Archbishop of Uppsala
The archbishop of Uppsala has been the primate in Sweden in an unbroken succession since 1164, first during the Catholic era, from the 1530s and onward under the Lutheran church. There have been bishops in Uppsala from the time of Swedish King Ingold the Elder in the 11th century, they were governed by the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen until Uppsala was made an archbishopric in 1164. The archbishop in Lund was declared primate of Sweden, meaning it was his right to select and ordain the Uppsala archbishop by handing him the pallium. To gain independence, Folke Johansson Ängel in 1274 went to Rome and was ordained directly by the pope; this practice was increasing, so that no Uppsala archbishop was in Lund after Olov Björnsson, in 1318. In 1457, the archbishop Jöns Bengtsson was allowed by the pope to declare himself primate of Sweden. Uppsala was located a couple of miles to the north of the present city, in what is today known as Gamla Uppsala. In 1273, the archbishopric, together with the relics of King Eric the Saint, was moved to the market town of Östra Aros, which from on is named Uppsala.
In 1531, Laurentius Petri was chosen by King Gustav I of Sweden to be archbishop, taking that privilege from the pope and in effect making Sweden Protestant. The archbishop was declared primus inter pares i.e. first among equals. The archbishop is Primate of Sweden. In 2000, the Archbishop of Uppsala was aided in the diocese by a bishop of Uppsala Ragnar Persenius; the labours of the archbishops extended in all directions. Some were zealous pastors such as Jarler and others. There were scholars, such as Johannes Magnus, who wrote the "Historia de omnibus Gothorum sueonumque regibus" and the "Historia metropolitanæ ecclesiæ Upsaliensis", his brother Olaus Magnus, who wrote the "Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus" and, the last Catholic Archbishop of Upsala; the archbishops and secular clergy found active co-workers among the regular clergy. Among the orders represented in Sweden were the Benedictines, Dominicans, Franciscans and Carthusians. A Swedish Protestant investigator, Carl Silfverstolpe, wrote: "The monks were the sole bond of union in the Middle Ages between the civilization of the north and that of southern Europe, it can be claimed that the active relations between our monasteries and those in southern lands were the arteries through which the higher civilization reached our country."See Birger Gregersson, Nils Ragvaldsson, Jöns Bengtsson, Jakob Ulfsson, Gustav Trolle, Johannes Magnus, Laurentius Petri, Abraham Angermannus, Olaus Martini, Petrus Kenicius, Laurentius Paulinus Gothus, Johannes Canuti Lenaeus, Erik Benzelius the Elder, Haquin Spegel, Mattias Steuchius, Uno von Troil, Jakob Axelsson Lindblom, Johan Olof Wallin, Karl Fredrik af Wingård, Henrik Reuterdahl Anton Niklas Sundberg and Nathan Söderblom.
The first written mention of a bishop at Uppsala is from Adam of Bremen's Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum that records in passing Adalvard the Younger appointed as the bishop for Sictunam et Ubsalam in the 1060s. Swedish sources never mention him either in Uppsala; the medieval Annales Suecici Medii Aevi and the 13th century legend of Saint Botvid mention some Henry as the Bishop of Uppsala in 1129, participating in the consecration of the saint's newly built church. He is the same Bishop Henry who died at the Battle of Fotevik in 1134, fighting along with the Danes after being banished from Sweden. Known from the Chronicon Roskildense written soon after his death and from Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum from the early 13th century, he had fled to Denmark from Sigtuna, he is omitted from, or at least redated in, the first list of bishops made in the 15th century. In this list, the first bishop at Uppsala was Sverinius, succeeded by Nicolaus, Sveno and Kopmannus. With the exception of Henricus, the list only mentions their names.
1164–1185 Stefan 1185–1187 Johannes. Johannes was ordained by the Archbishop of Lund, Absalon by November 1185. In 1187, a ship from the pagan Estonia entered Mälaren, a lake close to Uppsala, on a plundering expedition, it sailed to Sigtuna, a prosperous city at that time, plundered it. On its way back, barricades were set up at the only exit point at Almarestäket to prevent
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Östanbäck Monastery is a Lutheran Benedictine monastery for men in the Church of Sweden, located outside Sala in Sweden. The background of the monastery lies in the Lutheran High Church Movement. On 14 February 1960, four theological students, from both the University of Lund and the University of Uppsala, took their vows, forming the Holy Cross Fraternity under the spiritual guidance of an Anglican Franciscan priest in preparation for the establishment of a religious order; the period of studying and preparation led them towards the Benedictine renewal in the Roman Catholic Church of the Second Vatican Council. The first brethren moved to Östanbäck in November 1970; the chapel and monastery were consecrated on 20 July 1975 by Bishop Bengt Sundkler. The brethren follow the Rule of St. Benedict; the monastery has a candle factory in Östanbäck, which produces candles in different sizes and shapes, among them Paschal candles. The leader of the monastery is Father Caesarius Cavallin, OSB. Like the Anglican Benedictine abbots, he is invited as an observer to the Benedictine abbots' conferences in Rome.
