Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmatha and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between Nepal and China runs across its summit point; the current official elevation of 8,848 m, recognized by China and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. In 2005, China remeasured the rock height of the mountain, with a result of 8844.43 m. There followed an argument between China and Nepal as to whether the official height should be the rock height or the snow height. In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m, Nepal recognizes China's claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m. In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society, upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India; as there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, despite Everest's objections.
Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness and wind, as well as significant hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall; as of 2017, nearly 300 people have died on Everest. The first recorded efforts to reach Everest's summit were made by British mountaineers; as Nepal did not allow foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. After the first reconnaissance expedition by the British in 1921 reached 7,000 m on the North Col, the 1922 expedition pushed the north ridge route up to 8,320 m, marking the first time a human had climbed above 8,000 m. Seven porters were killed in an avalanche on the descent from the North Col; the 1924 expedition resulted in one of the greatest mysteries on Everest to this day: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a final summit attempt on 8 June but never returned, sparking debate as to whether or not they were the first to reach the top.
They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, until Mallory's body was found in 1999 at 8,155 m on the north face. Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953, using the southeast ridge route. Norgay had reached 8,595 m the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition; the Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960. The history of this area dates back to 800 BCE, when the ancient Kirati had their Kirata Kingdom in the Himalayan mountains; the Mahalangur range of the Himalaya is known as Kirat area of eastern Nepal. In 1715, the Qing Empire of China surveyed the mountain while mapping its territory and depicted it as Mount Qomolangma no than 1719. In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations and names of the world's highest mountains. Starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing 500 kg and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as as possible.
They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression and possible annexation. Several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down; the British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal, parallel to the Himalayas. Conditions in Terai were difficult because of malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria. Nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 240 km distant. Weather restricted work to the last three months of the year. In November 1847, Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India made several observations from the Sawajpore station at the east end of the Himalayas. Kangchenjunga was considered the highest peak in the world, with interest, he noted a peak beyond it, about 230 km away. John Armstrong, one of Waugh's subordinates saw the peak from a site farther west and called it peak "b".
Waugh would write that the observations indicated that peak "b" was higher than Kangchenjunga, but given the great distance of the observations, closer observations were required for verification. The following year, Waugh sent a survey official back to Terai to make closer observations of peak "b", but clouds thwarted his attempts. In 1849, Waugh dispatched James Nicolson to the area, who made two observations from Jirol, 190 km away. Nicolson took the largest theodolite and headed east, obtaining over 30 observations from five different locations, with the closest being 174 km from the peak. Nicolson retreated to Patna on the Ganges to perform the necessary calculations based on his observations, his raw data gave an average height of 9,200 m for peak "b", but this did not consider light refraction, which distorts heights. However, the number indica
Chukhung is a lodge village serving trekkers and climbers in the Khumbu region of Nepal in the Himalayas south of Mount Everest. The Chukhung Valley lies on the southern slopes of Lhotse and Nuptse by the Lho Glacier and the Nup Glacier, the western slopes of Cho Polu and Baruntse by the Imja Glaciers, the northern slopes of Mount Ama Dablam by the Ama Dablam Glacier and Chukhung Glacier, it extends westward past the village of Dingboche. The Imja Khola flows through the Chukhung Valley. Chukhung village, 4,730 metres, is on a left fork of the Imja Khola. Administratively it is in the Solukhumbu District of the Sagarmatha Zone; this area was traditionally used as a yak pasture with no permanent habitation. As Imja Tse has gained popularity as a trekking peak and the Chukhung Valley is a good acclimatization side trip for Everest Base Camp trekkers, several lodges have been built there. Chukhung Ri is a rocky peak rising above the village of Chukhung to 5,550 metres
Sagarmāthā was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restructuring of zones into provinces. Sagarmāthā is a Nepali word derived from सगर् meaning "sky" and माथा meaning "head", it includes mountain districts of the Himalayas in the north, hill districts in the center, valley districts of the Terai in the south. It is bordered by China to the north, India to the south, the Koshi Zone to the east and the Janakpur Zone to the west. Sagarmāthā is divided into six districts: The main city of the Sagarmāthā Zone was Rajbiraj, the headquarters. Other towns of the Sagarmāthā hill area were Katari, Diktel and Namche Bazaar. Triyuga is an emerging city in the zone. Sagarmāthā Zone took its name from the Nepalese name for Mount Everest, located in the north of the zone within the Sagarmatha National Park in the Solu Khumbu district. Sagarmāthā means "the Head in the Great Blue Sky". Development Regions of Nepal List of zones of Nepal List of districts of Nepal Sagarmatha National Park List of districts of Nepal
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. The term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is a dry phase; the term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains, although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon. The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West Asia-Australian monsoons; the inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal has been debated. The term was first used in English in British India and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area; the English monsoon came from Portuguese monção from Arabic mawsim, "perhaps via early modern Dutch monson."
Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau after the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia around 50 million years ago. Because of studies of records from the Arabian Sea and that of the wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China, many geologists believe the monsoon first became strong around 8 million years ago. More studies of plant fossils in China and new long-duration sediment records from the South China Sea led to a timing of the monsoon beginning 15–20 million years ago and linked to early Tibetan uplift. Testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; the monsoon has varied in strength since this time linked to global climate change the cycle of the Pleistocene ice ages. A study of marine plankton suggested that the Indian Monsoon strengthened around 5 million years ago. During ice periods, the sea level fell and the Indonesian Seaway closed; when this happened, cold waters in the Pacific were impeded from flowing into the Indian Ocean.
It is believed that the resulting increase in sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean increased the intensity of monsoons. Five episodes during the Quaternary at 2.22 Ma, 1.83 Ma, 0.68 Ma, 0.45 Ma and 0.04 Ma were identified which showed a weakening of Leeuwin Current. The weakening of the LC would have an effect on the sea surface temperature field in the Indian Ocean, as the Indonesian through flow warms the Indian Ocean, thus these five intervals could be those of considerable lowering of SST in the Indian Ocean and would have influenced Indian monsoon intensity. During the weak LC, there is the possibility of reduced intensity of the Indian winter monsoon and strong summer monsoon, because of change in the Indian Ocean dipole due to reduction in net heat input to the Indian Ocean through the Indonesian through flow, thus a better understanding of the possible links between El Niño, Western Pacific Warm Pool, Indonesian Throughflow, wind pattern off western Australia, ice volume expansion and contraction can be obtained by studying the behaviour of the LC during Quaternary at close stratigraphic intervals.
The impact of monsoon on the local weather is different from place to place. In some places there is just a likelihood of having a little less rain. In other places, quasi semi-deserts are turned into vivid green grasslands where all sorts of plants and crops can flourish; the Indian Monsoon turns large parts of India from a kind of semi-desert into green lands. See photos only taken 3 months apart in the Western Ghats. In places like this it is crucial for farmers to have the right timing for putting the seeds on the fields, as it is essential to use all the rain, available for growing crops. Monsoons are large-scale sea breezes which occur when the temperature on land is warmer or cooler than the temperature of the ocean; these temperature imbalances happen. Over oceans, the air temperature remains stable for two reasons: water has a high heat capacity, because both conduction and convection will equilibrate a hot or cold surface with deeper water. In contrast, dirt and rocks have lower heat capacities, they can only transmit heat into the earth by conduction and not by convection.
Therefore, bodies of water stay at a more temperature, while land temperature are more variable. During warmer months sunlight heats the surfaces of both land and oceans, but land temperatures rise more quickly; as the land's surface becomes warmer, the air above it expands and an area of low pressure develops. Meanwhile, the ocean remains at a lower temperature than the land, the air above it retains a higher pressure; this difference in pressure causes sea breezes to blow from the ocean to the land, bringing moist air inland. This moist air rises to a higher altitude over land and it flows back toward the ocean. However, when the air rises, while it is still over the land, the air cools; this decreases the air's ability to hold water, this causes precipitation over the land. This is. In the colder months, the cycle is reversed; the land cools faster than the oceans and the air over the land has higher pressure than air over the ocean. This causes the air over the land to flow to the ocean; when humid air rises over the ocean, it cools, this causes precipitation over the oceans.
(The cool air flows towards the land to complete the cy
Sherpa is one of the major ethnic groups native to the most mountainous regions of Nepal, as well as certain areas of China, Bhutan and the Himalayas. The term sherpa or sherwa derives from the Sherpa language words Shar and Wa, which refer to their geographical origin in Kham Salmogang of eastern Tibet. Most Sherpa people live in the eastern regions of Nepal. Sherpas had village gompas. Tengboche was the first celibate monastery in Solu-Khumbu. Sherpa people live in China and the Indian states of Sikkim and the northern portion of West Bengal the district of Darjeeling; the Sherpa language belongs to the south branch of the Tibeto-Burman languages, it is a mixed Eastern Tibet and central Tibetan dialects. However, this language is unintelligible to Lhasa speakers; the number of Sherpas migrating to Western countries has increased in recent years to the United States. New York City has the largest Sherpa community in the United States, with a population of 3,000; the 2001 Nepal census recorded 154,622 Sherpas within its borders.
