Collectio canonum quadripartita
The Collectio canonum quadripartita is an early medieval canon law collection, written around the year 850 in the ecclesiastical province of Reims. The Quadripartita is a manual of canon and penitential law. Even well into the century the Quadripartita was being copied by scribes. This work should not be confused with the early twelfth-century Latin translation of Old English law known as the Quadripartitus, through the Middle Ages the private penitential system became an increasingly elaborate and ritualized institution. These short lists of sins made up a genre of texts known as the penitential handbook and their popularity was rivalled only by their variety, as the number of manuals in circulation grew, so did the discrepancies between them. This gave rise during the ninth century to a backlash against the diversity of penitentials. During the Carolingian period there evolved two different yet overlapping contexts in which the penitentials were used, the first of these was the pastoral context of confession between priest and parishioner.
By the ninth century, chapters from penitential manuals had entered many of the canon law collections being copied and compiled on the Continent. Since at least the fifth and sixth centuries, canon law collections could boast of being repositories of the ancient and authoritative conciliar and papal judgements of the Christian church. As such, these collections had at first stood in stark contrast to the early penitentials, whose lists of sins, in time, the genres of collectio and penitential blended together. The collections began to more like penitentials, even as penitentials everywhere were beginning to take on characteristics of the more formal collectiones. Problems of textual stability and genre were further exacerbated by the fact no one code or collection of canon law claimed status as the recognized standard. It was in context of fluctuating generic and textual boundaries in France that the Quadripartita developed. Books 3 and 4 are significantly longer than books 1 and 2, there are nine extant manuscripts which contain the Quadripartita, dating from as early as the ninth century to as late as the twelfth, ranging geographically from Italy to England.
The sigla given below are those introduced by Michael Elliot, of the nine manuscripts extant today which contain the Quadripartita six contain the collection without its full complement of four books. One can see from the evidence that some copies circulated without Book 1, some without Book 3. More often than not, the entire four-book collection seems to have been transmitted intact, some copies transmitted only Book 4, which could sometimes be found tacked onto the end of the Collectio Dacheriana. The Quadripartita is now understood to be an anonymous work, since the seventh century the Quadripartita has been attributed variously to Hrabanus Maurus, Ecgberht of York and Halitgar of Cambrai
Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures. The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to the Magna Carta and before, adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans. As the name suggests, the churches of the Anglican Communion are linked by bonds of tradition and they are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, and thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his person, is a unique focus of Anglican unity. He calls the once-a-decade Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession, and writings of the Church Fathers. Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded closely to those of contemporary Protestantism, the word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 that means the English Church.
Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans, as an adjective, Anglican is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion, the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is sometimes considered as a misuse. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century, although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century. Elsewhere, the term Anglican Church came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity, as such, it is often referred to as being a via media between these traditions. Anglicans understand the Old and New Testaments as containing all necessary for salvation and as being the rule.
Reason and Tradition are seen as means to interpret Scripture. Anglicans understand the Apostles Creed as the symbol and the Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. Anglicans celebrate the sacraments, with special emphasis being given to the Eucharist, called Holy Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries and it was called common prayer originally because it was intended for use in all Church of England churches which had previously followed differing local liturgies. The term was kept when the church became international because all Anglicans used to share in its use around the world, in 1549, the first Book of Common Prayer was compiled by Thomas Cranmer, who was Archbishop of Canterbury. The founding of Christianity in Britain is commonly attributed to Joseph of Arimathea, according to Anglican legend, Saint Alban, who was executed in 209 AD, is the first Christian martyr in the British Isles.
