Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Tartu is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn. Tartu is considered the intellectual centre of the country since it is home to the nation's oldest and most renowned university, the University of Tartu; the city houses the Supreme Court of Estonia, the Ministry of Education and Research, the new building of the Estonian National Museum, opened to the public in October 2016. It is the birthplace of Estonian Song Festivals. Situated 186 kilometres southeast of Tallinn and 245 kilometres northeast of Riga, Tartu lies on the Emajõgi, which connects the two largest lakes of Estonia; the city is served by Tartu Airport. Since 1918, the Estonian name Tartu has been used, but as the town has come under control of various rulers throughout its history, there have been various names for it in different languages. Most of them derive from the earliest attested form, the Estonian Tarbatu. In German and Polish the town has been known and is sometimes still referred to as Dorpat, a variant of Tarbatu.
In Russian, the city has been known as Юрьев and as Дерпт. The city has been known as Tērbata in Latvian, while Finnish-speakers use the toponym Tartto. Archaeological evidence of the first permanent settlement on the site of modern Tartu dates to as early as the 5th century AD. By the 7th century, local inhabitants had built a wooden fortification on the east side of Toome Hill; the first documented record of the area was made in 1030 by chroniclers of Kievan Rus. Yaroslav I the Wise, Prince of Kiev, invaded the region that year, built his own fort there, named it Yuryev. Kievan rulers collected tribute from the surrounding ancient Estonian county of Ugaunia until 1061, according to chronicles, Yuryev was burned down by Estonian tribe called Sosols. Kievan Rus' again controlled Tartu from 1133 for an unknown period up to 1176/1177. In the 12th century Tartu was the most notable Slavic settlement in Chud territory. Estonian amateur historian Enn Haabsaar speculates that the "Yuryev" mentioned in this context is Bila Tserkva, Ukraine, a town, founded by Yaroslav I the Wise as Yuriev about the same time, 1032.
His views have been criticized by historian Ain Mäesalu. During the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century the fort of Tarbatu was captured by the crusading Livonian Knights — known as the Brothers of the Sword — and recaptured by Estonians on several occasions. In 1224, after Ugaunia had recognized the supremacy of Novgorod and Pskov princes who sent additional troops led by prince Vyachko of Kukenois to the fort, it was besieged and conquered for one last time by the German crusaders. Subsequently, known as Dorpat, Tartu became a commercial centre of considerable importance during the Middle Ages and the capital of the semi-independent Bishopric of Dorpat. In 1262 the army of Prince Dmitri of Pereslavl, son of Alexander Nevsky launched an assault on Dorpat and destroying the town, his troops did not manage to capture the bishop's fortress on Toome Hill. The event was recorded both in German and Old East Slavic chronicles, which provided the first record of a settlement of German merchants and artisans which had arisen alongside the bishop's fortress.
In medieval times, after the Livonian Order was subsumed into the Teutonic Knights in 1236, the town became an important trading city. In the 1280s Dorpat joined the Hanseatic League; as in all of Estonia and Latvia, the German-speaking nobility, but in Tartu/Dorpat more so, the Baltic German bourgeoisie, the literati, dominated culture, architecture and politics until the late 19th century. For example, the town hall of Dorpat was designed by an architect from Rostock in Mecklenburg, while the university buildings were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, another German. Many, if not most, of the students, more than 90 percent of the faculty members were of German descent, numerous statues of notable scholars with German names can still be found in Tartu today. Most Germans left during the first half of the 20th century, in particular as part of the Heim ins Reich program of the Nazis, following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in 1939. In 1558, tsar Ivan the Terrible invaded Tartu beginning the Livonian War.
