Philippopolis is one of the ancient names of the city of Plovdiv and is the one by which it was known for the most of its recorded history. The city became one of the largest and most important in region, as shown by its still impressive ancient remains, was called "the largest and most beautiful of all cities" by Lucian; the city was a Thracian settlement being invaded by Persians, Celts, Goths, Bulgarians, Slav-Vikings and Turks. In 342 BC Philip II of Macedon gave it his name. Philippopolis became part of the Roman empire and capital of the Roman province Thracia. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Philippopolis had a population of 100,000 in the Roman period; the earliest signs of habitation on the territory of Philippopolis date as far back as the 6th millennium BC when the first settlements were established. Archaeologists have discovered fine pottery and objects of everyday life on Nebet Tepe from as early as the Chalcolithic, showing that at the end of the 4th millennium BC, there was an established settlement there.
Thracian necropolises dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BC have been discovered, while the Thracian town Eumolpias was established between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC. The town was a fort of the independent local Thracian tribe Bessi. In 516 BC during the rule of Darius the Great, Thrace was included in the Persian empire. In 492 BC the Persian general Mardonius subjected Thrace again, it became nominally a vassal of Persia until 479 BC and the early rule of Xerxes I; the town was included in a Thracian tribal union. The town was conquered by Philip II of Macedon and the Odrysian king was deposed in 342 BC. Ten years after the Macedonian invasion the Thracian kings started to exercise power again after the Odrysian Seuthes III had re-established their kingdom under Macedonian suzerainty as a result of a somehow successful revolt against Alexander the Great's rule resulting in neither victory, nor defeat, but stalemate; the Odrysian kingdom overcome the Macedonian suzerainty, while the city was destroyed by the Celts as part of the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe, most in the 270s BC.
In 183 BC Philip V of Macedon shortly after the Thracians re-conquered it. In 72 BC the city was seized by the Roman general Marcus Lucullus but was soon restored to Thracian control. In AD 46 the city was incorporated into the Roman Empire by emperor Claudius, it gained city status in the late 1st century. As Trimontium it was an important crossroad for the Roman Empire and was called "the largest and most beautiful of all cities" by Lucian. Although it was not the capital of the Province of Thrace at this time, the city was the largest and most important centre in the province, it was the seat of the Union of Thracians and the Via Militaris, the most important military road in the Balkans, passed through the city. Roman times were a period of growth and cultural excellence, and the ancient ruins tell a story of a vibrant, growing city with numerous public buildings, baths, theatres, a stadium. The large scale of public construction during the Flavian Dynasty led to the city being named Flavia Philippopolis.
In 172 a second wall was built to encompass the city which had extended out of the Three Hills into the valley. It became the provincial capital of Thrace in the early 3rd century. In about 250 the Battle of Philippopolis involved a long siege by the Goths led by their ruler Cniva and after betrayal by a disgruntled citizen who showed them where to scale the walls, the city was burned and 100,000 of its citizens died or were taken captive according to Ammianus Marcellinus, it prospered again in the 4th century like many cities in the region. However, it was destroyed again by Attila's Huns in 441-442 and by the Goths of Teodoric Strabo in 471; the layout of Philippopolis was revealed to a large extent by archeology between 1965-85 which with historical records confirm the presence of three archeological levels: Hellenistic and Late Roman. The initial planning and construction of Philippopolis started during Philip II's rule and continued during the reign of Alexander the Great and the Diadochi.
Some authors assume that the first stage of the construction of Philippopolis ended around 500 BC. The town built on the hills was extended to the plain. Archaeologists confirmed that the Hippodamian plan was applied to Philippopolis as in other ancient towns like Miletus, Ephesus and Olynthus. Hellenistic Philippopolis had a network of orthogonal gravel streets; some of the streets had pavements and proper slopes to accommodate rain water drainage. The intersecting streets formed the rectangular city blocks with public buildings. A great number of public structures were built in Philippopolis such as theatre, agora, thermae; the first city wall of Philippopolis was built as early as the 4th century BC and fragments of this fortification system are visible today on the northern and northwest slopes of Nebet Tepe. The wall was provided with small gates that led to passages or tunnels inside the rock through which steps reached the northern foot of the hill. Despite the unstable political and economic environment from the 4th century BC to the 1st century BC, large-scale urban planning and complex construction techniques were implemented in Philippopolis.
