An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling differs from typical air conditioning systems, which use vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycles. Evaporative cooling uses the fact that water will absorb a large amount of heat in order to evaporate; the temperature of dry air can be dropped through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor. This can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. In dry climates, evaporative cooling of air has the added benefit of conditioning the air with more moisture for the comfort of building occupants; the cooling potential for evaporative cooling is dependent on the wet-bulb depression, the difference between dry-bulb temperature and wet-bulb temperature. In arid climates, evaporative cooling can reduce energy consumption and total equipment for conditioning as an alternative to compressor-based cooling. In climates not considered arid, indirect evaporative cooling can still take advantage of the evaporative cooling process without increasing humidity.
Passive evaporative cooling strategies can offer the same benefits of mechanical evaporative cooling systems without the complexity of equipment and ductwork. An earlier form of evaporative cooling, the windcatcher, was first used in ancient Egypt and Persia thousands of years ago in the form of wind shafts on the roof, they caught the wind, passed it over subterranean water in a qanat and discharged the cooled air into the building. Modern Iranians have adopted powered evaporative coolers; the evaporative cooler was the subject of numerous US patents in the 20th century. A typical design, as shown in a 1945 patent, includes a water reservoir, a pump to circulate water over the excelsior pads and a centrifugal fan to draw air through the pads and into the house; this design and this material remain dominant in evaporative coolers in the American Southwest, where they are used to increase humidity. In the United States, the use of the term swamp cooler may be due to the odor of algae produced by early units.
Externally mounted evaporative cooling devices were used in some automobiles to cool interior air—often as aftermarket accessories—until modern vapor-compression air conditioning became available. Passive evaporative cooling techniques in buildings have been a feature of desert architecture for centuries, but Western acceptance, study and commercial application is all recent. In 1974, William H. Goettl noticed how evaporative cooling technology works in arid climates, speculated that a combination unit could be more effective, invented the "High Efficiency Astro Air Piggyback System", a combination refrigeration and evaporative cooling air conditioner. In 1986, University of Arizona researchers W. Cunningham and T. Thompson built a passive evaporative cooling tower, performance data from this experimental facility in Tucson, Arizona became the foundation of evaporative cooling tower design guidelines developed by Baruch Givoni. Evaporative coolers lower the temperature of air using the principle of evaporative cooling,n]] or absorption refrigerator.
Evaporative cooling is the conversion of liquid water into vapor using the thermal energy in the air, resulting in a lower air temperature. The energy needed to evaporate the water is taken from the air in the form of sensible heat, which affects the temperature of the air, converted into latent heat, the energy present in the water vapor component of the air, whilst the air remains at a constant enthalpy value; this conversion of sensible heat to latent heat is known as an isenthalpic process because it occurs at a constant enthalpy value. Evaporative cooling therefore causes a drop in the temperature of air proportional to the sensible heat drop and an increase in humidity proportional to the latent heat gain. Evaporative cooling can be visualized using a psychrometric chart by finding the initial air condition and moving along a line of constant enthalpy toward a state of higher humidity. A simple example of natural evaporative cooling is perspiration, or sweat, secreted by the body, evaporation of which cools the body.
The amount of heat transfer depends on the evaporation rate, however for each kilogram of water vaporized 2,257 kJ of energy are transferred. The evaporation rate depends on the temperature and humidity of the air, why sweat accumulates more on humid days, as it does not evaporate fast enough. Vapor-compression refrigeration uses evaporative cooling, but the evaporated vapor is within a sealed system, is compressed ready to evaporate again, using energy to do so. A simple evaporative cooler's water is evaporated into the environment, not recovered. In an interior space cooling unit, the evaporated water is introduced into the space along with the now-cooled air. A related process, sublimation cooling, differs from evaporative cooling in that a phase transition from solid to vapor, rather than liquid to vapor, occurs. Sublimation cooling has been observed to operate on a planetary scale on the planetoid Pluto, where it has been called an anti-greenhouse effect. Another application of a phase change to cooling is the "self-refrigerating" beverage.
