Diocese of Egypt
The Diocese of Egypt was a diocese of the Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of Egypt and Cyrenaica. Its capital was at Alexandria, its governor had the unique title of praefectus augustalis instead of the ordinary vicarius; the diocese was part of the Diocese of the East, but in ca. 380, it became a separate entity, which lasted until its territories were overrun by the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the 640s. Egypt was formed into a separate diocese in about 381. According to the Notitia Dignitatum, which for the Eastern part of the Empire dates to ca. 401, the diocese came under a vicarius of the praetorian prefecture of the East, with the title of praefectus augustalis, included six provinces: Aegyptus established in the early 4th century as Aegyptus Iovia, under a praeses Augustamnica established in the early 4th century as Aegyptus Herculia, under a corrector Arcadia, established ca. 397 and having briefly listed in the 320s as Aegyptus Mercuria, under a praeses Thebais, under a praeses Libya Inferior or Libya Sicca, under a praeses Libya Superior or Pentapolis, under a praesesParallel to the civil administration, the Roman army in Egypt had been placed under a single general and military governor styled dux in the Tetrarchy.
Shortly after the creation of Egypt as a separate diocese, the post evolved into the comes limitis Aegypti, directly responsible for Lower Egypt, while the subordinate dux Thebaidis was in charge of Upper Egypt. In the middle of the 5th century, the latter was promoted to the rank of comes; the two officers were responsible for the limitanei troops stationed in the province, while until the time of Anastasius I the comitatenses field army came under the command of the magister militum per Orientem, the palatini under the two magistri militum praesentales in Constantinople. The comes limitis Aegypti enjoyed great power and influence in the diocese, rivalling that of the praefectus augustalis himself. From the 5th century, the comes is attested as exercising some civilian duties as well, from 470 on, the offices of comes and praefectus augustalis were sometimes combined in a single person; this tendency to unite civil and military authority was formalized by Justinian I in his 539 reform of Egyptian administration.
The diocese was abolished, regional ducates established, where the presiding dux et augustalis was placed above the combined civil and military authority: dux et augustalis Aegypti, controlling Aegyptus I and Aegyptus II dux et augustalis Thebaidis, controlling Thebais superior and Thebais inferior Augustamnica I and Augustamnica II were probably — the relevant portion of the edict is defective — were placed under a single dux et augustalis in the two Libyan provinces, the civil governors were subordinated to the respective dux Arcadia remained under its praeses subordinated to the dux et augustalis Thebaidos, a dux et augustalis Arcadiae does not appear until after the Persian occupation of 619–629. Taken from the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: Eutolmius Tatianus Olympius Palladius Aelius Palladius Publius Bassianus Hadrianus Iulianus Antoninus Palladius Hypatius Optatus Florentius Paulinus Eusebius Flavius Ulpius Erythrius Alexander Evagrius Hypatius Potamius Orestes Theognostus Petrus Marcellinus Felix Liberius Hendy, Michael F..
Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300–1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24715-2. Palme, Bernhard. "The Imperial Presence: Government and Army". In Bagnall, Roger S. Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 244–270. ISBN 0521871379
Valens was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Valens and his brother Valentinian were both born in Cibalae in southern Pannonia into an Illyrian family in 328 and 321 respectively, they had grown up on estates purchased by their father Gratian the Elder in Britain. While Valentinian had been distinguished in an active military career prior to his election, though 35 years old, had not participated in either the civil or military affairs of the empire previous to his selection as Augustus by his brother. In February 364, reigning Emperor Jovian, while hastening to Constantinople to secure his claim to the throne, died in his sleep during a stop at Dadastana, 100 miles east of Ankara. Valentinian, a tribunus scutariorum, who owed his advancement to the deceased, was elected by the legions to succeed Jovian.