The urban planning model from the Hellenistic period was followed and developed after the city became part of the Roman empire. Extensive renovation and l
The Notitia Dignitatum is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires. It is unique as one of few surviving documents of Roman government and describes several thousand offices from the imperial court to provincial governments, diplomatic missions, army units, it is considered to be accurate for the Western Roman Empire in the AD 420s and for the Eastern or Byzantine Empire in the AD 390s. However, the text itself is not dated, omissions complicate ascertaining its date from its content. There are several extant 15th- and 16th-century copies of the document, plus a colour-illuminated iteration of 1542. All the known, extant copies are derived, either directly or indirectly, from Codex Spirensis, a codex known to have existed in the library of the Chapter of Speyer Cathedral in 1542, but, lost before 1672 and has not been rediscovered; the Codex Spirensis was a collection of documents, of which the Notitia was the final and largest document, occupying 164 pages, that brought together several previous documents of which one was of the 9th century.
The heraldry in illuminated manuscript copies of the Notitia is thought to copy or imitate only that illustrated in the lost Codex Spirensis. The iteration of 1542 made for Otto Henry, Elector Palatine, was revised with "illustrations more faithful to the originals added at a date", is preserved by the Bavarian State Library; the most important copy of the Codex is that made for Pietro Donato in 1436 and illuminated by Peronet Lamy, now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. For each half of the Empire, the Notitia enumerates all the major "dignities", i. e. offices, that it could bestow with the location and specific officium enumerated, except for the most junior members, for each. The dignities are ordered by: Court officials, including the most senior dignitaries such as praetorian prefects; the Notitia presents four primary problems as regards the study of the Empire's military: The Notitia depicts the Roman army at the end of the AD 4th century. Therefore, its development from the structure of the Principate is conjectural because of the lack of other evidence.
It was compiled at two different times. The section for the Eastern Empire dates from circa AD 395 and that for the Western Empire from circa AD 420. Further, each section is not a contemporaneous "snapshot", but relies on data pre-dating it by as many as 20 years; the Eastern section may contain data from as early as AD 379, the beginning of the reign of Emperor Theodosius I. The Western section contains data from as early as circa AD 400: for example, it shows units deployed in Britannia, which must date from before 410, when the Empire lost the island. In consequence, there is substantial duplication, with the same unit listed under different commands, it is impossible to ascertain whether these were detachments of the same unit in different places or the same whole unit at different times. It is that some units were nominal or minimally staffed. According to Roger Collins, the Notitia Dignitatum was an archaising text written circa AD 425, whose unreliability is demonstrated by "the supposed existence of traditional units in Britain and Spain at a time when other evidence shows they were not there."
The Notitia has many sections missing and lacunae within sections. This is doubtless due to accumulated textual losses and copying errors, because it was copied over the centuries: the earliest manuscript possessed today dates from the 15th century; the Notitia can not therefore provide a comprehensive list of all units. The Notitia does not record the number of personnel. Given that and the paucity of other evidence of unit sizes at that time, the size of individual units and the various commands cannot be ascertained. In turn, this makes it impossible to assess the total size of the army. Depending on the strength of units, the late AD 4th century army may, at one extreme, have equaled the size of the AD 2nd century force, i. e. over 400,000 men. For example, the forces deployed in Britain circa AD 400 may have been 18,000 against circa 55,000 in the AD 2nd century; the Notitia contains symbols similar to the diagram which came to be known as yin and yang symbol. The infantry units armigeri defensores seniores and Mauri Osismiaci had a shield design which corresponds to the dynamic, clockwise version of the symbol, albeit with red dots, instead of dots of the opposite colour.
