President (corporate title)
The President is a leader of an organization, community, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between the president and the Chief Executive Officer varies, depending on the structure of the specific organization. In a similar vein to the Chief Operating Officer, the title of corporate President as a separate position is loosely defined; the powers of the president vary across organizations and such powers come from specific authorization in the bylaws like Robert's Rules of Order. The term "president" was used to designate someone who presided over a meeting, was used in the same way that "foreman" or "overseer" is used now, it has now come to mean "chief officer" in terms of administrative or executive duties. In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the president has the duties of presiding over meetings; such duties at meetings include: calling the meeting to order determining if a quorum is present announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up recognition of members to have the floor enforcing the rules of the group putting all questions to a vote adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the president should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group.
In committees or small boards, the president votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the president should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the president only has one vote; the powers of the president vary across organizations. In some organizations the president has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the president only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the president has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the president depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself. If the president exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform the duties, the president may face disciplinary procedures; such procedures may include suspension, or removal from office. The rules of the particular organization would provide details on who can perform these disciplinary procedures and the extent that they can be done.
Whoever appointed or elected the president has the power to discipline this officer. Some organizations may have a position of President-Elect in addition to the position of President; the membership of the organization elects a President-Elect and when the term of the President-Elect is complete, that person automatically becomes President. Some organizations may have a position of Immediate Past President in addition to the position of President. In those organizations, when the term of the President is complete, that person automatically fills the position of Immediate Past President; the organization can have such a position. The duties of such a position would have to be provided in the bylaws. Bennett, Nathan. Riding Shotgun: The Role of the COO. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5166-8. National Association of Parliamentarians®, Education Committee. Spotlight on You the President. Independence, MO: National Association of Parliamentarians®. ISBN 1-884048-15-3
Sega Games Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo. The company known as Sega Enterprises Ltd. and Sega Corporation, is a subsidiary of Sega Holdings Co. Ltd., part of Sega Sammy Holdings. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega of Europe, are headquartered in Irvine and London. Sega's arcade division, once part of Sega Corporation, has existed as Sega Interactive Co. Ltd. a Sega Holdings subsidiary, since 2015. The company was founded by Martin Bromley as Nihon Goraku Bussan on June 3, 1960, which became known as Sega Enterprises, Ltd. after acquiring Rosen Enterprises, an importer of coin-operated games. Sega developed its first coin-operated game with Periscope in the late 1960s. In 1969, Sega was sold to Western Industries. Following a downturn in the arcade business in the early 1980s, Sega began to develop video game consoles, starting with the SG-1000 and Master System, but struggled against competitors such as the Nintendo Entertainment System.
In 1984, Sega executives David Rosen and Hayao Nakayama led a management buyout of the company with backing from CSK Corporation. Sega released its next console, the Sega Genesis, in 1988. Although it was a distant third in Japan, the Genesis found major success after the release of Sonic the Hedgehog in 1991 and outsold its main competitor, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, in the U. S; however in the decade, Sega suffered commercial failures such as the 32X, Sega Saturn, Dreamcast consoles. In 2001, Sega stopped manufacturing consoles to become a third-party developer and publisher, was acquired by Sammy Corporation in 2004. In the years since the acquisition, Sega has been more profitable, but has been criticized for prioritizing quantity of game releases over quality. Sega produces multi-million-selling game franchises including Sonic the Hedgehog, Total War, Yakuza, is the world's most prolific arcade game producer, it operates amusement arcades and produces other entertainment products, including Sega Toys.
Sega is a subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings, a corporate conglomerate with over 60 individual subsidiaries. In 1940, American businessmen Martin Bromley, Irving Bromberg, James Humpert formed Standard Games in Honolulu, Hawaii, to provide coin-operated amusement machines to military bases, they saw that the increase in military personnel with the onset of World War II would create demand for entertainment at military bases. After the war, the founders sold Standard Games and established a new distributor, Service Games, named for the military focus. In 1951, the United States government outlawed slot machines in US territories, so in 1952 Bromley sent two employees, Richard Stewart and Ray LeMaire, to Tokyo to establish a new distributor; the company provided coin-operated slot machines to U. S. bases in Japan, by 1953 had changed its name to Service Games of Japan. The name Sega, an abbreviation of Service Games, was first used in 1954 on the Diamond Star Machine, a slot machine. On May 31, 1960, Service Games of Japan was dissolved.
