Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Modern Greek Enlightenment
The Modern Greek Enlightenment was the Greek expression of the Age of Enlightenment. The Greek Enlightenment was given impetus by the Greek predominance in trade and education in the Ottoman Empire. Greek merchants financed a large number of young Greeks to study in universities in Italy and the German states. There they were introduced to the ideas of the French Revolution, it was the wealth of the extensive Greek merchant class that provided the material basis for the intellectual revival, the prominent feature of Greek life in the half century and more leading to 1821. It was not by chance that on the eve of the Greek War of Independence the most important centres of Greek learning, schools-cum-universities, were situated in Ioannina, Chios and Ayvalik, all major centres of Greek commerce; the Phanariotes were a small caste of Greek families who took their collective name from the Phanar quarter of Constantinople where the Ecumenical Patriarchate is still housed. They held various administrative posts within the Ottoman Empire, the most important of which were those of hospodar, or prince, of the Danubian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
Most hospodars acted as patrons of Greek culture and printing. These academies attracted teachers and pupils from throughout the Orthodox commonwealth, there was some contact with intellectual trends in Habsburg central Europe. For the most part they supported the Ottoman system of government, too much to play a significant part in the emergence of the Greek national movement; this environment was in general a special attraction for young and educated Greek people from the Ottoman Empire, contributing to their national enlightenment. The Princely Academies of Bucharest and Iasi played a crucial role in this movement. Characteristically the authors of the Geographia Neoteriki, one of the most remarkable works of that era, Daniel Philippidis and Grigorios Konstantas, were both educated in this environment. One effect was the creation of an atticized form of Greek by linguistic purists, adopted as the official language of the state and came to be known as Katharevousa; this created diglossia in the Greek linguistic sphere, in which Katharevousa and the vernacular idiom known as Dimotiki were in conflict until the latter half of the 20th century.
The transmission of Enlightenment ideas into Greek thought influenced the development of a national consciousness. The publication of the journal Hermes o Logios encouraged the ideas of the Enlightenment; the journal's objective was to advance Greek science and culture. Two of the main figures of the Greek Enlightenment, Rigas Feraios and Adamantios Korais, encouraged Greek nationalists to pursue contemporary political thought. Greek Enlightenment concerned not only language and the humanities but the sciences; some scholars such as Methodios Anthrakites, Evgenios Voulgaris, Athanasios Psalidas, Balanos Vasilopoulos and Nikolaos Darbaris had a background in Mathematics and the Physical Sciences and published scientific books into Greek for use in Greek schools. Rigas Feraios published an Anthology of Physics. Neophytos Doukas, a scholar and prolific writer, who wrote about 70 books and rendered many ancient texts into Modern Greek. Rigas Feraios, Greek emigre to Vienna, he was an admirer of the French revolution and hoped to transplant its humanistic ideas to the Greek world.
He imagined a pan-Balkan uprising against the Ottomans. Adamantios Korais, witness of the French Revolution, Korais took his primary intellectual inspiration from the Enlightenment, he borrowed ideas copiously from the philosophers Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Theophilos Kairis, influenced by the French Enlightenment and critical to the Eastern Orthodox Church, he founded a pietistic revivalist movement, known as Theosebism, inspired by the French revolutionary cults, radical Protestantism and deism, anathematised by the Synod of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. He had a different vision for the independent Greece, one, based upon the concept of separation of church and state. Theoklitos Farmakidis, inspired by the French Revolution pro-West and critical to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Filomousos Eteria, the name of two philological and philellene organizations. Filiki Eteria, the Society of Friends in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow Ottoman rule and to establish an independent Greek state founded on the humanist ideals of the Enlightenment.