The emblem of the Thebaei, another Western Roman infantry regiment, featured a pattern of concentric circles comparable to its static version. The Roman patterns predate the earliest Taoist versions by seven hundred years, there is no evidence for a connection between the two. Laeti Tabula Peutingeriana List of Late Roman provinces Notitia Dignitatum, edited by Robert Ireland, in British Archaeological Reports, International Series 63.2. Westermann Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte contains many precise maps Pauly-Wissowa. A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284-602. A Social and Administrative Survey, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986, ISBN 0-8018-3285-3 The Compilation'notitia dignitatum', extensive links and resources Placenames from Notitia Dignitatum GIS from Pelagios/Pleiades. 1505 toponyms. 1164 matches. Bodleian Library: full scan of 1436 edition Bavarian State Library: Notitia Dignitatum
The title vir illustris is used as a formal indication of standing in late antiquity to describe the highest ranks within the senates of Rome and Constantinople. All senators had the title vir clarissimus; the custom of Roman senators of late antiquity appending the title of vir clarissimus to their names developed over the first two centuries. During the fourth century, the senatorial order increased in number, so that the title became more common and new titles were devised to distinguish senators of a higher dignity, namely vir spectabilis and vir illustris; the first instance of vir illustris occurred in AD 354 with its use by the Praefectus praetorio. For some decades it was used inconsistently, but more perhaps in connection with a formal codification of honours by Emperor Valentinian I in AD 372; the offices that had a right to the title varied with time. The Notitia Dignitatum of the early AD fifth century attached it to the offices of the: Praefectus praetorio, Praefectus urbi, Magister militum, Praepositus sacri cubiculi, Magister officiorum, Comes sacrarum largitionum, Comes rerum privatarum, Comes domesticorum equitum sive peditum.
Beyond these, the title is frequently given to consuls to lower offices. In these cases the title may show a broadening of the criteria or may be an honorary grant to an individual; the Illustres soon were regarded as the active membership of the Senate. By the reign of Emperor Justinian I, all senators were considered Illustres. At the same time the title of "illustris" had been devalued below that of "clarissimus" in the AD fourth century, high officials were indicated with the titles of "vir gloriosus" or "gloriosissimus" and "vir magnificus". In ancient inscriptions and manuscripts, the spelling "inlustris" is more frequent; because the illustres were a subset of the clarissimi, the title is written as "vir clarissimus et illustris" in official documents. The shorter title was abbreviated "v. i.", "v. inl.", or "vir inl." and the longer title as "v. c. et inl."In Merovingian and Carolingian times, the spellings vir inluster and viri inlustres were common. Berger, A.'Illustris', R. E. IX, 1070-1085.
Hirschfeld, O.'Die Rangtitel der römischen Kaiserzeit', Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie, 579-610, reprinted in Kleine Schriften, 657-71. Jones, A. H. M; the Later Roman Empire 284-602, A Social and Administrative Survey Löhken, H. Ordines Dignitatum Näf, B. Senatorisches Standesbewusstsein in spätrömischer Zeit
Gallia Aquitania known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire. It lies in present-day southwest France, it was bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, Hispania Tarraconensis. Fourteen Celtic tribes and twenty Aquitanian tribes occupied the northern parts of the Pyrenees and, from the country of the Cemmenus to the ocean, bounded by two rivers: the Garumna and the Liger; the major tribes are listed at the end of this section. There were more than twenty tribes of Aquitani; the name Gallia Comata was used to designate the three provinces of Farther Gaul, viz. Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Belgica, Aquitania meaning ‘long-haired Gaul’, as opposed to Gallia Bracata ‘trousered Gaul’, a term derived from bracae for Gallia Narbonensis. Most of the Atlantic coast of the Aquitani was thin-soiled. Along this coast was the gulf held by the Tarbelli. Large quantities of gold could be mined with a minimum of refinement; the interior and mountainous country in this region had better soil.
The Petrocorii and the Bituriges Cubi had fine ironworks. According to Strabo, the Aquitani were a wealthy people. Luerius, the King of the Arverni and the father of Bituitus who warred against Maximus Aemilianus and Dometius, is said to have been so exceptionally rich and extravagant that he once rode on a carriage through a plain, scattering gold and silver coins here and there; the Romans called the tribal groups pagi. These were organized into larger super-tribal groups; these administrative groupings were taken over by the Romans in their system of local control. Aquitania was inhabited by the following tribes: Agesinales, Anagnutes, Ausci, Basabocates, Bercorates, Bipedimui, Cambolectri, Cocossati, Cubi, Elui|, Gabales, Lemovices, Monesi, Onobrisates, Osquidiales, Petrogoti, Ruteni, Santoni, Sediboniates, Sibyllates, Succasses, Tolosanes, Vassei, Vellavii, Veneti, Vornates. Gaul as a nation was not a natural unit. In order to protect the route to Spain, Rome helped Massalia against bordering tribes.