Some members of the Sherpa population are known for their skills in mountaineering as a livelihood. The Sherpa were nomadic people. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated from Kham in eastern Tibet to Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi and Chawa; these four groups split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today. Mahayana Buddhism religious conflict may have contributed to the migration out of Tibet in the 13th and 14th centuries and arrived in Khumbu regions of Nepal. Sherpa migrants travelled before crossing the Himalaya. By the 1400s, Khumbu Sherpa people attained autonomy within the newly formed Nepali state. In the 1960s, as tension with China increased, Nepali government influence on the Sherpa people grew. In 1976, Khumbu became a national park, tourism became a major economic force. Gautam concluded that the Sherpa migrated from Tibet to Nepal 600 years ago through Rongshar to the west and later through the Nangpa La pass.
It is presumed that the group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called "Shyar Khamba", the place where they settled was called "Shyar Khumbu". As the time passed, the "Shyar Khamba," inhabitants of Shyar Khumbu, were called Sherpa. A recent Nepal Ethnographic Museum study postulated that present-day Nepal became an integral part of the kingdom of Nepal. Since ancient times, like other indigenous Kirat Nepalese tribes, would move from one place to another place within the Himalayan region surviving as Alpine pastoralists and traders. Genetic studies shows that much of the Sherpa population has allele frequencies which are found in other Tibeto-Burman regions, in tested genes, the strongest affinity was for Tibetan population sample studies done in Xizang Tibetan Autonomous Region. Genetically, the Sherpa cluster closest with the sample Han populations. Additionally, the Sherpa had exhibited affinity for several Nepalese populations, with the strongest for the Rai people, followed by the Magars and the Tamang.
A 2016 study of Sherpas in China suggested that a small portion of Sherpas and Tibetans allele frequencies originated from separate ancient populations, estimated to have remained somewhat distributed for 11,000 to 7,000 years. A 2014 study observed that considerable genetic components from the Indian Subcontinent were found in Sherpa people living in China; the western Y chromosomal haplogroups R1a1a-M17, J-M304, F*-M89 comprise 17% of the paternal gene pool in tested individuals. In the maternal side, M5c2, M21d, U from the west count up to 8% of people in given Sherpa populations. However, a study from 2015 did not support the results from the 2014 study. In a 2015 study of 582 Sherpa individuals from China and Nepal, Haplogroup D-M174 was found most followed by Haplogroup O-M175, Haplogroup F-M89 and Haplogroup K-M9; the Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution for Sherpas follow a pattern similar to that for Tibetans. Sherpa mtDNA distribution shows greater diversity, as Haplogroup A was found most followed by Haplogroup M9a, Haplogroup C4a, Haplogroup M70, Haplogroup D.
These haplogroups are found in some Tibetan populations. However, two common mtDNA sub-haplogroups unique to Sherpas populations were identified: Haplogroup A15c and Haplogroup C4a3b1. Many Sherpa are regarded as elite mountaineers and experts in their local area, they were immeasurably valuable to early explorers of the Himalayan region, serving as guides at the extreme altitudes of the peaks and passes in the region for expeditions to climb Mount Everest. Today, the term is used by foreigners to refer to any guide or climbing supporter hired for mountaineering expeditions in the Himalayas, regardless of their ethnicity; because of this usage, the term has become a slang byword for a mentor in other situations. Sherpas are renowned in the international climbing and mountaineering community for their hardiness and experience at high altitudes, it has been speculated that part of the Sherpas' climbing ability is the result of a genetic adaptation to living in high altitudes. Some of these adaptation
Ama Dablam is a mountain in the Himalaya range of eastern Nepal. The main peak is 6,812 metres, the lower western peak is 6,170 metres. Ama Dablam means "Mother's necklace". For several days, Ama Dablam dominates the eastern sky for anyone trekking to Mount Everest basecamp. For its soaring ridges and steep faces Ama Dablam is sometimes referred as the "Matterhorn of the Himalayas."Ama Dablam was first climbed on 13 March 1961 by Mike Gill, Barry Bishop, Mike Ward and Wally Romanes via the Southwest Ridge. They were well-acclimatised to altitude, having wintered over at 5800 metres near the base of the peak as part of the Silver Hut Scientific Expedition of 1960-61, led by Sir Edmund Hillary. Ama Dablam is the third most popular Himalayan peak for permitted expeditions; the most popular route by far is the Southwest Ridge. Climbers set up three camps along the ridge with camp 3 just below and to the right of the hanging glacier, the Dablam. Any ice that calves off the glacier goes left, away from the camp.