Many young Phanariot Greeks were among its members. French Enlightenment Anthimos Gazis Ellinoglosso Xenodocheio Greek War of Independence Dimitris Michalopoulos, "Aristotle vs Plato; the Balkans' Paradoxical Enlightenment", Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, 1, pp. 7–15. ISSN 1313-1958. Anna Tabaki, "Enlightenment", Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition, Editor Graham Speake, Volume vol.1 A-K, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, London-Chicago, 2000, pp. 547–551. Anna Tabaki, "Greece", Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment, Alan Charles Kors Editor in Chief, Volume 2, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 157–160. Anna Tabaki, Anna Tabaki, "Les Lumières néo-helléniques. Un essai de définition et de périodisation", The Enlightenment in Europe, Les Lumières en Europe, Aufklärung in Europa. Unity and Diversity, Unité et Diversité, Einheit und Vielfalt. Edited by /édité par / hrsg. von Werner Schneiders avec l’introduction g
Most of the areas which today are within modern Greece's borders were at some point in the past a part of the Ottoman Empire. This period of Ottoman rule in Greece, lasting from the mid-15th century until the successful Greek War of Independence that broke out in 1821 and the proclamation of the First Hellenic Republic in 1822, is known in Greek as Tourkokratia; some regions, like the Ionian islands, various temporary Venetian possessions of the Stato da Mar, or Mani peninsula in Peloponnese did not become part of the Ottoman administration, although the latter was under Ottoman suzerainty. The Eastern Roman Empire, the remnant of the ancient Roman Empire which ruled most of the Greek-speaking world for over 1100 years, had been fatally weakened since the sacking of Constantinople by the Latin Crusaders in 1204; the Ottoman advance into Greece was preceded by victory over the Serbs to its north. First, the Ottomans won the Battle of Maritsa in 1371; the Serb forces were led by the King Vukašin of Serbia, the father of Prince Marko and the co-ruler of the last emperor from the Serbian Nemanjic dynasty.
This was followed by another Ottoman draw in the 1389 Battle of Kosovo. With no further threat by the Serbs and the subsequent Byzantine civil wars, the Ottomans besieged and took Constantinople in 1453 and advanced southwards into Greece, capturing Athens in 1458; the Greeks held out in the Peloponnese until 1460, the Venetians and Genoese clung to some of the islands, but by the early 16th century all of mainland Greece and most of the Aegean islands were in Ottoman hands, excluding several port cities still held by the Venetians. The mountains of Greece were untouched, were a refuge for Greeks who desired to flee Ottoman rule and engage in guerrilla warfare; the Cyclades islands, in the middle of the Aegean, were annexed by the Ottomans in 1579, although they were under vassal status since the 1530s. Cyprus fell in 1571, the Venetians retained Crete until 1669; the Ionian Islands were never ruled by the Ottomans, with the exception of Kefalonia, remained under the rule of the Republic of Venice.
It was in the Ionian Islands where modern Greek statehood was born, with the creation of the Republic of the Seven Islands in 1800. Ottoman Greece was a multiethnic society. However, the modern Western notion of multiculturalism, although at first glance appears to correspond to the system of millets, is considered to be incompatible with the Ottoman system; the Greeks with the one hand were given freedom. Despite losing their political independence, the Greeks remained dominant in the fields of commerce and business; the consolidation of Ottoman power in the 15th and 16th centuries rendered the Mediterranean safe for Greek shipping, Greek shipowners became the maritime carriers of the Empire, making tremendous profits. After the Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Lepanto however, Greek ships became the target of vicious attacks by Catholic pirates; this period of Ottoman rule had a profound impact in Greek society. The Greek land-owning aristocracy that traditionally dominated the Byzantine Empire suffered a tragic fate, was completely destroyed.
The new leading class in Ottoman Greece were the prokritoi called kocabaşis by the Ottomans. The prokritoi were bureaucrats and tax collectors, gained a negative reputation for corruption and nepotism. On the other hand, the Phanariots became prominent in the imperial capital of Constantinople as businessmen and diplomats, the Greek Orthodox Church and the Ecumenical Patriarch rose to great power under the Sultan's protection, gaining religious control over the entire Orthodox population of the Empire, Greek, Αlbanian-speaking, Latin-speaking and Slavic. After the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, the Despotate of the Morea was the last remnant of the Byzantine Empire to hold out against the Ottomans. However, it fell to the Ottomans in 1460. While most of mainland Greece and the Aegean islands was under Ottoman control by the end of the 15th century and Crete remained Venetian territory and did not fall to the Ottomans until 1571 and 1670 respectively; the only part of the Greek-speaking world that escaped Ottoman rule was the Ionian Islands, which remained Venetian until 1797.