Forces under the command of Pyotr Shuiski began heavy bombardment. In light of this and without any prospect of external help the town surrendered; the local bishop was imprisoned in Moscow, which ended the period of local self-government. In the effect of the Truce of Jam Zapolski of 1582 the city along with southern regions of Livonian Confederation became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1598 it became the capital of the Dorpat Voivodeship of the Duchy of Livonia. A Jesuit grammar school "Gymnasium Dorpatense" was established in 1583. In addition, a translators' seminary was organized in Tartu and the city received its red and white flag from the Polish king Stephen Báthory; the activities of both the grammar school and the seminary were stopped by the Polish–Swedish War. In late 1600 the forces of Charles IX of Sweden besieged the city defended by three banners of reiters and the city's burghers. Despite repeated assaults, the Swedes could not enter the city. In 1601 Capt. Hermann Wrangel switched sides, assaulted the cast
Czech Technical University in Prague
Czech Technical University in Prague is one of the largest universities in the Czech Republic, is one of the oldest institutes of technology in Central Europe. It is the oldest non-military technical university in Europe and the best technical university in the Czech Republic. In the academic year 2017/18 Czech Technical University offered 128 degree programs in Czech and 87 in English, it was established as the Institute of Engineering Education in 1707, but as a secondary education instead of a tertiary university, by Emperor Joseph I as a response to Christian Josef Willenberg's petition addressed to preceding emperor Leopold I. In 1806 the institute of Engineering Education was transformed into Prague Polytechnical Institute, when the university studies began. After the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the name of the school was changed in 1920 to the Czech Technical University in Prague. In 1705, Christian Josef Willenberg asked Emperor Leopold I for permission to teach "the art of engineering".
The emperor's only son, who succeeded him on the throne in 1707 as Joseph I, ordered the Czech state of Prague to provide engineering education. Due to various reasons the request was avoided long periods of time but in October 1716 Willenberg repeated the request and on 9 November 1717 a decree by the Czech state granted Willenberg the professorship and on 7 January 1718 he began teaching. Willenberg started teaching only 12 students in his own apartment, but students proliferated and they started studying in more suitable premises; the training focused on the military. Teaching in the first year lasted one hour per day in the second year two; the successor of prof. Willenberg was Johann Ferdinand Schor, builder of hydraulic structures in the basin of the Vltava and author of textbooks used at the school of mathematics, he began under Willenberg's leadership by teaching optics, technical drawing and geography. The third was professor František Antonín Herget, who focused on civil engineering construction.
In September 1776 Maria Theresa allowed Herget to use the Clementinum building. In 1787 the School of Engineering was established at the decree of Emperor Joseph II; the CTU is the best technical university in the Czech Republic. In 2010, in the world rating of THES-QS universities in the category of technical sciences, the CTU took the 121st place, in the category of natural sciences – 246th place. In 2018 Czech Technical University was ranked as 220th in Engineering and Technology in the QS World University Rankings. Students apply to faculty; each faculty has different admissions requirements. Acceptance rate ranges from 52.32% to 81.51%. The percentage of international students grew from 2.5% in 2000 to 16.4% in 2017. Due to the pace and difficulty of CTU coursework, high percentage of students fail to complete first year of their studies. First year failure rates range from 23% to 47%. Overall, only 48% of enrolled undergraduate students end up graduating. CTU has international agreements with 484 foreign universities.
Many of them are ranked in the first hundred in QS World University Rankings such as National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Purdue University, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Technical University of Munich, Delft University of Technology or KU Leuven. CTU has many bilateral agreements with universities outside of Europe; the most sought after universities are from Canada, Singapore, USA and Japan. That said, every year many students choose to study in attractive destinations such as Argentina, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Africa, South Korea, Costa Rica, New Zealand, Russia or Taiwan. CTU participates in the European programmes Erasmus and Leonardo. CTU has over 3500 international students from 117 countries. About 750 of them are an exchange students. One of the organizations that takes care of international students is International Student Club, which organizes Buddy Programme and extra-curricular activities.
CTU has 21 agreements with universities such as Technical University of Munich, RWTH Aachen or Trinity College Dublin. CTU has 8 faculties; the oldest one was founded in 1707, while the youngest and most selective faculty was founded in 2009. The university has 5 university institutes, such as Czech Institute of Informatics and Cybernetics, Klokner Institute, Institute of Physical Education and Sport, University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings and Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics. Other constituent parts include Computing and Information Centre and Innovation Centre, The Research Centre for Industrial Heritage, Centre for Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry, Division of Construction and Investment and Central Library; the university has a Publishing House and service facilities. Student clubs within the CTU are integrated in the Student Union, it has 27 members and covers a wide range of free time activities, with the biggest club being Silicon Hill. The Student Union organizes social events for students throughout the year.