A separate compartment ins
Lü Clan Disturbance
The Lü Clan Disturbance refers to a political upheaval after the death of Empress Lü Zhi of the Han dynasty, the aftermath of which saw her clan, the Lü, who were consort kin, being deposed from their seats of power and massacred. Sometimes the term encompasses the total domination of the political scene by Empress Lü Zhi and her kin after the death of her son Emperor Hui to an extent greater than during his reign; when Emperor Hui died in autumn 188 BCE, his son ascended to the throne as Emperor Qianshao. However, there was no pretension that he was in charge. In winter 188 BCE, Empress Dowager Lü wanted to make her brothers princes despite her husband Emperor Gaozu's ruling that only members of the imperial Liu clan could be made princes – a ruling that Empress Dowager Lü had a hand in creating, she was opposed by Right Minister Wang Ling but was supported by Left Minister Chen Ping and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, Zhou Bo. When Wang rebuked Chen and Zhou in private for going against Gaozu's ruling, they explained that their compliance with Empress Dowager Lü's position was necessary to protect the empire and the Liu family.
Empress Dowager Lü promoted Wang to the honorary position of the emperor's teacher. Lü removed him from his position as Right Minister and had him returned to his march and promoted Chen to Right Minister and her lover Shen Yiji, Marquess of Piyang, to Left Minister. Empress Dowager Lü went ahead and carried out her plan to make members of her clan princes. In summer 187 BCE, after her daughter, Princess Yuan of Lu died, she made the princess's son, Zhang Yan, Prince of Lu. Princess Yuan of Lu's husband and Zhang Yan's father, Zhang Ao, during Gaozu's reign, been Prince of Zhao, but was removed as part of the policy against non-Liu princes, so Empress Dowager Lü might have felt that making Zhang Yan a prince would be considered to be more justified. A month she required the emperor's officials to formally petition her to make her nephew Lü Tai Prince of Lü – carving the principality out from the Principality of Qi. In the unprecedented and subsequently rare action of granting a female a march, in 184 BCE, she made her younger sister Lü Xu Marchioness of Lingguang.
In spring 181 BCE, Lü Tai's son Lü Chan, who had become Prince of Lü after his father's death, was given the larger principality of Liang, but did not go to his principality but stayed in the capital Chang'an to serve as the emperor's teacher and assistant to Empress Dowager Lü. That year, the empress dowager made her nephew Lü Lu Prince of Zhao and another son of Lü Tai's, Lü Tong, Prince of Yan. In summer of 180 BCE, Empress Dowager Lü died. Before her death, she had put Lü Lu and Lü Chan in charge of the imperial guards – Lü Lu in charge of the stronger northern division and Lü Chan in charge of the weaker southern division – and the government. After her death, it was alleged that the Lü clan had a plan to overthrow the Han dynasty and assume imperial power themselves. Purportedly, this plan was leaked to Liu Zhang, the Marquess of Zhuxu and grandson of Emperor Gao through his oldest son Liu Fei, who had married a daughter of Lü Lu and who had learned of the plan from his wife. Liu Zhang planned a rebellion with his younger brother Liu Xingju, the Marquess of Dongmou, their older brother Liu Xiang, the Prince of Qi.
Under their plan, Liu Xiang would lead Qi forces against the capital, while Liu Zhang and Liu Xingju would persuade the imperial guards to rise up against the Lüs. If they were successful, they planned to have Liu Xiang declared emperor. However, everything did not go to plan. In autumn 180 BCE, Liu Xiang did indeed start a military campaign with his own forces and gained the support of the nearby Principality of Langye. Lü Chan sent Guan Ying, the Marquess of Yingyin, against the Qi forces, but Guan, unwilling to fight the Qi forces, managed to negotiate a secret armistice with Liu Xiang, both armies halted some distance apart from each other. At this time, the Lüs were ready to take over the imperial dynasty, but did not do so because they were concerned at the reactions of Zhou Bo, Liu Zhang, the principalities of Qi and Chu. While the crisis was forming in Xi'an, so was a new conspiracy, involving: Liu Zhang Liu Xingju Zhou Bo Chen Ping Guan Ying Cao Qu, the Marquess of Pingyang and son of Cao Can, a former prime minister Li Ji, the son of Li Shang, the Marquess of Quzhou and the best friend of Lü Lu Ji Tong, the Marquess of Xiangping Liu Jie, the Minister of Vassal Affairs.
The conspirators first tried to get the Lüs to give up power voluntarily, by having Li Ji persuade Lü Lu that the best course of action for him and Lü Chan was to return to their principalities and turn over power to Zhou and Chen. Lü Lu was unable to reach a consensus with the Lü clan elders; the conspirators took drastic actions. Ji issu
Ban Chao, courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese military general and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty. He was born in Fufeng, now Xianyang, Shaanxi. Three of his family members — father Ban Biao, elder brother Ban Gu, younger sister Ban Zhao — were well known historians who wrote the historical text Book of Han, which recorded the history of the Western Han Dynasty; as a Han general and cavalry commander, Ban Chao was in charge of administrating the "Western Regions" while he was in service. He led Han forces for over 30 years in the war against the Xiongnu and secured Han control over the Tarim Basin region, he was awarded the title "Protector General of the Western Regions" by the Han government for his efforts in protecting and governing the regions. Ban Chao, like his predecessors Huo Qubing and Wei Qing from the Former Han Dynasty before him, was effective at expelling the Xiongnu from the Tarim Basin, brought the various people of the Western Regions under Chinese rule during the second half of the 1st century CE, helping to open and secure the trade routes to the west.