Corfu withstood three major sieges in 1537, 1571 and 1716 all of which resulted in the repulsion of the Ottomans. Other areas that remained part of the Venetian Stato da Màr include Nafplio and Monemvasia until 1540, the Duchy of the Archipelago, centered on the islands of Naxos and Paros until 1579, Sifnos until 1617 and Tinos until 1715; the consolidation of Ottoman rule was followed by two distinct trends of Greek migration. The first entailed Greek intellectuals, such as Basilios Bessarion, Georgius Plethon Gemistos and Marcos Mousouros, migrating to other parts of Western Europe and influencing the advent of the Renaissance; this trend had effect on the creation of the modern Greek diaspora. The second entailed Greeks leaving the plains of the Greek peninsula and resettling in the mountains, where the rugged landscape made i
Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios
The Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios is a large chalcography printed in Vienna in 1797 by Rigas Feraios. It depicts a portrait of Alexander the Great framed by war portraits of his generals; the etching was incised by François Müller, who cooperated with Rigas for his cartographic work which he published the same year: Rigas' Map of Greece, the New Map of Wallachia and the General Map of Moldavia. It was released in 1200 copies from the printing press of Nitsch. One of the two copies that have been discovered in Greece is displayed in the National Historical Museum of Greece; the pamphlet is divided into two parts: the explanatory. The iconographic representation occupies the largest part of the picture, while she is repeated in reduction in the left corner; the head of Alexander prevails in the center. He has long hair, wears a helmet decorated with winged dragon tail to the side and human face at the cornice, while the breastplate is decorated with a human figure; the portrait is divided in 8 unequal trapezoidal panels.
In the four smaller ones, the heads of his most notable generals are illustrated and their names are written in capital letters: Seleucus, Antigonus and Ptolemy. In the larger horizontal panels, four multifaceted scenes are pictured from the expedition against the Persians: 1; the triumphal entry of Alexander into Babylon, 2. The fleeing of Persians at Granicus River, 3; the defeat of Darius, 4. The family of the defeated king at the feet of Alexander; the explanatory text is written in two columns. It is divided in 3 sections which are distinguished by 3 separate paragraphs at the upper part of the page; the first section is referred to the subject of the picture and the sources that its creator has used. The second section is referred to the personality of Alexander with a short and comprehensive biographical text; the third section is the colophon and declares the creator of the picture and the aim of the publication. The existence of the ancient seal, used as an archetype, as Rigas mentions in the explanatory text, is not disputed but it has been proved that he copies with some variations, an etching that he detected during his stay in Vienna.
It is about the picture that the engraver Salomon Kleiner created and Joseph de France published in 1749 in Vienna. The two etchings show great similarities in the portraits of Alexander the Great and his generals, while Rigas adds to the explanatory text historical information for the action of Alexander; the rest of the scenes are different because their copy was difficult due to their complex composition. Archetypes of these two etchings are the paintings of the French painter Charles Le Brun, whose copy was quite popular in Europe during 17th and 18th century; as Rigas stated to the Austrian authorities, the publication of the pamphlet aimed to the awakening of Greek’s national consciousness. The historical information that he quotes, aim to the national uplift of the enslaved and to the connection with the glorious ancient past, just like the rest of Riga’s publications; the short and comprehensive biography of Alexander makes him a legendary hero who survived through the centuries and became an example to follow.