Other Lutheran Benedictine communities for men are "The Congregation of the Servants of Christ" at St. Augustine's House in Oxford, United States, the Priory of St. Wigbert in Germany. Official website
Sweden Democrats or Swedish Democrats is a social conservative and right-wing populist political party in Sweden, founded in 1988. The party describes itself as social conservative with a nationalist foundation; the party has been characterized by others as far-right, national-conservative, anti-immigration. Jimmie Åkesson has been party leader since 2005; the party has its roots in Swedish fascism and was a white nationalist movement through the early-1990s, when it first began distancing itself from its past. Today, the Sweden Democrats reject both fascism and Nazism; the Sweden Democrats crossed the 4% threshold necessary for parliamentary representation for the first time in the 2010 general election, polling 5.7% and gaining 20 seats in the Riksdag. This increase in popularity has been compared by international media to other similar anti-immigration movements in Europe; the party received increased support in the 2018 Swedish general election, when it polled 17.5% and secured 62 seats in parliament, becoming the third largest party in Sweden.
The Sweden Democrats remained isolated in the Riksdag for a long time because the other parties staunchly maintained a policy of refusing cooperation with them. However, in March 2019 Christian Democratic leader Ebba Busch Thor announced that her party was ready to start negotiations with the Sweden Democrats in the Riksdag; the Sweden Democrats are a member of European Conservatives and Reformists group in the European Parliament. The party was against the European Union, supported a Swedish exit from the EU until January 2019; the Sweden Democrats party was founded in 1988 as a direct successor to the Sweden Party, which in turn had been formed in 1986 by the merger of Bevara Sverige Svenskt and a faction of the Swedish Progress Party. SD claims 6 February 1988 as the date of its foundation, although observers tend to see the party's foundation as part of a complex decade-long series of events, with some calling into question whether a meeting took place on 6 February; the party has its roots in Swedish fascism and was a white nationalist movement through the early-1990s, when it first began distancing itself from its past.
The SD's logo from the 1990s until 2006 was a version of the torch used by the UK National Front. While opinions on the early SD vary, it is agreed that SD has never been a Nazi party, although various connections have existed through some of its former members; the party sponsored music of the nationalist Viking rock band Ultima Thule, various party officials today acknowledge that being fans of Ultima Thule's music factored prominently in their decision to become politically engaged. Among the founding officials of the party were several people that had expressed strong support for the ideology of Nazi Germany; the party's first auditor, Gustaf Ekström, was a Waffen-SS veteran and had been a member of the national socialist party Svensk Socialistisk Samling in the 1940s. In 1989, Ekström was a member of the Sweden Democrats' national board. SD's first chairman Anders. Early on, the party recommended international connections to its members such as the National Democratic Party of Germany, the American National Association for the Advancement of White People and publications like the Nazi Nation Europa and Nouvelle École, a newspaper that advocates racial biology.
From 1995 onwards the party's new leader, Mikael Jansson, strove to make the party more respectable and, after photographs surfaced of some members posing in Nazi uniforms at party meetings, the wearing of any kind of uniform was formally banned in 1996. During the 1990s, the party became more influenced by the French National Front, as well as the Freedom Party of Austria, the Danish People's Party, German The Republicans and Italian National Alliance. SD received economic support for the 1998 election from the French National Front, was active in Le Pen's Euronat from the same time. SD, however, in 1999 left its membership in Euronat to its youth organisation. In 2001 the most extreme faction was expelled from the party, leading to the formation of the more radical National Democrats. During the 2000s the so-called "Scania gang", or "Gang of Four" – Jimmie Åkesson, Björn Söder, Mattias Karlsson and Richard Jomshof – continued and expanded the moderation policy, which included ousting extremist members.
Before the 2002 election, former Moderate Party MP Sten Christer Andersson defected to SD, citing that the party had gotten rid of its extreme-right elements. In 2003 the party declared the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to be a cornerstone of its policies. In 2006 the party changed its logo from the torch to one featuring an Anemone hepatica, reminiscent of the party's first, but short-lived, logo. In the 2010 general election, SD won representation in the Swedish Riksdag for the first time, with 5.7% of the vote and 20 MPs. Sweden Democrat MP William Petzäll was persuaded to leave the party on 26 September 2011 while still retaining his parliamentary seat; this was done because of Petzäll's substance abuse and the problems this might cause for SD's public image. Petzäll died of an overdose and his seat was turned over to Stellan Bojerud in September 2012. In November 2012, videos from August 2010 were released, in segments, over the course of three days by Swedish newspaper Expressen.