He was outnumbered, but skillfully played on the divisions among his opponents. The kingdoms of Khotan and Kashgar came under Chinese rule by A. D. 74. "Pan Ch'ao crushed fresh rebellions in Kashgar and Yarkand, made the Wusun of the Ili his allies.". Hh Ban Chao was recalled to Luoyang, but sent again to the Western Region area four years during the reign of the new emperor Han Zhang Di, he obtained the military help of the Kushan Empire in 84 in repelling the Kangju who were trying to support the rebellion of the king of Kashgar, the next year in his attack on Turpan, in the eastern Tarim Basin. Ban Chao brought the whole of the Tarim Basin under Chinese control. In recognition for their support to the Chinese, the Kushans requested, but were denied, a Han princess though they had sent presents to the Chinese court. In retaliation, they marched on Ban Chao in 90 CE with a force of 70,000 but were defeated by the smaller Chinese force; the Yuezhi retreated and paid tribute to the Chinese Empire..
In 91 CE, Ban Chao succeeded in pacifying the Western Regions and was awarded the title of Protector General and stationed at Qiuci. A Wuji Colonel was re-established and, commanding five hundred soldiers, stationed in the Kingdom of Nearer Jushi, within the walls of Gaochang, 29 kilometres southeast of Turfan. In 94 CE, Chao proceeded to again defeat Yanqi. Subsequently, more than fifty kingdoms presented hostages, as submission to the Han Dynasty. In 97 CE Ban Chao sent an envoy, Gan Ying, who reached the Persian Gulf and left the first recorded Chinese account of Europe; some modern authors have claimed that Ban Chao advanced to the Caspian Sea, this interpretation has been criticized as a misreading. In 102 CE Ban Chao was retired as Protector General of the Western Regions due to age and ill health, returned to the capital Luoyang at the age of 70, but the following month died there in the 9th month of the 14th Yongyuan year. See: Hou Hanshu, chap 77. Following his death, the power of the Xiongnu in the Western Territories increased again, subsequent Chinese emperors were never able to reach so far to the west.
Ban Chao belonged to a family of historians. His father was Ban Biao who started the History of the Western Han Dynasty in 36, completed by his son Ban Gu and his daughter Ban Zhao. Ban Chao was the key source for the cultural and socio-economic data on the Western Regions contained in the Hanshu. Ban Chao's youngest son Ban Yong participated in military campaigns with his father and continued to have a central military role in the Tarim Basin into the 120s. Ban Biao Ban Gu Ban Chao Ban Xiong Ban Shi Ban Yong Ban Zhao She's the one who petitioned the reigning Emperor to let his brother return home from his posting. "Throw away your writing brush and join the military!" — based on his words "A brave man has no other plan but to follow Fu Jiezi and Zhang Qian's footsteps and do something and become somebody in a foreign land. How can I waste my life on writing? in Book of the Later Han. "... he who does not enter the tiger's lair will never catch its cubs." — similar to the saying "Nothing ventured, nothing gained."
"To die without glory is not the act of valiant men." （ ） Han-Xiongnu War Battle of Édouard. "Trois Généraux Chinois de la dynastie des Han Orientaux. Pan Tch’ao. Chapitre LXXVII du Heou Han chou." T’oung pao 7, pp. 210–269. Hill, John E.. Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, First to Second Centuries CE. BookSurge. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1; the Tarim Mummies. J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05101-1Further Readings Yap, Joseph P; the Western Regions and Han, from the Shiji and Hou Hanshu. ISBN 978-1792829154
A flip book or flick book is a book with a series of pictures that vary from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are illustrated books for children, but may be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books are not always separate books but may appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines in the page corners. Software packages and Websites are available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books. Rather than "reading" left to right, a viewer stares at the same location of the pictures in the flip book as the pages turn; the book must be flipped with enough speed for the illusion to work, so the standard way to "read" a flip book is to hold the book with one hand and flip through its pages with the thumb of the other hand. The German word for flip book—Daumenkino "thumb cinema"—reflects this process, it has sometimes been assumed that the simple flip book has been around since long before the invention of the more complicated 19th-century animation devices like the phenakistiscope and the zoetrope, but no conclusive evidence has been found.