Through his legendary accomplishments becomes the timeless symbol of national liberation in Modern Greek consciousness. The Ottoman conquerors are identified with the Persians who should be repelled same way as the Macedonian king did. Rigas published this portrait for one more reason, detected to the colophon of the picture; the phrase “for the Greeks and the Philhellenes” makes it clear that the enslaved Greeks must rise up and claim their independence counting on the help of France, since during this period the Great Napoleon promises the liberation of the Greeks. The pamphlet accomplished the establishment of the portrait of Alexander the Great as the “authentic” hero pattern; until the late 19th century, this portrait is repeated with some variations, while its spread contributed to the creation of the idealized warrior hero pattern. The pamphlet is repeated as frontispiece to the version of Arrian's “Sozomena”, edited by Neophytos Doukas and was published in 1809 in Vienna. In 1816 the figure of Alexander the Great, as Rigas Velestinlis designed it, adorned the figurehead on Andreas Miaoulis ship, Aris.
After the Greek Revolution the figure of Alexander the Great was the inspiration to artists or writers who wanted to stimulate the self-knowledge of the Greeks with their works. A good example is the release of an etching in 1849 in Athens, created by the lithographer Ioannis Koronaios; the pamphlet of Alexander the Great and all the following allegoric pictures intended to the awakening of the Greek consciousness and they can be included in the large category of images of national purpose. This name was established on the occasion of the national purpose paintings that were released in 1940 from the School of Fine Arts for the national resistance against the Italian and the German troops. Amantos, K. Ανέκδοτα έγγραφα περί Ρήγα Βελεστινλή. Σύλλογος προς Διάδοσιν Ωφελίμων Βιβλίων. Historical and Folklore Library, No. 7. Athens, 1930. Daskalakis, Ap. Les oeuvres de Rhigas Velestinlis, Paris 1936, Daskalakis, V. Ο Ρήγας Βελεστινλής ως Διδάσκαλος του Γένους. ΄Εκδοσις νέα μετά συμπληρώσεων και προσθηκών.
Athens, 1977. Gratziou Olga, «Το Μονόφυλλο του Ρήγα του 1797. Παρατηρήσεις στη νεοελληνική εικονογραφία του Μεγάλου Αλεξάνδρου», Μνήμων, Athens, 1980. Kamarianos, N. Ρήγας Βελεστινλής, Συμπληρώσεις και διορθώσεις για τη ζωή και το έργο του. Introduction – Translati
Macedonia is a geographic and former administrative region of Greece, in the southern Balkans. Macedonia is the largest and second-most-populous Greek region, with a population of 2.38 million in 2017. The region is mountainous, with most major urban centres such as Thessaloniki and Kavala being concentrated on its southern coastline. Together with Thrace, sometimes Thessaly and Epirus, it is part of Northern Greece. Greek Macedonia encompasses the southern part of the region of Macedonia, making up 51% of the total area of the region, it contains Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic region of Greece. Macedonia forms part of Greece's national frontier with three countries: Bulgaria to the north-east, the Republic of North Macedonia to the north, Albania to the north-west. Macedonia incorporates most of the territories of ancient Macedon, a kingdom ruled by the Argeads and whose most celebrated members were Alexander the Great and his father Philip II; the name Macedonia was applied to a number of widely-differing administrative areas in the Roman and Byzantine empires, resulting in modern geographical Macedonia.
Prior to the establishment of the modern Greek state in 1830 Macedonia was identified as a Greek province, albeit without defined geographical borders. Modern Macedonia was established in 1913, in the aftermath of the Treaty of Bucharest which ended the Balkan Wars, it continued as an administrative subdivision of Greece until the administrative reform of 1987, when it was divided into the regions of West Macedonia, Central Macedonia, part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace, the latter containing the whole Greek part of the region of Thrace. The region remains an important economic centre for Greece. Macedonia accounts for the majority of Greece's agricultural production and is a major contributor to the country's industrial and tourism sectors. Central Macedonia is Greece's fourth-most-popular tourist region and the most popular region, not an island, it is home to four UNESCO World Heritage sites, including Aigai, one of the ancient Macedonian capital cities. Pella, which replaced Aigai as the capital of Macedon in the fourth century BC, is located in Greek Macedonia.