On June 3, Bromley established two companies to take over its business activities: Nihon Goraku Bussan and Nihon Kikai Seizō. Kikai Seizō focused on manufacturing Sega machines, while Goraku Bussan served as a distributor and operator of coin-operated machines jukeboxes; the two companies merged in 1964. In 1954, David Rosen, an American officer in the United States Air Force stationed in Japan, launched a two-minute photo booth business in Tokyo; this company became Rosen Enterprises, in 1957 began importing coin-operated games to Japan. In 1965, Nihon Goraku Bussan acquired Rosen Enterprise to form Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Rosen was installed as the CEO and managing director. Shortly afterward, Sega stopped leasing to military bases and moved its focus from slot machines to become a publicly traded company of coin-operated amusement machines, its imports included Rock-Ola jukeboxes, pinball games by Williams, gun games by Midway Manufacturing. Because Sega imported second-hand machines that required maintenance, Sega began the transition from importer to manufacturer by constructing replacement guns and flippers for its imported games.
According to former Sega director Akira Nagai, this led to Sega developing their own games as well. The first electromechanical game Sega manufactured was the submarine simulator game Periscope, released worldwide in the late 1960s; the game sported light and sound effects considered innovative, was successful in Japan. It was placed in malls and department stores, it cost 25 cents per play in the United States. Sega was surprised by the success, for the next two years produced and exported between eight and ten games per year. Despite this, rampant piracy in the industry would lead to Sega stepping away from exporting its games. In order to advance the company, Rosen had a goal to take the company public, decided this would be easier to accomplish in the United States than in Japan. Rosen was advised that this would be easiest accomplished by Sega being acquired by a larger company. In 1969, Sega was sold to American conglomerate Gulf and Western Industries, although Rosen remained CEO following the sale.
Rosen continued to develop his relationship with Gulf and Western chairman Charles Bluhdorn, in 1974 Gulf and Western made Sega Enterprises, Ltd. a subsidiary of an American company renamed Sega Enterprises, Inc. Sega released Pong-Tron, its first video-based game, in 1973. Despite late competition from Taito's hit arcade game Space Invaders in 1978, Sega prospered from the arcade gam
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
Street Fighter IV
Street Fighter IV is a 2008 fighting video game published by Capcom, who co-developed the game with Dimps. It was the first original main entry in the series since Street Fighter III in 1997, a hiatus of eleven years; the coin-operated arcade game version was released in Japan on July 18, 2008, with North American arcades importing the machines by August. The console versions for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 were released in Japan on February 12, 2009, were sold in North American stores as early as February 16, with a February 18 intended release date; the official European release was on February 20. A Microsoft Windows version was released on July 2, 2009 in Japan, July 3, 2009 in Europe and July 7, 2009 in the United States. A version for iOS was released on March 10, 2010. An Android version was launched as an exclusive for certain LG devices. By December 31, 2012, the exclusivity expired and the game was made available for all Android devices on the Play Store, with a region restriction that makes it available only in Japan.
By March 31, 2009, Street Fighter IV had sold over 3 million copies worldwide. An updated version, Super Street Fighter IV, was released as a standalone title in April 2010. Street Fighter IV has sold 3.4 million units. Super Street Fighter IV has sold 1.9 million units, in addition to 1.1 million of the Arcade Edition. Super Street Fighter IV: 3D Edition sold an additional 1.3 million copies. Ultra Street Fighter IV has sold 1.3 million copies by March 31, 2018. This adds up to sales of 9 million copies in total. Upon its release, the game received universal critical acclaim, it has been listed among the greatest video games of all time. In March 2017 the Xbox 360 version of Street Fighter IV became backward compatible on the Xbox One. Producer Yoshinori Ono has stated that he wanted to keep the game closer to Street Fighter II; the battles in SFIV now begin with a short pre-fight intro, a small cinematic dialogue sequence which varies depending on the player's chosen character. A new system called Focus, as well as Ultra Moves.