This came to be known as the Iron pipe scandal, although t
Church of Sweden Abroad
The Church of Sweden Abroad, is an institution of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Sweden. The Church of Sweden Abroad has more than 40 parishes throughout the world, concentrated in Western Europe. Another 80 cities are served by visiting clergy. In administration and practice SKUT forms a single body under the direction of a committee of the General Synod, but since 1 January 2012 organised by a newly formed Council, giving SKUT many of the features of a diocese, though without that legal status, without a bishop of its own. Instead, it is placed under the episcopal oversight of the Bishop of Visby. Under the new 2012 organisation SKUT has gained constituent seats on the General Synod of the Church of Sweden, like the 13 mainland dioceses; the first parish established abroad was that of Paris, which dates from 1626 when the Roman Catholic king of France, Louis XIII, allowed a Swedish Protestant pastor to minister to the Swedish and German regiments fighting in his royal army. The congregation developed with the Swedish community in Paris and was at the foundation of several Swedish institutions in the city, such as a school and an hospice.
It served as embassy church for several hundred years, until 1988 the rector was an official of the Swedish embassy in Paris. Today the Swedish Sofia Parish, named for queen Sofia of Nassau, is one of SKUT's largest, it was the first expatriate parish of the Church of Sweden to appoint a female rector, the Reverend Karin Burstrand. The 2012 restructuring of SKUT gave the organisation a quasi-diocesan nature, including a governing Council, seats on the General Synod. At the same time, staffing was reviewed with a total reduction of 25%; the locations of overseas parishes were reviewed, with significant changes made, including the closure of two parishes in Spain, the replacing of the Cairo parish with a mobile priest in north Africa, closures in Antwerp and northern Denmark, the closure of the Swedish Seamen's Church in Lower Road, London. London had been the only city outside Sweden to have two Church of Sweden parishes; the other SKUT parish in London remains open and active, but the total number of church staff in London was reduced from 2 priests and 4 pastoral assistants, to 2 priests and 1 pastoral assistant.
The following year SKUT closed its only other United Kingdom parish, in Liverpool, discontinued the parish priest's post in that city. Meanwhile, several new parishes have opened in Asia. SKUT has traditionally employed ordained priests in overseas parishes, supported by some professional lay workers. During 2011, a decision was made to employ full-time ordained deacons to work in areas of social care and outreach; this is a normal part of church life in Sweden, but had not been practiced in the overseas parishes. The Archbishop's annual report and review of 2011 stated: "The Committee for the Church of Sweden Abroad made a historic decision in 2011 by setting up deacon posts; these can ensure that the parish develops favourably. Through solid parish welfare services, the Church of Sweden Abroad gains trust and is able to serve its members in the way that it should; the decision was made following a study." AfricaA peripatetic priest is assigned to AfricaThere are no longer any fixed parishes in Africa.
AsiaA peripatetic priest is assigned to Asia Bangkok, Thailand Phuket, Thailand Dubai, United Arab Emirates Hong Kong, China Jerusalem Singapore, SingaporeEurope Athens, Greece Ayia Napa, Cyprus Berlin, Germany Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Frankfurt, Germany Fuengirola, Spain Genera, Switzerland Hamburg, Germany Helsinki, Finland Lausanne, Switzerland London, United Kingdom Los Cristianos, Spain Monaco Munich, Germany Oslo, Norway Palma de Mallorca, Spain Paris, France Rhodes, Greece Rome, Italy Rotterdam, Netherlands Tallinn, Estonia Torrevieja, Spain Vienna, Austria Zurich, SwitzerlandNorth America Florida, United States Los Angeles, United States New York City, United States San Francisco, United States Washington DC, United States Toronto, CanadaOceaniaMelbourne, Australia Sydney, AustraliaSouth AmericaA peripatetic priest is assigned to South America Buenos Aires, Argentine São Paulo, Brazil Diocese of Visby Finnish Seamen's Mission Scandinavian churches in London Norwegian Seamen’s Church Danish Seamen’s Church and Church Abroad Sweden Website
Karlstad is a city, the seat of Karlstad Municipality, the capital of Värmland County, the largest city in the province Värmland in Sweden. The city had 61,492 inhabitants in 2015 with 90,882 inhabitants in the wider municipality in 2017, is the 21st biggest municipality in Sweden. Karlstad has a cathedral. Karlstad is built on the river delta where Sweden's longest river, Klarälven, runs into Sweden's largest lake, Vänern, it has the second largest lake port in the country after Västerås. Karlstad is associated with sunshine and the symbol for Karlstad is a smiling sun. Karlstad is reputed to be one of the sunniest towns in Sweden and a local waitress, known as "Sola i Karlstad" for her sunny disposition, is commemorated with a statue. On Karlstad's largest islet, there was a place of counsel called Tingvalla in the medieval age, which had roots from the Viking Age before 1000 AD, it was used as a market place. Karlstad was granted its city charter on March 5, 1584, by the Swedish Duke Charles, who would be crowned King Charles IX of Sweden.