There are some medieval illuminated books such as Sigenot. The illustrations in Sigenot are framed and have short intervals between different phases of action, but the images can not produce the illusion of a fluent motion; the necessary notion of instances smaller than a second would not develop before the 19th century. The oldest known documentation of the flip book appeared in September 1868, when it was patented by John Barnes Linnett under the name kineograph, they were the first form of animation to employ a linear sequence of images rather than circular. The German film pioneer, Max Skladanowsky, first exhibited his serial photographic images in flip book form in 1894, as he and his brother Emil did not develop their own film projector until the following year. In 1894, Herman Casler invented a mechanized form of flip book called the Mutoscope, which mounted the pages on a central rotating cylinder rather than binding them in a book; the mutoscope remained a popular attraction through the mid-twentieth century, appearing as coin-operated machines in penny arcades and amusement parks.
In 1897, the English filmmaker Henry William Short marketed his "Filoscope", a flip book placed in a metal holder to facilitate flipping. Flip books are now considered a toy or novelty for children and were once a common "prize" in cereal and Cracker Jack boxes. However, in addition to their role in the birth of cinema, they have been an effective promotional tool since their creation for such decidedly adult products as automobiles and cigarettes, they continue to be used in marketing today, as well as in art and published photographic collections. Vintage flip books are popular among collectors, rare ones from the late 19th to the early 20th century have been known to fetch thousands of dollars in sales and auctions. Since 2007, Walt Disney Animation Studios has started its films with a production logo that evokes a flip book, it starts with a view of an empty page of paper as the pages start to turn, details are drawn in to reveal Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie. The first international flip book festival was held in 2004, by the Akademie Schloss Solitude in Stuttgart.
Another international flip book festival was held in Linz, Austria in 2005. In 2010 Hungary postal services released a flip book of stamps depicting a moving gömböc; the Israel Philatelic Federation released an "Israeli Animation Stamp Booklet" in November 2010 with 15 stamps designed by Mish to be animated when flipping the pages. It commemorated the 50th anniversary of ASIFA, the 25th anniversary of ASIFA Israel and the "Flip Book 250th Anniversary"; the Finnish passport design released in 2012 contains a flipbook of a walking moose. Flipbook.info – Includes demonstrative videos of antique flipbooks. History of Flip Books – a brief history of flipbooks
Chengjia called the Cheng dynasty or Great Cheng, was a self-proclaimed empire established by Gongsun Shu in 25 AD after the collapse of the Xin dynasty of Chinese history, rivalling the Eastern Han dynasty founded by Emperor Guangwu in the same year. Based in the Sichuan Basin with its capital at Chengdu, Chengjia covered a large area including modern Sichuan, Guizhou and southern Shaanxi, comprised about 7% of China's population at the time. Chengjia was the most dangerous rival to the Eastern Han, was the last separatist regime in China to be conquered by the latter, in 36 AD. Chengjia the "House of Cheng", was named after its capital Chengdu, it was called the Cheng dynasty or Great Cheng, meaning "complete" or "accomplished". After Wang Mang usurped the throne of the Western Han dynasty and proclaimed himself emperor of the Xin dynasty in 9 AD, he promoted Gongsun Shu to be the governor of Daojiang. In 23, rebels restored the Han dynasty under Liu Xuan, the Gengshi Emperor. Gongsun Shu ostensibly declared his allegiance to Gengshi while defeating an army sent by Liu to take over Shu.
He assumed the titles General Governor of Shu Commandery and of Yi Province. The following year, he declared himself the King of Shu under the Han empire, with Chengdu as his capital. In the fourth month of 25 AD, Gongsun Shu declared himself emperor in defiance of Gengshi, whose throne was being threatened by the forces of Liu Xiu, he adopted the era name Longxing. A few months Liu Xiu proclaimed himself Emperor Guangwu of the restored Han dynasty. Chengjia only had direct control of the Sichuan basin. Soon Ren Gui submitted to Chengjia. Gongsun Shu sent general Hou Dan to take over Hanzhong in the north and Ren Man to Jiangzhou to the east, took control of the entire Yi Province of the Han dynasty. Other rebel forces who were defeated by Emperor Guangwu, most Yan Cen and Tian Rong submitted to Chengjia; the warlord Wei Ao, who controlled eastern Gansu and was under constant pressure from the Eastern Han, submitted to Chengjia. Gongsun Shu bestowed on Wei Ao the title King of Shuoning, sent a force to support him.