František Běhounek, radiologist Christian Doppler and physicist Ivan Puluj and one of the
Governorate of Livonia
The Governorate of Livonia was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia. Following the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710, Peter the Great, on July 28, 1713, created the Riga Governorate which included Smolensk Uyezd, Dorogobuzh Uyezd, Roslavl Uyezd and Vyazma Uyezd of Smolensk Governorate. Smolensk Province was created from territory in Smolensk Governorate at that time, it was incorporated into Smolensk Governorate when it was reformed in 1726. Sweden formally ceded Swedish Livonia to Russia in 1721 with the Treaty of Nystad. In 1722 Tartu County was added to Riga Governorate. In 1726 Smolensk Governorate was separated from Governorate, which now had five provinces: Rīga, Cēsis, Tartu, Pärnu and Saaremaa. In 1783 the Sloka County was added. On July 3, 1783 Catherine the Great reorganized Governorate into Riga Lieutenancy. Only in 1796, after the Third Partition of Poland this territory was renamed as the Governorate of Livonia.
Until the late 19th century the governorate was not ruled by Russian laws but was administered autonomously by the local German Baltic nobility through a feudal Landtag. German nobles insisted on preserving their privileges and use of the German language. In 1816 Tsar Alexander liberated the serfs of Livonia, in a precursor to his plans for the rest of Russia. After the Russian February Revolution in 1917, the northern part of the Governorate of Livonia was combined with the Governorate of Estonia to form a new Autonomous Governorate of Estonia; the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence on 24 February 1918, one day before it was occupied by German troops during World War I. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918, Bolshevik Russia accepted the loss of the Livland Governorate and by agreements concluded in Berlin on 27 August 1918, the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia and the Governorate of Livonia were severed from Russia; the Governorate of Livonia was divided into 9 counties.
Note: After the February Revolution based on declaration of the Provisional Government of Russia of 30 March 1917 "About the autonomy of Estland", the Government of Livland was divided: five northern counties with the Estonian population as well as the populated by the Estonians townships of Walk county were all included into the composition of the neighboring Governorate of Estonia. However the new border between the Governments of Estonia and Livland was never properly demarcated. By the Imperial census of 1897. In bold are languages spoken by more people than the state language. Administrative divisions of Russia in 1713-1714 Baltic governorates Courland Governorate Estonia Governorate Livonian Confederation
Nicolai Ivanovich Andrusov
Nicolai Ivanovich Andrusov was a Ukrainian geologist and palaeontologist. He was born in Odessa a part of Russia, he studied zoology at the Novorossia University in Odessa. He traveled across Russia and central Europe to collect fossil specimens; the Challenger expedition of 1872–1876 studied processes of the sea floor. In 1889 Andrusov published a review of this expedition in Gornyi zhurnal, he would perform studies of the geology and sediments of the Ponto-Caspian steppe. In 1890-91 he participated in a deep water expedition to the Black Sea by the Russian Geographical Society; this expedition discovered hydrogen sulfide in the lower portions of this sea. Andrusov was the first to propose that this substance was created by biological decomposition of life forms containing sulfurous compounds, he was married to Nadezhda Genrikhovna Schliemann in 1899, the daughter of the somewhat notorious archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann. In 1905 he became a professor at the University of Kiev. In 1914 he became a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
He emigrated to France in 1920 due to illness. In 1919 he learned about the death of his elder son, suffered a stroke which resulted in paralysis of a leg and an arm, his relatives decided to move him to Paris. In 1922 he moved to Prague due to material difficulties, where he died in 1924, his son Dimitrij Andrusov became a member of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. The wrinkle ridge Dorsa Andrusov on the Moon is named after him, as well as the Mid-Black Sea High - Andrusov Ridge. Tikhomirov, V. V.. "Andrusov, Nikolai Ivanovich". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 161–163. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. Works by or about Nicolai Ivanovich Andrusov at Internet Archive Bio, in Ukrainian
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website