He was proclaimed Augustus on 26 February, 364. It was the general opinion that Valentinian needed help to handle the cumbersome administration and military, of the large and unwieldy empire, and, on 28 March of the same year, at the express demand of the soldiers for a second Augustus, he selected his brother Valens as co-emperor in the palace of Hebdomon. Both emperors were ill, delaying them in Constantinople, but as soon as they recovered, the two Augusti travelled together through Adrianople and Naissus to Mediana, where they divided their territories. Valentinian went on to the West, where the Alemannic wars required his immediate attention. Valens obtained the eastern half of the Empire: Greece, Egypt and Anatolia as far east as Persia. Valens was back in his capital of Constantinople by December 364. Valens inherited the eastern portion of an empire that had retreated from most of its holdings in Mesopotamia and Armenia because of a treaty that his predecessor Jovian had made with Shapur II of the Sassanid Empire.
Valens's first priority after the winter of 365 was to move east in hopes of shoring up the situation. By the autumn of 365 he had reached Cappadocian Caesarea when he learned that a usurper, Julian's maternal cousin, named Procopius, had proclaimed himself in Constantinople. Procopius had commanded an auxiliary northern contingent of his relative's army during the Persian expedition and had not been present when Jovian was named his successor in the camp beyond the Tigris. Though Jovian, aside from depriving him of his command, took no further measures against this potential rival, Procopius fell under the suspicion of Valentinian upon the latter's election. After narrowly escaping arrest, he went into hiding but reemerged some time at Constantinople where he was able to convince two Gallic legions passing through the capital to proclaim him emperor on 28 September 365. Though his early reception in the city seems to have been lukewarm, Procopius won favor by using propaganda to his advantage: he sealed off the city to outside reports and began spreading rumors that Valentinian had died.
This program met with some success among soldiers loyal to the Constantinians and eastern intellectuals who had begun to feel persecuted by the Valentinians. Valens' dismissal shortly before of Julian's popular minister Sallustius contributed to the general disaffection and to the acceptability of a revolution. Valens, faltered; when news arrived that Procopius had revolted, Valens considered abdication and even suicide. After he steadied his resolve to fight, Valens's efforts to forestall Procopius were hampered by the fact that most of his troops had crossed the Cilician gates into Syria when he learned of the revolt. Procopius gained control of the provinces of Asia and Bithynia, winning increasing support for the insurrection. However, Valens recovered, reappointed Sallustius, dispatched the available legions under veteran generals and Arbetio, to march on Procopius. In the spring of 366 Valens' lieutenants encountered and routed Procopius at the battle of Thyatira, again shortly after at Nacoleia.
On both occasions, Procopius was deserted by his own following in fear of their Imperial adversaries' formidable commanders. Procopius was delivered to justice by members of his own escort, executed on 27 May, his head was sent to Valentinian in Trier for inspection. During Procopius's insurrection, the Gothic king Ermanaric, who ruled a powerful kingdom north of the Danube from the Euxine to the Baltic Sea, had engaged to supply him with troops for the struggle against Valens; the Gothic army numbering 30,000 men, arrived too late to help Procopius, but invaded Thrace and began plundering the farms and vineyards of the province. Valens, marching north after defeating Procopius, surrounded them with a superior force and forced them to surrender. Ermanaric protested, when Valens, encouraged by Valentinian, refused to make atonement to the Goths for his conduct, war was declared. In the spring of 367, Valens crossed the Danube and attacked the Visigoths under Athanaric, Ermanaric's tributary; the Goths fled into the Carpathian Mountains, the campaign ended with no decisive conclusion.
The following spring, a Danube flood prevented Valens from crossing.
Ancient history of Cyprus
The ancient history of Cyprus shows a precocious sophistication in the neolithlic era visible in settlements such as at Choirokoitia dating from the 9th millennium BC, at Kavalassos from about 7500 BC. Periods of Cyprus's ancient history from 1050 BC have been named according to styles of pottery as follows: Cypro-Geometric I: 1050-950 BC Cypro-Geometric II: 950-850 BC Cypro-Geometric III: 850-700 BC Cypro-Archaic I: 700-600 BC Cypro-Archaic II: 600-475 BC Cypro-Classical I: 475-400 BC Cypro-Classical II: 400-323 BCThe documented history of Cyprus begins in the 8th century BC; the town of Kition, now Larnaka, recorded part of the ancient history of Cyprus on a stele that commemorated a victory by Sargon II of Assyria there in 709 BC. Assyrian domination of Cyprus appears to have begun earlier than this, during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III, ended with the fall of the Neo Assyrian Empire in 609 BC, whereupon the city-kingdoms of Cyprus gained independence once more. Following a brief period of Egyptian domination in the sixth century BC, Cyprus fell under Persian rule.
