Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London in 1965. They achieved international acclaim with their psychedelic music. Distinguished by their philosophical lyrics, sonic experimentation, extended compositions, elaborate live shows, they are one of the most commercially successful and influential groups in popular music history. Pink Floyd were founded by students Syd Barrett on guitar and lead vocals, Nick Mason on drums, Roger Waters on bass and vocals, Richard Wright on keyboards and vocals, they gained popularity performing in London's underground music scene during the late 1960s, under Barrett's leadership released two charting singles and a successful debut album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. Guitarist and vocalist David Gilmour joined in December 1967. Waters became the band's primary lyricist and conceptual leader, devising the concepts behind their albums The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here, The Wall and The Final Cut; the Dark Side of the Moon and The Wall became two of the best-selling albums of all time.
Following creative tensions, Wright left Pink Floyd in 1979, followed by Waters in 1985. Gilmour and Mason continued as Pink Floyd; the three produced two more albums—A Momentary Lapse of Reason and The Division Bell —and toured through 1994. After nearly two decades of enmity, Gilmour and Mason reunited with Waters in 2005 to perform as Pink Floyd in London as part of the global awareness event Live 8. Barrett died in 2006, Wright in 2008; the last Pink Floyd studio album, The Endless River, was recorded without Waters and based entirely on unreleased material from The Division Bell recording sessions. Pink Floyd were inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. By 2013, they had sold more than 250 million records worldwide. Roger Waters and Nick Mason met while studying architecture at the London Polytechnic at Regent Street, they first played music together in a group formed by Keith Noble and Clive Metcalfe with Noble's sister Sheilagh.
Richard Wright, a fellow architecture student, joined that year, the group became a sextet, Sigma 6. Waters played lead guitar, Mason drums, Wright rhythm guitar; the band performed at private functions and rehearsed in a tearoom in the basement of the Regent Street Polytechnic. They performed songs by the Searchers and material written by their manager and songwriter, fellow student Ken Chapman. In September 1963, Waters and Mason moved into a flat at 39 Stanhope Gardens near Crouch End in London, owned by Mike Leonard, a part-time tutor at the nearby Hornsey College of Art and the Regent Street Polytechnic. Mason moved out after the 1964 academic year, guitarist Bob Klose moved in during September 1964, prompting Waters' switch to bass. Sigma 6 went through several names, including the Meggadeaths, the Abdabs and the Screaming Abdabs, Leonard's Lodgers, the Spectrum Five, before settling on the Tea Set. In 1964, as Metcalfe and Noble left to form their own band, guitarist Syd Barrett joined Klose and Waters at Stanhope Gardens.
Barrett, two years younger, had moved to London in 1962 to study at the Camberwell College of Arts. Waters and Barrett were childhood friends. Mason said about Barrett: "In a period when everyone was being cool in a adolescent, self-conscious way, Syd was unfashionably outgoing. In December 1964, they secured their first recording time, at a studio in West Hampstead, through one of Wright's friends, who let them use some down time free. Wright, taking a break from his studies, did not participate in the session; when the RAF assigned Dennis a post in Bahrain in early 1965, Barrett became the band's frontman. That year, they became the resident band at the Countdown Club near Kensington High Street in London, where from late night until early morning they played three sets of 90 minutes each. During this period, spurred by the group's need to extend their sets to minimise song repetition, the band realised that "songs could be extended with lengthy solos", wrote Mason. After pressure from his parents and advice from his college tutors, Klose quit the band in mid-1965 and Barrett took over lead guitar.