The traditional six-button control scheme has returned, with new features and Special Moves integrated into the input system, mixing classic gameplay with additional innovations. Stephen Kleckner of 1UP.com has stated the game has a similar feel to Super Street Fighter II Turbo, but has a few features from Street Fighter III: 3rd Strike. As in Street Fighter III, throwing is performed by pressing both light attack buttons, while pressing both heavy attack buttons performs the character's personal action or taunt. Pressing both medium attack buttons performs a character's Focus Attack. Dashes and quick standing are in the game. C. Viper and Dan are the only characters, it was intended that bonus rounds such as the car-smashing stage from earlier Street Fighter games would return. Ono stated that the bonus stages would not be in the arcade game, citing the reason to be that the time players spend on bonus stages is time during which they have no chance of losing, which takes money from arcade operators.
The bonus stages were added in Super Street Fighter IV. There are Rival Battles which have a cutscene between two characters before the battle starts. Focus Attacks, known as Saving Attack in the Japanese version, is a new system introduced in Street Fighter IV; the Focus Attack is a move that allows the player to absorb an attack and launch a counterattack, it is performed by pressing the medium punch and medium kick buttons simultaneously. There are two phases to the attack. In the first phase, the player will shift into a new stance, at which point he or she is able to absorb a single hit from the opponent; the second phase is the counterattack. The longer the player holds down the medium punch and kick buttons, the more powerful the attack will be. If the buttons are held for long enough the attack will be unblockable and cause the opponent to crumple to the ground, allowing the player to follow up with a free hit. Attacks that were absorbed during the first phase of a Focus Attack still cause damage to the player.
In addition, during the first phase of the Focus Attack, the player may perform a dash either forward or backward to cancel the Focus Attack. At the cost of two bars of the Super Combo gauge, many Special Moves can be canceled into a Focus Attack. By executing a Focus Attack during the Special Move, the animation of the move will be cut short and go into the Focus Attack animation; this allows players with precise timing to cancel Special Moves into Focus Attacks, in turn cancel Focus Attacks into the forward dash, resulting in new combo possibilities. If a Special Move is blocked by the opponent, the new system allows players to cancel the blocked move with a Focus Attack, cancel the Focus Attack by dashing backward safely away from the opponent. Ono has stated that this system was incorporated in order to shift the emphasis away from combos and toward a more realistic system he has compared to boxing, in which "the skill is in reading your opponent's move before he or she starts moving...
We haven't forgotten about combos and linked moves, but focus makes it so that you have to read your opponent." The system aims to make ground attacks as viable a way of approaching opponents as jumping was in previous games. The focus system is a core part of Street Fighter IV's gameplay. In addition to the powered-up vers
The Xbox 360 is a home video game console developed by Microsoft. As the successor to the original Xbox, it is the second console in the Xbox series, it competed with Sony's PlayStation 3 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. It was unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information announced that month at the 2005 Electronic Entertainment Expo; the Xbox 360 features an online service, Xbox Live, expanded from its previous iteration on the original Xbox and received regular updates during the console's lifetime. Available in free and subscription-based varieties, Xbox Live allows users to: play games online. In addition to online multimedia features, it allows users to stream media from local PCs. Several peripherals have been released, including wireless controllers, expanded hard drive storage, the Kinect motion sensing camera; the release of these additional services and peripherals helped the Xbox brand grow from gaming-only to encompassing all multimedia, turning it into a hub for living-room computing entertainment.
Launched worldwide across 2005–2006, the Xbox 360 was in short supply in many regions, including North America and Europe. The earliest versions of the console suffered from a high failure rate, indicated by the so-called "Red Ring of Death", necessitating an extension of the device's warranty period. Microsoft released two redesigned models of the console: the Xbox 360 S in 2010, the Xbox 360 E in 2013; as of June 2014, 84 million Xbox 360 consoles have been sold worldwide, making it the seventh-highest-selling video game console in history, the highest-selling console made by an American company. Although not the best-selling console of its generation, the Xbox 360 was deemed by TechRadar to be the most influential through its emphasis on digital media distribution and multiplayer gaming on Xbox Live; the Xbox 360's successor, the Xbox One, was released on November 22, 2013. On April 20, 2016, Microsoft announced that it would end the production of new Xbox 360 hardware, although the company will continue to support the platform.