A new culture emerged around the Irish Sea among the Celtic peoples with Celtic Christianity at its core, what resulted was a form of Christianity distinct from Rome in many traditions and practices
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
Collectio canonum Wigorniensis
The Collectio canonum Wigorniensis is a medieval canon law collection originating in southern England around the year 1005. The author of Recension A is currently unknown, other recensions exist, slightly in date than the first. These recensions are extensions and augmentations of Recension A, and are known collectively as Recension B, cross and Hamers edition, Wulfstans canon law collection Thorpes edition in vol. Wormald, The making of English law, King Alfred to the twelfth century, vol. I, legislation and its limits. Wulfstan’s canon law collection, eds J. E, cross and A. Hamer, Anglo-Saxon texts 1. A Wulfstan manuscript, containing institutes and homilies, ed. H. R. Loyn, Early English manuscripts in facsimile 17
Indulgentiarum doctrina, so called from its incipit, is an apostolic constitution about indulgences, dated 1 January 1967. By this document Pope Paul VI, responding to suggestions made at the Second Vatican Council, Pope Paul explained that sin bring punishments inflicted by Gods sanctity and justice, which must be expiated either here on earth or else in the life to come. Such expiation generally takes the form of penance, traditionally described as prayers and alms, the document stressed that the Churchs aim was not merely to help the faithful make due satisfaction for their sins, but chiefly to bring them to greater fervour of charity. For all men who walk this earth daily commit at least venial sins, indulgences cannot be gained without a sincere conversion of outlook and unity with God. An indulgence is the remission before God of the punishment due sins already forgiven as far as their guilt is concerned. An indulgence is partial or plenary according as it removes either part or all of the punishment due sin.
Indulgences can always be applied to the dead by way of suffrage, the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum reached its fourth edition in Latin in 1999, and is available on the Holy Sees website. An English translation of the edition is available online. The Enchiridion Indulgentiarum differs from the Raccolta in that it only the most important prayers and works of piety, charity. In this way, the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, in spite of its smaller size, there are four general grants of indulgence, which are meant to encourage the faithful to infuse a Christian spirit into the actions of their daily lives and to strive for perfection of charity. Devoting oneself or ones goods compassionately in a spirit of faith to the service of ones brothers and sisters in need, freely abstaining in a spirit of penance from something licit and pleasant. Freely giving open witness to ones faith before others in particular circumstances of everyday life, adoration of Jesus in the Eucharist for at least half an hour. The pious exercise of the Stations of the Cross, a plenary indulgence may be gained on some occasions, which are not everyday occurrences.
They include, even by radio or television, the blessing given by the Pope Urbi et Orbi or that which a bishop is authorized to give three times a year to the faithful of his diocese. Taking part devoutly in the celebration of a day devoted on a level to a particular religious purpose. Under this heading come the annual celebrations such as the World Day of Prayer for Vocations, taking part for at least three full days in a spiritual retreat. Taking part in some functions during the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity including its conclusion, a specific plenary indulgence is normally authorized to those properly disposed who attend a newly ordained priests First Mass. This is not the same as any indulgence granted, if any, from attending the Ordination Mass itself, since he only concelebrates that Mass, with the ordaining Bishop being the principal celebrant
Collectio canonum Quesnelliana
The Collectio canonum Quesnelliana is a vast collection of canonical and doctrinal documents prepared in Rome sometime between 494 and 610. It was first identified by Pierre Pithou and first edited by Pasquier Quesnel in 1675, the standard edition used today is that prepared by Girolamo and Pietro Ballerini in 1757. The compiler’s principal of selection seems to have been any and all documents that support doctrinal unity in general. Interestingly, the compiler of the Quesnelliana has avoided inclusion of doubtful or spurious documents, like the so-called Symmachean forgeries, but this would seem to be the extent of discrimination exercised in the compilation of the Quesnelliana. It contains Latin translations of the councils that are taken from a now lost collection of Latin canons made ca. The Africano-Romanum collection/translation predates the competing fifth-century Latin translation that Dionysius Exiguus referred to as the prisca, both the Africano-Romanum and prisca translations were largely superseded by the arrival, shortly after 500, of the superior translations of the several collections of Dionysius Exiguus.
Most historians have accepted the Ballerini brothers’ dating of the Quesnelliana to just before the end of the fifth century, older scholarship, beginning with the Ballerinis, argued that the Quesnelliana was a Gallic collection, though one with an admittedly Roman colour. French historians developed the theory that the collection originated at Arles, more recent scholarship, making much more of the Quesnelliana’s Roman colour, has argued for an Italian, possibly even Roman origin. Relatively recent work by Joseph Van der Speeten has shown that the Quesnelliana, or at least one of its constituent parts, if true, this places the Quesnelliana definitively at Rome during the first decade of the sixth century. The Quesnelliana has been valued by historians for its large complement of correspondence by Pope Leo I. While the exact nature of the source material for the Leonine letters is still a subject of debate. Detlev Jasper remarks that The compiler of the Quesnelliana seems to have been interested in Pope Leo’s writings.