The city derives its name from the King – Karlstad means Charles' city. The Duke granted Karlstad the right as a governmental seat in the region, gave it a substantial amount of land; the Duke built his own house in the city, referred to as Kungsgården. Karlstad's Cathedral was built on the location Kungsgården in 1724–1730 by Christian Haller. Most significant coup d'état in modern Swedish history had its beginning in Karlstad. During the night of 7 March 1809, major general Georg Adlersparre used the part of the western army, stationed in Värmland to occupy Karlstad. From there proclaimed a revolution, during 9 March, he and his soldiers began their march toward the capital to end the reign of king Gustav IV Adolf. Karlstad has suffered four major fires. Only the cathedral and a few houses remained after the last fire on July 2, 1865. Karlstad was thereafter rebuilt according to a grid pattern with wide streets surrounded by trees. In 1905, the agreement to dissolve the union between Norway and Sweden was negotiated and signed in Karlstad.
The official language, Swedish, is the native language of a big majority and spoken by most people in Karlstad. Immigration has established 5 notable minority languages: Arabic Somalian Sorani Persian Bosnian + Serbian + Croatian Several upper secondary schools offer the most common range of courses available throughout Sweden, including the IB Diploma Programme; the majority of students in Värmland need to commute or move to Karlstad for their upper secondary education. Tertiary education is offered by Karlstad University, granted university status in 1999. Värmlands Folkblad and NWT are the two local newspapers. Ice hockey is a popular spectator sport in Karlstad; the most popular club is Färjestad BK. The team plays in the Swedish Hockey League and their home arena is Löfbergs Arena; the club has won the Swedish Championship several times, most in 2011, is the most successful ice hockey club in Sweden since the foundation of Elitserien in 1975. Several other ice hockey clubs exist and Karlstad is represented in the 1st Division of ice hockey by the team Skåre BK.
The 2010 Men's World Inline Hockey Championships was hosted by Karlstad, with Löfbergs Arena as the primary site of the tournament. Traditionally, bandy has been the most popular winter sport in Karlstad, the city is the home of two of the most successful clubs in Sweden, IF Boltic and IF Karlstad-Göta. Boltic reached 10 Swedish finals in a row from 1979 to 1988, they won the first 7 and the one in 1988. They won in 1995. In 2000, the two clubs merged into BS BolticGöta, now the major bandy club in Karlstad. After a successful season in Allsvenskan 2009/2010 the team qualified for Elitserien, but was again relegated for the 2011/2012 season; the home arena, Tingvalla Ice Stadium, built in 1967, is claimed to be one of Europe's largest artificially frozen areas and is awaiting a decision by the municipality to become renovated and transformed into an indoor ice rink. Afghans living in Karlstad has taken a liking to the sport and set up an Afghanistan national bandy team, based in the city. Karlstad is a regular host of start and special stages for the Swedish Rally.
The competition is held annually in Värmland. Several football clubs exist, the highest-ranking team is QBIK; the club was founded in 1978, entered the premier division of women's football, Damallsvenskan, in 2005. The team plays in the 1st Division, but has several players in the Swedish national team, their home ground is Tingvalla IP, the facility is becoming the home ground for the football team Karlstad BK, that plays in the men's Division 1 Norra, having gained promotion following a successful 2010 season. The third highest-ranking football team is Carlstad United; the club was founded in 1998 by an alliance of seven local football clubs, with the aim of providing Karlstad with an elite football team. The club was accepted by the Swedish Football Association in 1999 and the team is playing in the men's Division 2 Norra Götaland. FBK Karlstad play in Division 3 Västra Svealand. American football is played on Tingvalla IP; the Carlstad Crusaders play in Superserien, the highest level and since the founding of the club in 1990, the team has attended eight finals, winning its first championship in 2010.