Known during development as Xbox Next, Xbox 2, Xbox FS or NextBox, the Xbox 360 was conceived in early 2003. In February 2003, planning for the Xenon software platform began, was headed by Microsoft's Vice President J Allard; that month, Microsoft held an event for 400 developers in Bellevue, Washington to recruit support for the system. That month, Peter Moore, former president of Sega of America, joined Microsoft. On August 12, 2003, ATI signed on to produce the graphic processing unit for the new console, a deal, publicly announced two days later. Before the launch of the Xbox 360, several Alpha development kits were spotted using Apple's Power Mac G5 hardware; this was because the system's PowerPC 970 processor running the same PowerPC architecture that the Xbox 360 would run under IBM's Xenon processor. The cores of the Xenon processor were developed using a modified version of the PlayStation 3's Cell Processor PPE architecture. According to David Shippy and Mickie Phipps, the IBM employees were "hiding" their work from Sony and Toshiba, IBM's partners in developing the Cell Processor.
Jeff Minter created the music visualization program Neon, included with the Xbox 360. The Xbox 360 was released on November 2005, in the United States and Canada, it was launched in Mexico, Chile, Hong Kong, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Russia. In its first year on the market, the system launched in 36 countries, more countries than any other console has launched in a single year. In 2009, IGN named the Xbox 360 the sixth-greatest video game console of all time, out of a field of 25. Although not the best-selling console of the seventh-generation, the Xbox 360 was deemed by TechRadar to be the most influential, by emphasizing digital media distribution and online gaming through Xbox Live, by popularizing game achievement awards. PC Magazine considered the Xbox 360 the prototype for online gaming as it "proved that online gaming communities could thrive in the console space". Five years after the Xbox 360's original debut, the well-received Kinect motion capture camera was released, which set the record of being the fastest selling consumer electronic device in history, extended the life of the console.
Edge ranked Xbox 360 the second-best console of the 1993–2013 period, stating "It had its own social network, cross-game chat, new indie games every week, the best version of just about every multiformat game... Killzone is no Halo and nowadays Gran Turismo is no Forza, but it's not about the exclusives—there's nothing to trump Naughty Dog's PS3 output, after all. Rather, it's about the choices Microsoft made back in the original Xbox's lifetime; the PC-like architecture meant the early EA Sports games ran at 60fps compared to only 30 on PS3, Xbox Live meant every dedicated player had an existing friends list, Halo meant Microsoft had the killer next-generation exclusive. And when developers demo games on PC now they do it with a 360 pad—another industry benchmark, a critical one." The Xbox 360 began production only 69 days before launch, Microsoft was not able to supply enough systems to meet initial consumer demand in Europe or North America, selling out upon release in all regions except in Japan.
Forty thousand units were offered for sale on auction site eBay during the initial week of
Xbox is a video gaming brand created and owned by Microsoft. It represents a series of video game consoles developed by Microsoft, with three consoles released in the sixth and eighth generations, respectively; the brand represents applications, streaming services, an online service by the name of Xbox Live, the development arm by the name of Xbox Game Studios. The brand was first introduced in the United States in November 2001, with the launch of the original Xbox console; the original device was the first video game console offered by an American company after the Atari Jaguar stopped sales in 1996. It reached over 24 million units sold as of May 2006. Microsoft's second console, the Xbox 360, was released in 2005 and has sold over 77.2 million consoles worldwide as of April 2013. The Xbox One has been released in 21 markets in total, with a Chinese release in September 2014; the head of Xbox is Phil Spencer, who succeeded former head Marc Whitten in late March 2014. The original Xbox was released on November 15, 2001, in North America, February 22, 2002, in Japan, March 14, 2002, in Australia and Europe.