Following this intervention, the Romans conquered what they called Provincia, or the ‘Province’ in 121 BC. Provincia extended from the Mediterranean to Lake Geneva, was known as Narbonensis with its capital at Narbo; some of the region falls into modern Provence, still recalling the Roman name. The main struggle against the Romans came against Julius Caesar under Vercingetorix at Battle of Gergovia and at the Battle of Alesia; the Gaulish commander was captured at the siege of Alesia and the war ended. Caesar seized the remainder of Gaul, justifying his conquest by playing on Roman memories of savage attacks over the Alps by Celts and Germans. Italy was now to be defended from the Rhine. Caesar named Aquitania the triangle shaped territory between the Ocean, the Pyrenees and the Garonne river, he fought and completely subdued them in 56 BC after Publius Crassus's military exploits assisted by Celtic allies. New rebellions ensued anyway up to 28-27 BC, with Agrippa gaining a great victory over the Gauls of Aquitania in 38 BC.
It was the smallest region of all three mentioned above, following that a land extension stretching to the Loire River was added by Augustus, with the council of the gaulish aristocracy. This reorganization took place after the census conducted in 27 BC, based on Agrippa's observations of language and community according to some sources. At this point, Aquitania along with Narbonensis and Belgica now made up Gallia and became an imperial province. Aquitania lay under the command of a former Praetor, hosted no legions. More so than Caesar, Strabo insists that the primeval Aquitani differ from the other Gauls not just in language and laws but in body make-up too, deeming them more close to the Iberians; the administrative boundaries set up by Augustus comprising both proper Celtic tribes and primeval Aquitani remained unaltered until Diocletian's new administrative reorganization. The Arverni warred against the Romans with as many as two to four hundred thousand men. Two hundred thousand fought against Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus and against Domitius Ahenobarbus.
The Arverni not only had extended their empire as far as Narbo and the boundaries of Massiliotis, but they were masters of the tribes as far as the Pyrenees, as far as the ocean and the Rhenus. Early Roman Gaul came to an end late in the 3rd century. External pressures exacerbated internal weaknesses, neglect of the Rhine frontier resulted in barbarian invasions and civil war. For a while Gaul, including Spain and Britain, was governed by a separate line of emperors. However, there had still been no move to gain independence. In an attempt to save the Emp
Alpes Poeninae known as Alpes Graiae, was a small Alpine province of the Roman Empire, one of three such provinces in the western Alps between Italy and Gaul. It comprised the Canton Valais, its strongest indigenous tribe were the Salassi. Their territory was annexed by emperor Augustus in 15 BC, its chief city was Augusta Praetoria Salassorum. The province was named for the Roman name of the Great St Bernard Pass. Near the pass was a sanctuary dedicated to Jupiter Poeninus; because the name Poeninus is similar to Poenus, some Roman authors inferred that the Carthaginian general Hannibal crossed this part of the Alps in his famous march on Italy in 218 BC, using either the Great St Bernard or Little St Bernard passes. The Roman historian Livy explains that Poeninus was a corruption of Penninus, the name of a deity worshipped by a local tribe. Livy adds that it was implausible that Hannibal took such a northerly route, as these high mountain passes would have been inaccessible at the time. Tacitus mentions the Alpes Poeninae in connection with the movements of Otho.