The name Macedonia derives from the Greek Μακεδονία, a kingdom named after the ancient Macedonians, who were the descendants of a Bronze-age Greek tribe. Their name, Μακεδόνες, is cognate to the Ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning "tall, slim", it was traditionally derived from the Indo-European root *mak-, meaning'long' or'slender'. Linguist Robert S. P. Beekes supports the idea that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology. However, Beekes' views are not mainstream; the region has also been known as Македония in Bulgarian and the local South Slavic dialects, Makedonya in Turkish, Machedonia in Aromanian or Vlach. Macedonia lies at the crossroads of human development between the Aegean and the Balkans; the earliest signs of human habitation date back to the palaeolithic period, notably with the Petralona cave in, found the oldest yet known European humanoid, Archanthropus europaeus petraloniensis. In the Late Neolithic period, trade took place with quite distant regions, indicating rapid socio-economic changes.
One of the most important innovations was the start of copper working. According to Herodotus, the history of Macedonia began with the Makednoi tribe, among the first to use the name, migrating to the region from Histiaeotis in the south. There they lived near Thracian tribes such as the Bryges who would leave Macedonia for Asia Minor and become known as Phrygians. Macedonia was named after the Makednoi. Accounts of other toponyms such as Emathia are attested to have been in use before that. Herodotus claims that a branch of the Macedonians invaded Southern Greece towards the end of the second millennium B. C. Upon reaching the Peloponnese the invaders were renamed Dorians, triggering the accounts of the Dorian invasion. For centuries the Macedonian tribes were organized in independent kingdoms, in what is now Central Macedonia, their role in internal Hellenic politics was minimal before the rise of Athens; the Macedonians claimed to be Dorian Greeks and there were many Ionians in the coastal regions.
The rest of the region was inhabited by various Thracian and Illyrian tribes as well as coastal colonies of other Greek states such as Amphipolis, Potidea and many others, to the north another tribe dwelt, called the Paeonians. During the late 6th and early 5th century BC, the region came under Persian rule until the destruction of Xerxes at Plataea. During the Peloponnesian War, Macedonia became the theatre of many military actions by the Peloponnesian League and the Athenians, saw incursions of Thracians and Illyrians, as attested by Thucidydes. Many Macedonian cities were allied to the Spartans, but Athens maintained the colony of Amphipolis under her control for many years; the kingdom of Macedon, was reorganised by Philip II and achieved the union of Greek states by forming the League of Corinth. After his assassination, his son Alexander succeeded to the throne of Macedon and carrying the title of Hegemon of League of Corinth started his long campaign towards the east. Macedonia remained an important and powerful kingdom until the Battle of Pydna, in which the Roman general Aemilius Paulus defeated King Perseus of Macedon, ending the reign of the Antigonid dynasty over Macedonia.
For a brief period a Macedonian republic
The Orlov revolt was a Greek uprising in the Peloponnese and also in Crete that broke out in February 1770, following the arrival of Russian Admiral Alexey Orlov, commander of the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Turkish War, to the Mani Peninsula. The revolt, a major precursor to the Greek War of Independence, was part of Catherine the Great's so-called "Greek Plan" and was suppressed by the Ottomans; the Ottoman Empire had its longest period of peace between 1739 and 1768 - three decades when it did not engage any of its European rivals. Europe was caught up in costly and bloody conflicts while the Ottomans stayed out and tended to economy and politics, rebuilding social and administrative organization; this peaceful period came to an end on 23 October 1768. Causes included aggressive Russian foreign policy, Russian interference in Crimea, the power struggle in Poland-Lithuania. There were insignificant events in 1768 -- 69. Meanwhile, Greek rebels were readied. Wishing to weaken the Ottoman Empire and establish a pro-Russian independent Greek state, Russian emissaries had been sent to Mani in the mid-1760s to make a pact with the strongest local military leaders, at the same time notable Greeks approached various Russian agents, discussing plans for the liberation of Greece.