It was Microsoft's first foray into the gaming console market. As part of the sixth-generation of gaming, the Xbox competed with Sony's PlayStation 2, Sega's Dreamcast, Nintendo's GameCube; the Xbox was the first console offered by an American company after the Atari Jaguar stopped sales in 1996. The name Xbox was derived from a contraction of DirectX Box, a reference to Microsoft's graphics API, DirectX; the integrated Xbox Live service launched in November 2002 allowed players to play games online with or without a broadband connection. It first competed with Dreamcast's online service but primarily competed with PlayStation 2's online service. Although these two are free while Xbox Live required a subscription, as well as broadband-only connection, not adopted yet, Xbox Live was a success due to better servers, features such as a buddy list, milestone titles like Halo 2 released in November 2004, the best-selling Xbox video game and was by far the most popular online game for years; the Xbox 360 was released as the successor of the original Xbox in November 2005, competing with Sony's PlayStation 3 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles.
As of June 30, 2013, 78.2 million Xbox 360 consoles have been sold worldwide. The Xbox 360 was unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information divulged that month at the Electronic Entertainment Expo; the console sold out upon release in all regions except in Japan. The Xbox 360 showed an expanded Xbox Live service, the ability to stream multimedia content from PCs, while updates added the ability to purchase and stream music, television programs, films through the Xbox Music and Xbox Video services, along with access to third-party content services through third-party media streaming applications. Microsoft released Kinect, a motion control system for the Xbox 360 which uses an advanced sensor system. At their E3 presentation on June 14, 2010, Microsoft announced a redesigned Xbox 360 that would ship on the same day; the redesigned console is slimmer than the previous Xbox 360 model and features integrated 802.11 b/g/n Wi-Fi, TOSLINK S/PDIF optical audio output, five USB 2.0 ports and special port designed for the Kinect peripheral.
Older models of the Xbox 360 have since been discontinued. The first new console to be released features a 250 GB hard drive, while a less expensive SKU features 4 GB internal storage; the Xbox One was released on November 22, 2013, in North America, as the successor of the Xbox 360. The Xbox One competes with Sony's PlayStation 4 and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch as part of the eighth generation of video game consoles. Announced on May 21, 2013, the Xbox One has an emphasis on internet-based features, including the ability to record and stream gameplay, the ability to integrate with a set-top box to watch cable or satellite TV through the console with an enhanced guide interface and Kinect-based voice control. Following its unveiling, the Xbox One proved controversial for its original digital rights management and privacy practices. After an overwhelmingly negative response from critics and consumers, Microsoft announced that these restrictions would be dropped. Microsoft was criticized for requiring the Xbox One to have its updated Kinect peripheral plugged in to function, which critics and privacy advocates believed could be used as a surveillance device.
As a gesture toward showing a commitment to user privacy, Microsoft decided to allow the console to function without Kinect. On June 13, 2016, Microsoft announced the Xbox One S, a slimmer version of the Xbox One, at E3 2016. Phil Spencer, head of Xbox, announced Project Scorpio at E3 2016 on June 13, 2016, an addition to the Xbox One family, saying it would release in Holiday 2017. At E3 2017, Microsoft revealed the final name of the console to be Xbox One X
Shaman King: Funbari Spirits
Shaman King: Funbari Spirits, is a cel-shaded 2D style fighting game released in Japan only on April 4, 2004. It is not to be confused with Shaman King: Power of Spirit, a game produced by Konami to go along with the 4kids Entertainment dub, it is a pseudo-sequel to Shaman King: a 2D fighting game for the PlayStation. This game is based upon the Manga; this is the last Shaman King game to be released in Japan. Funbari Spirits features simple controls and plays quite like a 2D fighter despite being 3D. There is a 2 player mode, adventure story mode, mini game mode, a free play mode along with training mode; the game has voices from the original anime, as well as colorful cel-shaded graphics. All of the main characters are present as playable characters, along with a few exclusive-to-this-game-only characters. Yoh Asakura Tao Ren Ryu HoroHoro Faust VIII Chocolove Lyserg Diethel Marco Iron Maiden Jeanne Anna Kyoyama Manta Oyamada Hao Asakura Redseb Sati Saigan Sennjuu Official Japanese Website Official Website Character section 3 with Exclusive Characters