The group first referred to themselves as the Pink Floyd Sound in late 1965. Barrett created the name on the spur of the moment when he discovered that another band called the Tea Set, were to perform at one of their gigs; the name is derived from the given names of two blues musicians whose Piedmont blues records Barrett had in his collection, Pink Anderson and Floyd Council. By 1966, the group's repertoire consisted of rhythm and blues songs and they had begun to receive paid bookings, including a performance at the Marquee Club in March 1966, where Peter Jenner, a lecturer at the London School of Economics, noticed them. Jenner was impressed by the sonic effects Barrett and Wright created, with his business partner and friend Andrew King became their manager; the pair had little experience in the music industry and used King's inheritance to set up Blackhill Enterprises, purchasing about £1,000 worth of new instruments and equipment for the band
Home (The Corrs album)
Home is The Corrs' fifth studio album. An Irish-themed album, it includes covers of old Irish songs and traditionals, but covers of non-Irish songs such as "Heart Like A Wheel", it includes two tracks in Irish, "Buachaill Ón Éirne" and "Bríd Óg Ní Mháille". Home was compiled from a songbook of the late Jean Corr; the album was released 10 years after the release of their first album Forgiven, Not Forgotten. Although The Corrs returned to their Irish roots, the success of this album and its singles has been poor. "Old Town" performed poorly in the UK Singles Chart, peaking at number 43. The decision to cover and release the song was questioned, with Gareth Maher of CLUAS.com calling it "a disastrous one". Mark Weisinger from PopMatters stated that "anyone, waiting since the original, unremixed version of Talk On Corners for the Corrs to abandon their pursuit of the American pop charts to deliver another record along the lines of Forgiven, Not Forgotten will find their waiting repaid handsomely."
All songs written except where noted. "My Lagan Love" "Spancill Hill" "Peggy Gordon" "Black Is the Colour" "Heart Like a Wheel" "Buachaill ón Éirne" "Old Hag" "Moorlough Shore" "Old Town" "Dimming of the Day" "Bríd Óg Ní Mháille" "Haste to the Wedding" bonus track available on Japanese, limited German, Spanish release "Return to Fingall"
Limbo (1999 film)
Limbo is a 1999 drama film written, produced and directed by American independent filmmaker John Sayles. The drama features Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, David Strathairn, Vanessa Martinez and Kris Kristofferson, it is the first theatrical film to be distributed by Screen Gems. Port Henry, Alaska, is a town undergoing stress as the local economy switches from an industrial one based around the canning and paper industries towards a tourism-based model. Joe Gastineaux is a former high school basketball star and fisherman who quit fishing after some undisclosed tragedy, he now works as a handyman for Frannie and Lou, a lesbian couple who own the local resort hotel. Joe is friends with teenager Noelle De Angelo who works for Frankie and Lou. At an event which they are working, Noelle's mother Donna, a lounge singer, breaks up with her live in boyfriend and asks Joe for help in moving; the two become close and begin a romantic relationship. Meanwhile, Joe gets the chance to return to fishing when Frankie and Lou ask him to work a fishing boat which they have acquired as collateral from local fisherman Harmon.
Donna has a strained relationship with her daughter Noelle, due to Noelle's disapproval of her mother's lifestyle. This is exacerbated. Donna overhears the story of why Joe quit fishing: he had been involved in a deadly sinking which claimed the lives of all of his boatmates, including the brother of local bush pilot and small-time criminal "Smilin Jack" Johannson; when Joe's dissolute half-brother Bobby shows up, he asks Joe to help crew his boat to pick up a client. Joe brings along Noelle, they dock for the night in an isolated bay and Bobby reveals the truth: he is involved in marijuana smuggling and had dumped a load overboard when he was spooked by the police. Now they are going to meet Bobby's partners to settle his debt; that night, men kill Bobby. Joe and Noelle flee to a nearby island where the men begin to hunt them, they try to survive. As they do they grow closer and Noelle finds a diary written by a teenage girl who had lived in the cabin with her family, she spends the nights reading segments of the diary to Donna.
Donna looks at the diary and discovers that it is blank after the portion her daughter Noelle had read during the first two evenings. Noelle had made up most of its contents, they scrape some food from the seashore. After a week and a half a seaplane piloted by Smilin' Jack Johannson lands, he says that he is looking for supplies, his radio is busted, that he doesn't have enough fuel to fly them out. He tells Joe; when told of Bobby's murder, he expresses sympathy and promises to return the next day and rescue them. Joe, who does not trust Jack, sees the radio was removed, remains unsure of whether the seaplane return will bring rescue or the men who killed his brother. A stressful few days of rain prevent any flights' return. One morning Joe and Noelle gather on the beach as a seaplane flies towards them, larger than the one belonging to Jack. Limbo received positive reviews from critics. Roger Ebert lauded the film and its story structure, writing, "What I liked so much about this story structure is that it confounded my expectations at every step.