In preparation for war, Russian agents promoted Greek rebellion to support military actions in the north. Russian artillery captain Grigorios Papadopoulos, a Greek, was dispatched to Mani. Georgios Papazolis, another Greek officer of the Russian army, cooperated with the brothers Grigory and Alexei Orlov in preparations for a Greek insurrection in the Morea during the Russian military operations against the Ottoman Empire in 1769; the organization of the Greek rebellion was put under brothers Orlov, with Alexei as the Russian fleet commander. Some Greek notables joined the Russian side, promised them men and supplies, while in return they expected massive Russian aid. Russia planned to incite Orthodox Christians to revolt, sent agents to Bosnia, Montenegro, Albania and the Morea. Another Orlov brother, Fyodor Orlov, was sent to coordinate rebels in Morea, deemed the most important strategic area in mainland Greece. Russia assembled a war fleet for deployment in the Mediterranean, described as "one of the most spectacular events of the 18th century", which caught the Ottomans off-guard.
The first fleet contingent arrived in the Aegean in December. This expedition of four ships, a few hundred soldiers and inadequate arms supplies disappointed the Greeks. Combined Russian-Greek forces attempted a campaign. Among the Greek leaders that were approached were Panagiotis Benakis, a notable from Kalamata, the local metropolitan bishop Anthimos, Cretan shipping magnate John Vlachos "Daskalogiannis"; the arrival of the Russian fleet in Mani in February 1770 saw the establishment of local armed groups in Mani and Kalamata. However, the small Russian expeditionary force could not convince a part of the local Greeks to take arms; the Russian manpower was much fewer than expected and mutual distrust developed between the Greek and Russian leaders. An army of 1,400 men was formed, but additional reinforcement of Cretans arrived the following days; the Greek forces were divided into major units with the help of a small number of Russian officers and soldiers. The "Eastern Spartan Legion" in Laconia, with 1,200 men, was organized by P. P. Dolgorukov and led by Georgios "Yiorgakis" Mavromichalis, while the "Western Spartan Legion" in Messenia was led by G. M. Barkov and Antonios Psarros.
The Greek rebels were successful and managed to defeat Ottoman forces in Laconia and eastern Messenia in southern Morea. The revolt however failed to spread, thus the fortresses of Navarino and the administrative center of Morea, remained in Ottoman hands; the rebels did manage to control the fortress of Mystras. Meanwhile, the Greek revolt in Crete was led by Daskalogiannis. Soon after Sfakians refused to pay taxes and revolted in great numbers. However, the support promised by the Russian emissaries never arrived at Crete and Daskalogiannis was left to his own devices, he managed to organize a band of 2,000 well armed men who descended from the mountains onto the plains of western Crete. They attacked and killed local Turks in an unsuccessful effort to convince other Cretans to join them in their quest to overthrow the Ottomans; the Cretan uprising was soon suppressed by numerically superior Ottoman units. In April the revolutionaries managed to capture the fortress of Navarino however the uprising was doomed and the Russian fleet abandoned the region in following June.
As soon as the first news of the Russian-backed Greek revolt reached the Ottoman capital, the first anti-Greek pogroms broke out in various cities of the Ottoman Empire, including Smyrna. With the assistance of Greek islanders, the Russian fleet was able to score a major victory against the Ottoman Navy in the Battle of Cesme, but this did not help the Greek army in Morea; as the Russians failed to bring the forces they promised, the revolt was soon crushed. Greek reinforcements from Macedonia and Olympus region faced opposition in their descent to Morea and thus were unable to assist the revolutionaries. Hard-pressed by the arising necessity to fight a major war with Russia on its northern borders, the Ottoman Empire hired Albanian mercenary troops and th
The Maniots or Maniates are the inhabitants of the Mani Peninsula, Laconia, in the southern Peloponnese, Greece. They were formerly known as Mainotes and the peninsula as Maina. Maniots are described as descendants of the ancient Dorian population of the Peloponnese and as such related to the ancient Spartans; the terrain is mountainous and inaccessible, the regional name "Mani" is thought to have meant "dry" or "barren". The name "Maniot" is a derivative meaning "of Mani". In the early modern period, Maniots had a reputation as fierce and proudly independent warriors, who practiced piracy and fierce blood feuds. For the most part, the Maniots lived in fortified villages where they defended their lands against the armies of William II Villehardouin and against those of the Ottomans; the surnames of the Maniots uniformly end in "eas" in what is now the Messenian part of Mani, "akis" or "-akos" in what is now the Laconian part of Mani and the occasional "-oggonas" Homer's "Catalogue of Ships" in the Iliad mentions the cities of Mani: Messi, Kardamili, Gerenia and Las.