The Persians did not interfere in the internal affairs of Cyprus, leaving the city-kingdoms to continue striking their own coins and waging war amongst one another, until the late-fourth century BC saw the overthrow of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great. Alexander's conquests only served to accelerate an clear drift towards Hellenisation in Cyprus, his premature death in 323 BC led to a period of turmoil as Ptolemy I Soter and Demetrius I of Macedon fought together for supremacy in that region, but by 294 BC, the Ptolemaic kingdom had regained control and Cyprus remained under Ptolemaic rule until 58 BC, when it became a Roman province. During this period and native Cypriot traits disappeared, together with the old Cypriot syllabic script, Cyprus became Hellenised. Cyprus figures prominently in the early history of Christianity, being the first province of Rome to be ruled by a Christian governor, in the first century, providing a backdrop for stories in the New Testament The Ancient Greek historian Herodotus claims that the city of Kourion, near present-day Limassol, was founded by Achaean settlers from Argos.
He supports the discovery of a Late Bronze Age settlement lying several kilometres from the site of the remains of the Hellenic city of Kourion, whose pottery and architecture indicate that Mycenaean settlers did indeed arrive and augment an existing population in this part of Cyprus in the twelfth century BC. The kingdom of Kourion in Cyprus is recorded on an inscription dating to the period of the Pharaoh Ramses III in Egypt. An early written source of Cypriot history mentions the nation under Assyrian rule as stele found in 1845 in the city named Kition, near present-day Larnaka, commemorates the victory of King Sargon II in 709 BC over seven kings in the land of Ia', in the district of Iadnana or Atnana; the land of Ia' is assumed to be the Assyrian name for Cyprus, some scholars suggest that the latter may mean'the islands of the Danaans', or Greece. There are other inscriptions referring to the land of Ia' in Sargon's palace at Khorsabad; the ten kingdoms listed on the prism of Esarhaddon in 673–2 BC have been identified as Soloi, Paphos, Kourion and Kition on the coast, Tamassos, Ledrai and Chytroi in the interior of the island.
Inscriptions add Marion and Kerynia. Cyprus gained independence after 627 BC following the death of Ashurbanipal, the last great Assyrian king. Cemeteries from this period are chiefly rock-cut tombs, they have been found, among other locations, at Tamassos, Soloi and Trachonas. The rock-cut'Royal' tombs at Tamassos, built in about 600 BC, imitate wooden houses; the pillars show Phoenician influence. Some graves contain the remains of chariots; the main deity of ancient Cyprus was the Great Goddess, the Assyro-Babylonian Ishtar, Phoenician Astarte known by the Greek name Aphrodite. She was called "the Cypriote" by Homer. Paphian inscriptions call her "the Queen". Pictures of Aphrodite appear on the coins of Salamis as well, demonstrating that her cult had a larger regional influence. In addition, the King of Paphos was the High Priest of Aphrodite. Other Gods venerated include the Phoenician Anat, Eshmun, Reshef and Melkart and the Egyptian Hathor, Thoth and Ptah, as attested by amulets. Animal sacrifices are attested to on terracotta-votives.
The Sanctuary of Ayia Irini contained over 2,000 figurines. In 570 BCE, Cyprus was conquered by Egypt under Amasis II; this brief period of Egyptian domination left its influence in the arts sculpture, where the rigidity and the dress of the Egyptian style can be observed. Cypriot artists discarded this Egyptian style in favour of Greek prototypes. Statues in stone show a mixture of Egyptian and Greek influence. In particular, ceramics recovered on Cyprus show influence from ancient Crete. Men wore Egyptian wigs and Assyrian-style beards. Armour and dress showed western Asiatic elements as well. In 525 BCE, the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered Cyprus. Under the Persians, the Kings of Cyprus retained their independence but had to pay tribute to their overlord; the city-kingdoms began to strike their own coins in the late-sixth century BCE, using the Persian weight system. Coins minted by the kings were required to have the overlord's portrait on them. King Evelthon of Salamis was the first to cast silver or bronze coins in Cyprus.