I expected the story to stay in Juneau. When it took a turn toward adventure, I thought the threat would come from nature—but it comes from men. After the three characters are stranded, I expected—I don't know what, maybe Swiss Family Robinson-style improvisation, but Sayles reveals his buried theme, that in a place like the Alaskan wilderness you can never be sure what will happen next. And that optimism and ingenuity may not be enough."Christopher Null lambasted the ending, writing, "I can forgive many things. But using some hackneyed, whacked-out, screwed-up non-ending on a movie is unforgivable. I walked a half-mile in the rain and sat through two hours of typical, plodding Sayles melodrama to get cheated by a complete and total copout finale."Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that the film has a 72% fresh rating, based on thirty-nine reviews. Wins Seattle International Film Festival: Golden Space Needle Award. National Board of Review: Special Recognition, for excellence in filmmaking.
Nominations Cannes Film Festival: Palme d'Or, John Sayles. Independent Spirit Awards: Independent Spirit Award. Las Vegas Film Critics Society Awards: Sierra Award. Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio performed four of the nine songs on the soundtrack, which features "Lift Me Up", an original song by Bruce Springsteen. Limbo at the American Film Institute Catalog Limbo on IMDb Limbo at AllMovie Limbo screenplay at Script-O-Rama Limbo analysis at University of Warwick, Movie: A Journal of Film Criticism, Issue 1, 2010, "Limbo: Frustrated Narration", by Deborah Thomas Limbo film trailer on YouTube
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Royal Festival Hall
The Royal Festival Hall is a 2,900-seat concert and talks venue within Southbank Centre in London. It is situated on the South Bank of the River Thames, not far from Hungerford Bridge, in the London Borough of Lambeth, it is a Grade. The London Philharmonic Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra and the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment are resident in the hall; the hall was built as part of the Festival of Britain for London County Council, was opened on 3 May 1951. When the LCC's successor, the Greater London Council, was abolished in 1986, the Festival Hall was taken over by the Arts Council, managed together with the Queen Elizabeth Hall and Purcell Room and the Hayward Gallery becoming an independent arts organisation, now known as the Southbank Centre, in April 1998; the complex includes several reception rooms and restaurants, the Clore Ballroom, accommodating up to 440 for a seated dinner. A large head and shoulders bust of Nelson Mandela stands on the walkway between the hall and Hungerford Bridge approach viaduct.
Made in glass-fibre it was vandalised until re-cast in bronze. The complex's variety of open spaces and foyers are popular for work-related meetings; the closest tube stations are Waterloo and, across the river via the Jubilee Bridges and Charing Cross. The Festival Hall project was led by London County Council’s chief architect, Robert Matthew, who gathered around him a young team of talented designers including Leslie Martin, to lead the project with Edwin Williams and Peter Moro, along with the furniture designer Robin Day and his wife, the textile designer Lucienne Day; the acoustical consultant was Hope Bagenal. Martin was 39 at the time, taken with the Nordic activities of Alvar Aalto and Gunnar Asplund; the figure who drove the project forward was Herbert Morrison, the Labour Party politician. He it was who had insisted that Matthew had Martin as his deputy architect, treating the Festival Hall as a special project. A 1948 sketch by Martin shows the design of the concert hall as the egg in a box.
But the strength of the design was the arrangement of interior space: the central staircase has a ceremonial feel and moves elegantly through the different levels of light and air. They were concerned that whilst the scale of the project demanded a monumental building, it should not ape the triumphal classicism of many earlier public buildings; the wide open foyers, with bars and restaurants, were intended to be meeting places for all: there were to be no separate bars for different classes of patron. Because these public spaces were built around the auditorium, they had the effect of insulating the Hall from the noise of the adjacent railway bridge. To quote Leslie Martin, "The suspended auditorium provides the building with its major attributes: the great sense of space, opened out within the building, the flowing circulation from the symmetrically placed staircases and galleries that became known as the ‘egg in the box’."The hall they built used modernism’s favourite material, reinforced concrete, alongside more luxurious elements including beautiful woods and Derbyshire fossilised limestone.