Under the Mycenaeans, Mani flourished and a temple dedicated to the Greek god Apollo was built at Cape Tenaron. The temple was of such importance that it rivaled Delphi, a temple dedicated to Poseidon; the temple of Tenaron was dedicated to Poseidon and the temple at Delphi was dedicated to Apollo. According to other legends, there is a cave near Tenaro. Mani was featured in other tales such as the one where Helen of Troy, Paris spent their first night together on the island of Cranae, off the coast of Gytheio. During the 12th century BC, the Dorians invaded Laconia; the Dorians settled at Sparta, but they soon started to expand their territory and by around 800 BC they had occupied Mani and the rest of Laconia. Mani was given the social caste of Perioeci. During that time, the Phoenicians came to Mani and were thought to have established a colony at Gythion; the Phoenicians built the colony at Gythion in order to collect murex, a sea shell, used to make purple dye and was plentiful in the Laconian Gulf.
While the Spartans ruled Mani, Tenaron became an important gathering place for mercenaries. Gythium became a major port under the Spartans. In 455 BC, during the First Peloponnesian War, it was besieged and captured by the Athenian admiral Tolmides along with 50 triremes and 4,000 hoplites; the city and the dockyards were rebuilt and by the late Peloponnesian War, Gythium was the main building place for the new Spartan fleet. The Spartan leadership of the Peloponnese lasted until 371 BC, when the Thebans under Epaminondas defeated them at Leuctra; the Thebans captured Gythium after a three-day siege. The Thebans only managed to hold Gythium, captured by 100 elite warriors posing as athletes. During the Hellenistic period of Greece, Mani remained controlled by the Spartans; the Macedonians under the command of Philip V of Macedon tried to invade Mani and Laconia and unsuccessfully besieged the cities of Gythium and Asine. When Nabis took over the Spartan throne in 207 BC, he implemented some democratic reforms.
One of these reforms entailed making Gythium into naval arsenal. In 195 BC, during the Roman-Spartan War, the Roman Republic and the Achaean League with assistance from a combined Pergamene and Rhodian force captured Gythium after a lengthy siege; the allies tried to force Nabis to surrender. As part of the terms of the peace treaty, the coastal cities of Mani were forced to become autonomous; the cities formed the Koinon of Free Laconians with Gythium as the capitol under the Achaean League's protection. Nabis, not content with losing his land in Mani, built a fleet and strengthened his army and advanced upon Gythium in 192 BC; the Achaean League's army and navy under Philopoemen, tried to relieve the city but the Achaean navy was defeated off Gythium and the army was forced to retreat to Tegea. A Roman fleet under Atilius managed to re-capture Gythium that year. Nabis was murdered that year and Sparta was made part of the Achaean League. However, the Spartans, while searching for a port captured Las.
The Achaeans responded by seizing Sparta and unsuccessfully forcing their laws on it. The Maniots lived in peace until 146 BC when the Achaean League rebelled against Roman dominance, resulting in the Battle of Corinth; the conflict resulted in the destruction of Corinth by the forces of Lucius Mummius Achaicus and the annexation of the Achaean League by the Roman Republic. Though the Romans conquered the Peloponnese, the Koinon was allowed to retain its independence; the Maniots suffered from pirate raids by Cretans and Cilicians who plundered Mani and pillaged the temple of Poseidon. The Maniots were delivered from the pirates. Most in gratitude, the Maniots supplied Pompey with archers in his battles against Julius Caesar during Caesar's civil war and were defeated. During the Civil war between Antony and Octavian, the Maniots and Laconians supplied Augustus with troops for his confrontation with Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt at the Battle of Actium and in gratitude they recognized Augustus as Emperor and invited him at Psammathous, the Maniot Koinon stayed an independent state.
This signified the beginning of the "Golden Age" of the Koinon