However, a 2006 avalanche proved. A climbing permit and a liaison officer are required; as with Mt. Everest, the best climbing months are April -- September -- October. 1961 Southwest Ridge FA by Mike Gill, Barry Bishop, Mike Ward and Wally Romanes. 1979 Southwest Ridge SA by Martin Boysen. Doug Robinson and John Wasson reached the summit the next day. 1979 Lowe Route on the South Face, FA Solo by Jeff Lowe, 30 April 1979. 1979 North Ridge by a large French expedition led by Raymond Renaud and Yvan Estienne placed 14 Frenchmen and 4 Nepalese Sherpa in three groups on the summit over three days, 21-23 Oct 1979. 1981 Northeast Spur to North Ridge by Tim McCartney-Snape, Lincoln Hall, Andrew Henderson. 1983 East Ridge by Alain Hubert and André Georges. 1984 Southwest Ridge solo by Naoe Sakashita. 1985 Ariaki-Sakashita on the west face by Naoe Sakashita. 1985 Northeast Face winter ascent by Carlos Buhler. 1996 Stane Belak Šrauf Memorial Route on the northwest face by Vanja Furlan and Tomaž Humar, which earned them the 1996 Piolet d'Or prize.
1996 North Ridge Austro-German alpine-style ascent by Friedl Huber, Max Berger, Louis Badengruber, Roman Dirnbok. 2001 Northwest Ridge by Jules Cartwright and Rich Cross. Accidents involving fatalities occur on a high, steep mountain in an extreme environment like Ama Dablam. On the night of 13/14 November 2006, a large serac collapse occurred from the hanging glacier, which swept away several tents at Camp 3, killing six climbers. Eyewitness testimony indicates that Camp 3 had not been sited in an unusual or abnormally dangerous spot, that the serac fall was of such magnitude as to render the specific placing of the tents at Camp 3 irrelevant. On November 11, 2017, Valery Rozov was killed when he jumped from the mountain in a wingsuit and struck a cliff. A representation of Ama Dablam was used by Invesco Perpetual as its branding logo within UK, it has since been adopted by the INVESCO group of companies as its worldwide signature. Image peak Ama Dablam is present on the label of bottled tap water Aqua Minerale, PepsiCo in Russia as well as included in the image of the trademark.
In September 1997, Bear Grylls, a British adventurer and television presenter became the youngest Briton to climb Ama Dablam. The singer/songwriter Nick Harper has a track on his 2010 album The Last Guitar entitled "Ama Dablam."Apple included an image of Ama Dablam by photographer Nick Meek in the set of new wallpapers included with the mobile operating system iOS 7, released on September 18, 2013. In 2016, Ngima Gelu Lama, a young Nepali filmmaker established an independent motion picture production company called Ama Dablam Pictures. Notes SourcesKennedy, Michael. "Mountain Profile: Ama Dablam". Alpinist Magazine. Jackson, WY, USA: Alpinist LLC: 22. ISSN 1540-725X. Nepal Expedition Trips 2009 – Ama Dablam Expedition. Ama Dablam on Globetrooper Ama Dablam on Summitpost Ama Dablam on Peakware
Khumbu is a region of northeastern Nepal on the Nepalese side of Mount Everest. It is part of the Solukhumbu District. Khumbu is one of three subregions of the main Khambu and Sherpa settlement of the Himalaya, the other two being Solu and Pharak, it includes the town of Namche Bazaar as well as the villages of Thame, Pangboche and Kunde. The famous Buddhist monastery at Tengboche is located in the Khumbu; the Khumbu's elevation ranges from 3,300 metres to the 8,848 m summit of Mount Everest, the highest place on Earth. The Khumbu region includes both Sagarmatha National Park and the Sagarmatha National Park Buffer Zone, between Lukla and Monju; the Khumbu is a glacier believed to be the result of the last great Ice Age, ~500,000 years ago. Lonely Planet has ranked Khumbu region in sixth best region in the world to travel. Dingboche Kunde Khumjung Lobuche Lukla Namche Bazaar Tengboche Phortse Thame Thamo Pangboche Phakding Monjo Khumbu travel guide from Wikivoyage