dynamics of documented cultural exchange was not aligned with the theory that Constantinople was the superior core while those in periphery understood their marginal position and imitated their superiors.
Instead of Byzantine Commonwealth, historian Christian Raffensperger, proposed that it be recast as the "Byzantine ideal". Here, the empire maintains its belief in the traditional hierarchy and the imperial authority while its reach and sway were considerably diminished. Byzantinism Eastern Orthodox Church Rum Millet Obolensky, Dimitri; the Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500-1453. London: Cardinal. Billinis, Alexander; the Eagle Has Two Faces: Journeys Through Byzantine Europe. AuthorHouse Publishing, 2011. ISBN 9781456778705. Miliana Kaimakamova. Byzantium, new peoples, new powers: the Byzantino-Slav contact zone, from the ninth to the fifteenth century. Towarzystwo Wydawnicze "Historia Iagellonica". ISBN 978-83-88737-83-1. Meyendorff, The Byzantine Legacy in the Orthodox Church. St Vladimir's Seminary Press, ISBN 0-913836-90-7
Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark)
Maria Feodorovna, known before her marriage as Princess Dagmar of Denmark, was a Danish princess and Empress of Russia as spouse of Emperor Alexander III. She was the second daughter and fourth child of King Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel, her eldest son became Emperor Nicholas II of Russia. She lived for ten years after he and his family were assassinated. Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar was born at the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen, her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a member of a impoverished princely cadet line. Her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel, she was baptised as a Lutheran and named after her kinswoman Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel, Queen Dowager of Denmark as well as the medieval Danish queen, Dagmar of Bohemia. Her godmother was Queen Caroline Amalie of Denmark. Growing up, she was known by the name Dagmar. Most of her life, she was known as Maria Feodorovna, the name which she took when she converted to Orthodoxy before her 1866 marriage to the future Emperor Alexander III.
She was known within her family as "Minnie". In 1852 Dagmar's father became heir-presumptive to the throne of Denmark due to the succession rights of his wife Louise as niece of King Christian VIII. In 1853, he was given the title Prince of Denmark and he and his family were given an official summer residence, Bernstorff Palace. Dagmar's father became King of Denmark in 1863 upon the death of King Frederick VII. Due to the brilliant marital alliances of his children, he became known as the "Father-in-law of Europe." Dagmar's eldest brother would succeed his father as King Frederick VIII of Denmark. Her elder, favourite, Alexandra married Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales in March 1863. Alexandra, along with being queen consort of King Edward VII, was mother of George V of the United Kingdom, which helps to explain the striking resemblance between their sons Nicholas II and George V. Within months of Alexandra's marriage, Dagmar's second older brother, was elected as King George I of the Hellenes.
Her younger sister was Duchess of Cumberland. She had another younger brother, Valdemar. During her upbringing, together with her sister Alexandra, was given swimming lessons by the Swedish pioneer of swimming for women, Nancy Edberg; the rise of Slavophile ideology in the Russian Empire led Alexander II of Russia to search for a bride for the heir apparent, Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich, in countries other than the German states that had traditionally provided consorts for the tsars. In 1864, Nicholas, or "Nixa" as he was known in his family, went to Denmark where he was betrothed to Dagmar. On 22 April 1865 he died from meningitis, his last wish was that Dagmar would marry his younger brother, the future Alexander III. Dagmar was distraught after her young fiancé's death, she was so heartbroken when she returned to her homeland that her relatives were worried about her health. She had become attached to Russia and thought of the huge, remote country, to have been her home; the disaster had brought her close to "Nixa's" parents, she received a letter from Alexander II in which the Emperor attempted to console her.
He told Dagmar in affectionate terms that he hoped she would still consider herself a member of their family. In June 1866, while on a visit to Copenhagen, the Tsarevich Alexander asked Dagmar for her hand, they had been in her room looking over photographs together. Dagmar left Copenhagen on 1 September 1866. Hans Christian Andersen, invited to tell stories to Dagmar and her siblings when they were children, was among the crowd which flocked to the quay in order to see her off; the writer remarked in his diary, "Yesterday, at the quay, while passing me by, she stopped and took me by the hand. My eyes were full of tears. What a poor child! Oh Lord, be kind and merciful to her! They say that there is a brilliant court in Saint Petersburg and the tsar's family is nice. Dagmar was warmly welcomed in Kronstadt by Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich of Russia and escorted to St. Petersburg, where she was greeted by her future mother-in-law and sister-in-law on 24 September. On the 29th, she made her formal entry in to the Russian capital dressed in a Russian national costume in blue and gold and traveled with the Empress to the Winter Palace where she was introduced to the Russian public on a balcony.
Catherine Radziwill described the occasion: ”rarely has a foreign princess been greeted with such enthusiasm… from the moment she set foot on Russian soil, succeeded in winning to herself all hearts. Her smile, the delightful way she had of bowing to the crowds…, laid the foundation of …popularity” She converted to Orthodoxy and became Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna of Russia; the lavish wedding took place on 9 November 1866 in the Imperial Chapel of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg. Financial constraints had prevented her parents from attending the wedding, in their stead, they sent her brother, Crown Prince Frederick, her brother-in-law, the Prince of Wales, had travelled to Saint Petersburg for the ceremony.