The exterior of the building was bright white, intended to contrast with the blackened city surrounding it. Large areas of glass on its façade meant that light coursed throughout the interior, at night, the glass let the light from inside flood out onto the river, in contrast to the darkness which befell the rest of London after dusk; the hall seated 2,901. The cantilevered boxes are described as looking like drawers pulled out in a hurried burglary, but none has a compromised sightline; the ceiling was wilfully sculptural, a conceit at the edge of building technology and, as it turns out, way beyond the contemporary understanding of acoustics. Robin Day, who designed the furniture for the auditorium, used a articulated structure in his designs of bent plywood and steel; the original building had lushly planted roof terraces. The foundation stone was laid in 1949 by Prime Minister Clement Attlee on the site of the former Lion Brewery, built in 1837; the building was constructed by Holland, Hannen & Cubitts at a cost of £2 million and opened on 3 May 1951 with a gala concert attended by King George Vl and Queen Elizabeth, conducted by Sir Malcolm Sargent and Sir Adrian Boult.
The first general manager was T. E. Bean, who had managed the Hallé Orchestra. "I was overwhelmed by a shock of breathless delight at the beauty of the interior. It felt as if I had been transported far into the future and that I was on another planet," said journalist Bernard Levin of his first impressions of the building; the 7,866 pipe organ was built during 1950–1954 by Harrison & Harrison in Durham, to the specification of the London County Council's consultant, Ralph Downes, who supervised the tonal finishing. It was designed as a well-balanced classical instrument embracing a number of rich and varied ensembles which alone or in combination could equal the dynamic scale of any orchestra or choral grouping, in addition to coping with the entire solo repertoire; the design principles enshrined in its construction gave rise to a whole new school of organ building, known as the English Organ Reform Movement
David Gilmour in Concert
David Gilmour in Concert is a DVD of Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour's solo concert at the Royal Festival Hall, London in June 2001, as part of the Robert Wyatt-curated Meltdown festival. It features footage filmed during three concerts at the same venue in January 2002; the track selection includes several Floyd songs, in addition to Gilmour's solo works. Guest appearances are made by Floyd colleague Richard Wright, as well as Robert Wyatt and Bob Geldof, it includes the first performance of "Smile", a track that would appear five years on Gilmour's third solo album, On an Island. Gilmour plays two Syd Barrett songs. Included is "Je crois entendre encore", an aria from Georges Bizet's opera Les pêcheurs de perles, with a libretto by Eugène Cormon and Michel Carré, sung by Gilmour in the original French. "I remember my wife Polly's face going red when I tried singing it," he recalled, "and my face going into a cold sweat –'Do I dare try this?' But once the choir came up here and ran through it with me, that gave me a huge amount of confidence."
"Shine On You Crazy Diamond" "Terrapin" "Fat Old Sun" "Coming Back to Life" "High Hopes" "Je crois entendre encore" "Smile" "Wish You Were Here" "Comfortably Numb" "Dimming of the Day" "Shine On You Crazy Diamond" "A Great Day for Freedom" "Hushabye Mountain" "Dominoes" "Breakthrough" "Comfortably Numb" David Gilmour – guitars, vocals Neill MacColl – guitars, backing vocals Michael Kamen – piano, English horn Chucho Merchán – double bass Caroline Dale – cello Dick Parry – baritone and tenor saxophones Nic France – drums & percussion Gospel Choir – Sam Brown, Chris Ballin, Pete Brown, Margo Buchanan, Claudia Fontaine, Michelle John Douglas, Sonia Jones, Carol Kenyon, David Laudat, Durga McBroom, Aitch McRobbie, Beverli Skeetewith Bob Geldof – vocals on "Comfortably Numb" Robert Wyatt – vocals on "Comfortably Numb" Richard Wright – vocals on "Breakthrough", keyboards on "Breakthrough" and "Comfortably Numb" The 30 minutes of special features on the DVD include the tracks "I Put a Spell on You", "Don't", a performance of Shakespeare's Sonnet 18.
Additionally, there is a version of "High Hopes" performed by Gilmour's backing vocalists. There are lyrics, a home movie of the band and choir rehearsing at home, a'Spare Digits' feature - a camera on Gilmour's fretboards during six guitar solos