Most historians agree, according to Polybius that Hannibal's army passed through the Alps via the region of the Segusii, the pass known today as Montgenèvre. After the region was conquered in 15 BC, it was incorporated into Raetia, a large district which stretched from the central Alps to the Danube; the population included a number of Celtic tribes, including the Nantuates and Seduni on the northern side of the St. Bernard Pass and the Salassi on the southern side. By the time of Emperor Claudius the tribes were Romanized and the Vallis Poenina district was removed from the Raetia et Vindolicia province. Vallis Poenina included much of the valley north of the St. Bernard Pass. A new capital civitas was established near the ruins of Octodurus and the residents enjoyed at least the protections of the Latin Rights; the Vallis Poenina district was merged with the Alpes Graiae or Alpes Atrectianae district to form the Alpes Graiae et Poeninae province. By the 3rd century AD there were several senator ranked families living in the province.
Under the reforms of Diocletian, the province became part of the Diocese of Gaulliae. In 381, the first Bishop of the region, was mentioned. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was invaded by the Burgundians and incorporated into their kingdom. In 574 it came under their authority; the Roman name and borders fell into disuse and by the Dark Ages it was part of Sapaudia. Polybius - Istoriài - XXXIV. X
Justinian I, traditionally known as Justinian the Great and Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire, his reign is marked by the ambitious but only realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire"; because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been known as the "last Roman" in mid 20th century historiography. This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the defunct Western Roman Empire, his general, swiftly conquered the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa. Subsequently, Belisarius and other generals conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom, restoring Dalmatia, Sicily and Rome to the empire after more than half a century of rule by the Ostrogoths; the prefect Liberius reclaimed the south of the Iberian peninsula, establishing the province of Spania.
These campaigns re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean, increasing the Empire's annual revenue by over a million solidi. During his reign, Justinian subdued the Tzani, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea that had never been under Roman rule before, he engaged the Sasanian Empire in the east during Kavad I's reign, again during Khosrow I's. A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, still the basis of civil law in many modern states, his reign marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, his building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia. Justinian was born in Tauresium, around 482. A native speaker of Latin, he came from a peasant family believed to have been of Illyro-Roman or Thraco-Roman origins; the cognomen Iustinianus, which he took is indicative of adoption by his uncle Justin. During his reign, he founded Justiniana Prima not far from his birthplace, which today is in South East Serbia.
His mother was the sister of Justin. Justin, in the imperial guard before he became emperor, adopted Justinian, brought him to Constantinople, ensured the boy's education; as a result, Justinian was well educated in jurisprudence and Roman history. Justinian served for some time with the Excubitors but the details of his early career are unknown. Chronicler John Malalas, who lived during the reign of Justinian, tells of his appearance that he was short, fair skinned, curly haired, round faced and handsome. Another contemporary chronicler, compares Justinian's appearance to that of tyrannical Emperor Domitian, although this is slander; when Emperor Anastasius died in 518, Justin was proclaimed the new emperor, with significant help from Justinian. During Justin's reign, Justinian was the emperor's close confidant. Justinian showed much ambition, it has been thought that he was functioning as virtual regent long before Justin made him associate emperor on 1 April 527, although there is no conclusive evidence of this.
As Justin became senile near the end of his reign, Justinian became the de facto ruler. Justinian was appointed consul in 521 and commander of the army of the east. Upon Justin's death on 1 August 527, Justinian became the sole sovereign; as a ruler, Justinian showed great energy. He was known as "the emperor" on account of his work habits, he seems to have been amiable and easy to approach. Around 525, he married Theodora, in Constantinople, she was by some twenty years his junior. In earlier times, Justinian could not have married her owing to her class, but his uncle, Emperor Justin I, had passed a law allowing intermarriage between social classes. Theodora would become influential in the politics of the Empire, emperors would follow Justinian's precedent in marrying outside the aristocratic class; the marriage caused a scandal, but Theodora would prove to be a shrewd judge of character and Justinian's greatest supporter. Other talented individuals included his legal adviser. Justinian's rule was not universally popular.
Justinian recovered. Theodora died in 548 at a young age of cancer. Justinian, who had always had a keen interest in theological matters and participated in debates on Christian doctrine, became more devoted to religion during the years of his life; when he died on 14 November 565, he left no children, though his wife Theodora had given birth to a stillborn son several years into his reign. He was succeeded by Justin II, the son of his sister Vigilantia and married to Sophia, the niece of Empress Theodora. Justinian's body was entombed in a specially built mausoleum in the Church of the