He gathered the letters that were available and put them at the end of his collection as numbers LXVII to XCVIIII, although without any recognizable order or organization. The compiler’s main goal seems to have been to maximize the number of Leonine letters in the collection, the Quesnelliana remained a popular work well into the ninth century, particularly in Francia. Most likely this was because of the papal letters it contained that dealt with disciplinary matters that retained ecclesiastical importance throughout the Middle Ages
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood, Some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishop in shepherding a flock, the earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In, we see a system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just. In, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia, in Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more clearly defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Ephesus and Titus in Crete to oversee the local church, Paul commands Titus to ordain presbyters/bishops and to exercise general oversight, telling him to rebuke with all authority.
Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches, eventually, as Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to each congregation. Around the end of the 1st century, the organization became clearer in historical documents. While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who dont recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city, plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6,1.
Your godly bishop — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2,1, therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters. — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7,1. Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, and as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13,2. Apart from these there is not even the name of a church, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallesians 3,1. Follow your bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, and the presbytery as the Apostles, and to the deacons pay respect, as to Gods commandment — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 8,1. He that honoureth the bishop is honoured of God, he that doeth aught without the knowledge of the bishop rendereth service to the devil — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 9,1
It forms the first part of the collection of six legal texts, which together became known as the Corpus Juris Canonici. It was used by canonists of the Roman Catholic Church until Pentecost 1918 and he did this to obviate the difficulties which beset the study of practical, external theology, i. e. the study of canon law. In spite of its reputation and wide diffusion, the Decretum has never been recognized by the Church as an official collection. It is divided into three parts, the third part, entitled De consecratione, treats of the sacraments and other sacred things and contains 5 distinctions. Each distinction or question contains dicta Gratiani, or maxims of Gratian, Gratian himself raises questions and brings forward difficulties, which he answers by quoting auctoritates, i. e. canons of councils, decretals of the popes, texts of the Scripture or of the Fathers. These are the canones, the remaining portion, even the summaries of the canons. It is to be noted that many auctoritates have been inserted in the Decretum by authors of a date and these are the Paleœ, so called from Paucapalea, the name of the principal commentator on the Decretum.
The Roman revisers of the 16th century corrected the text of the Decree, the Decretum is quoted by indicating the number of the canon and that of the distinction or of the cause and the question. XI indicates the first part of the Decree, VI, refers to the second part, 33rd cause, question 3, distinction VI, canon 1, c. 8, de Cons. d. II refers to the part, distinction II. XII, q.3 refers to the part, cause XII, question 3. Sometimes, especially in the case of well-known and much-quoted canons,4, i. e. the 29th canon of the second part, cause XVII, question 4. Occasionally the first words alone are quoted, in both cases, to find the canon it is necessary to consult the alphabetical tables that contain the first words of every canon. Gratian was a lawyer from Bologna. He flourished in the mid 12th century, little else is known about his biography. He is sometimes referred to as Franciscus Gratianus, Johannes Gratian. For a long time he was believed to have born at the end of the 11th century. Since the 11th century, Bologna had been the centre of the study of law, as well as of Roman law
A nomocanon is a collection of ecclesiastical law, consisting of the elements from both the Civil law and the Canon law. Nomocanons form part of the Oriental canon law of the Eastern Catholic Churches, collections of this kind were found only in Oriental canon law. The Greek Church has two principal nomocanonical collections, the first nomocanon, in the sixth century, is ascribed, though without certainty, to John Scholasticus, whose canons it utilizes and completes. He had drawn up a purely canonical compilation in 50 titles, to each of the 50 titles was added the texts of the imperial laws on the same subject, with 21 additional chapters, nearly all borrowed from Johns 87 chapters. Thus the Nomocanon of John Scholasticus was made, the second nomocanon dates from the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, at which time Latin was replaced by Greek as the official language of the imperial laws. It was made by fusion of Collectio tripartita and Canonic syntagma, this collection would be known as Nomocanon in 14 titles.