At the time, Emperor Guangwu was embroiled in the civil war engulfing much of China, Gongsun Shu's advisor proposed attacking Han while it was still weak. However, despite Chengjia's vast territory, its population comprised only 7% of China's total at the time, Gongsun Shu rejected the proposal. Still, Chengjia remained Han's most dangerous rival, Guangwu took care not to antagonize Gongsun Shu addressing him as "emperor" in his letters. Chengjia remained independent for more than ten years, owing to the natural defenses enjoyed by the Sichuan basin, the unsettled conditions in the newly established Eastern Han. In 34, Emperor Guangwu conquered Gansu, held by the son and successor of Wei Ao. Chengjia sent general Li Yu with a force of more than 10,000 to assist Wei Chun, to no avail. After Guangwu conquered the rest of China, he dispatched a force led by Cen Peng to conquer Chengjia. Below the Three Gorges on the Yangtze, Chengjia's eastern frontier, Chengjia forces built a floating bridge across the river mounted with war towers, linking fortifications on both banks.
In April or May of 35, aided by favourable easterly wind, Han naval forces sailed upstream to the bridge and attacked it with torches. The wooden bridge burned down, removing the obstacle to Han invasions by water. Despite the initial success, the Han campaign was difficult because of natural obstacles. Moreover, Chengjia sent assassins who managed to kill general Lai Xi and Cen Peng, chief commander of the Han forces, which were subsequently led by Wu Han and Zang Gong; the Han forces reached Chengdu in December of 36, with only a week's supplies left. They were on the verge of accepting failure and withdrawing, when Gongsun Shu decided to lead an attack on the Han forces on 24 December. Wounded in the battle, he died in the night, the defenders of Chengdu under Marshal Yan Cen surrendered the following day, marking the end of Chengjia. Two days Wu Han granted his soldiers permission to loot Chengdu and burn down the imperial palace, he massacred Gongsun's extended family including his wife and children, as well as Yan Cen and his family.
Many other people were killed. The court musicians of Chengjia were sent to the Han capital Luoyang. Gongsun Shu modelled his government after that of the Han dynasty, appointed his advisor Li Xiong and his younger brothers and Hui, as the Three Excellencies. Gongsun Guang was the Grand Marshal, Gongsun Hui the Minister of Works, Li Xiong the Minister of the Masses. After Yan Cen and Tian Rong submitted to Chengjia, Yan was appointed Grand Marshal and enfeoffed as King of Runing, Tian was enfeoffed as King of Yijiang. Gongsun Shu abolished Han dynasty copper coins and issued his own Wu Zhu coins for Chengjia, which resemble the Han Wu Zhu coins but are made of iron because Sichuan was China's dominant producer of the metal. However, the change of currency proved unpopular with the people
Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery. Computer animation can be detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures; the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, flip book and film. Television and video are popular electronic animation media that were analog and now operate digitally.
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed. Animation is more pervasive. Apart from short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects. Animation is prevalent in information technology interfaces; the physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a long history in automata. Automata were popularised by Disney as animatronics. Animators are artists; the word "animation" stems from the Latin "animationem", noun of action from past participle stem of "animare", meaning "the action of imparting life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium"; the history of animation started long before the development of cinematography.
Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. In 1833, the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, which would provide the basis for the zoetrope, the flip book, the praxinoscope and cinematography. Charles-Émile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film.
Piano music and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet. When film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys adapted small magic lanterns into toy film projectors for short loops of film. By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops by tracing live-action film footage; some early filmmakers, including J. Stuart Blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomón and Edwin S. Porter experimented with stop-motion animation since around 1899. Blackton's The Haunted Hotel was the first huge success that baffled audiences with objects moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves. J. Stuart Blackton experimented with animation drawn on blackboards and some cutout animation in Humorous Phases of Funny Faces. In 1908, Émile Cohl's Fantasmagorie was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with negative prints from black ink drawings on white paper; the film consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées, Ladislas Starevich started making his influential puppet animations in 1910. Winsor McCay's Little Nemo showcased detailed drawings, his Gertie the Dinosaur was an early example of character development in drawn animation. During the 1910s, the production of animated short films referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters; the most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. El Apóstol was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, the world's first animated feature film. A fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, it is now considered a lost film. In 1919, the silent animated short Feline Follies was released, marking the debut of Felix the Cat, being the first animated character in the silent film era to win a high level of popularity.
The earliest extant feature-length animated film is The Adve