This nomocanon was long held in esteem and passed into the Russian Church, the great systematic compiler of the Eastern Church, who occupies a similar position to that of Gratian in the West, was Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople in the 9th century. Nomocanon in 14 titles was completed with the recent imperial laws. This whole collection was commentated about 1170 by Theodore Balsamon, Greek Patriarch of Antioch residing at Constantinople, Nomocanon of Photios was supplemented by this commentary and became Pedalion, a sort of Corpus Juris of the Orthodox Church, printed in 1800 by Patriarch Neophytos VII. Nomocanon of Photios retained in the law of the Greek Church and it was included in Syntagma, the Nomocanon of Saint Sava or was the first Serbian constitution and the highest code in the Serbian Orthodox Church, finished in 1219. This legal act was well developed, during the Nemanjić dynasty Serbian medieval state was flourishing in the spheres of politics and culture. As the state developed, the industry developed, so the law had to regulate various number of relations, with the development of economy, Roman Law was taken.
In that time Serbia was not an empire, so its ruler could not create code of laws. Serbian rulers reigned with single legal acts and decrees, in order to overcome this problem and organize legal system, after acquiring religious independence, Saint Sava finished his Zakonopravilo in 1219. Zakonopravilo was accepted in Bulgaria and Russia and it was printed in Moscow in the 17th century. So, Roman-Byzantine law was transplanting among East Europe through Zakonopravilo, in Serbia, it was considered as the code of the divine law and it was implemented into Dušans code. It was the only code among Serbs in the time of the Ottoman reign, during the Serbian Revolution priest Mateja Nenadović established Zakonopravilo as the code of the liberated Serbia. It was implemented in Serbian civil code, Zakonopravilo is still used in the Serbian Orthodox Church as the highest church code
Benedictus Deus (Pius IV)
Benedictus Deus is a papal bull written by Pius IV in 1564 which ratified all decrees and definitions of the Council of Trent. This was seen by Church contemporaries of Pius IV as an attempt to strengthen the influence of the Papacy against the rise of Conciliarism exemplified by the Council of Trent itself, there is a more minor bull of the same title written by Benedict XII in 1336. Pii Divina Providentia papae quarti super confirmatione oecumenii & generalis concilii Tridentini, Ocharte,1565 Text at archive. org The full text of Benedictus Deus at Wikisource
Jus exclusivæ was the right claimed by several Catholic monarchs of Europe to veto a candidate for the papacy. This right seems to have claimed during the 17th century. It does not seem to be related to a right exercised by Byzantine emperors and Holy Roman Emperors to confirm the election of a Pope, which ruled much of Italy at the time, raised the claim in 1605. In 1644, in the conclave which elected Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pamphili, jus exclusivæ was first exercised, by Spain, Cardinal Jules Mazarin of France arrived too late at that conclave to present the veto of France against Cardinal Pamphili, who had already been elected. Around this period, treatises arise in defence of this right, by the Bull In eligendis Pope Pius IV ordered the cardinals to elect a Pope without deference to any secular power. The Bull Aeterni Patris Filius forbids cardinals to conspire to exclude any candidate and these pronouncements however, do not specifically condemn the jus exclusivae. In the Constitution In hac sublimi Pius IX did however forbid any kind of interference in papal elections.
The most recent attempt to exercise the right was publicly rejected by the conclave, no power has openly attempted to exercise the right since 1903. France had become a republic in 1870, after World War I, there was no German Empire and no Austrian Empire. Spain became a republic, though it returned to monarchy. Generalissimo Francisco Franco, it is said, attempted to interfere with the Conclave of 1963, papal appointment Sources Catholic Encyclopedia, Right of Exclusion. Papal Elections in the Age of Transition, 1878-1922, Lexington Books, ludwig Wahrmund, Das Ausschliessungs-recht der katholischen Staaten Österreich, Frankreich und Spanien bei den Papstwahlen. Sägmüller, Die Papstwahlbullen und das staatliche Recht der Exklusive, ludwig Wahrmund, Die Bulle „Aeterni Patris Filius” und der staatliche Einfluss auf die Papstwahlen, Archiv für katholisches Kirchenrecht 72 201-334. Ludwig Wahrmund, Zur Geschiste des exclusionrechtes bei den Papstwahlen im 18 Jahrhundert, william J. Hegarty, The Lay Veto, American Catholic Quarterly Review 37, pp. 419–439.
Herbert Plock, Das Jus exclusivae der Staaten bei der Papstwahl und sein Verbotdurch die päpstliche Bulle Commissum nobis, peter Frei, Die Papstwahl des Jahres 1903, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des österreichisch-ungarischen Vetos