Royal palaces have been excavated in Palaepaphos and in Vouni in the terr
Praetorian prefecture of the East
The praetorian prefecture of the East, or of the Orient was one of four large praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided. As it comprised the larger part of the Eastern Roman Empire, its seat was at Constantinople, the praetorian prefect was the second most powerful man in the East, after the Emperor, in essence serving as his first minister; the Prefecture was established after the death of Constantine the Great in 337, when the empire was split up among his sons and Constantius II received the rule of the East, with a praetorian prefect as his chief aide. The part allotted to Constantius encompassed four dioceses, each in turn comprising several provinces; the authority of the prefecture stretched from the Eastern Balkans, grouped into the Diocese of Thrace, to Asia Minor, divided into the dioceses of Asiana and Pontus, the Middle East, with the dioceses of Orient and Egypt. Pompeius Probus Ablabius Septimius Acindynus Flavius Philippus Thalassius Domitianus Strategius Musonianus Flavius Hermogenes Helpidius Lupicinus Saturninius Secundus Salutius Nebridius Domitius Modestus Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius Neoterius Maternus Cynegius Flavius Eutolmius Tatianus Flavius Rufinus Caesarius Flavius Eutychianus Aurelianus Flavius Eutychianus Caesarius Flavius Eutychianus Flavius Anthemius Flavius Monaxius Aurelianus Flavius Monaxius Flavius Eustathius Asclepiodotus Aetius Hierius Flavius Florentius Antiochus Chuzon Rufinus Hierius Flavius Taurus Flavius Anthemius Isidorus Darius Flavius Florentius Flavius Taurus Seleucus Cyrus Thomas Apollonius Zoilus Hermocrates Flavius Taurus Flavius Constantinus Antiochus Flavius Florentius Romanus Protogenes Hormisdas Palladius Flavius Constantinus Flavius Constantinus Flavius Vivianus Illustrius Pusaeus Amasius Matronianus Hierius Euphemius Polycarpus Constantine Appion Leontius Constantine Eustathius Zoticus Marinus Sergius Marinus Demosthenes Archelaus Basilides Atarbius Iulianus John the Cappadocian Phokas John the Cappadocian Flavius Comitas Theodorus Bassus as John's deputy Peter Barsymes Flavius Comitas Theodorus Bassus Addaeus Hephaestus Areobindus Peter Barsymes Diomedes Georgius Constantine Lardys The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vols.
I-III: Palme, Bernhard. "The Imperial Presence: Government and Army". Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 244–270
Marmarica in ancient geography was a littoral area in Ancient Libya, located between Cyrenaica and Aegyptus. It corresponds to what is now the Libya and Egypt frontier, including the towns of Bomba, Tobruk, Bardiya, As-Salum, Sidi Barrani; the territory stretched to the far south, encompassing the Siwa Oasis, which at the time was known for its sanctuary to the deity Amun. The eastern part of Marmarica, by some geographers considered a separate district between Marmarica and Aegyptus, was known as Libycus Nomus. In late antiquity, Marmarica was known as Libya Inferior, while Cyrenaica was known as Libya Superior. Libya was considered as the part of Africa west of the Nile, more west of the mouth of the Nile at Canopus; the periplus of Scylax of Caryanda names the Adyrmachidae as the first people of Libya. Marmarica proper was delimited towards the east by the escarpment of Catabathmus Magnus, now known as Akabah el-Kebir, at Salum; the geographers of the Hellenistic period included Egypt in the continent of Asia, drew the boundary between Asia and Africa at this point.
Under the Roman Empire, Marmarica included the Libycus Nomus, located between the Catabathmus and the Bay of Plinthine. This area had been considered part of Egypt; the city of Paraetonium was the westernmost town of Egypt, for which reason it together with Pelusium was known as the "horns of Egypt". About 10 stadia west of Paraetonium was Apis. Menelaus Portus, according to tradition founded by Menelaus, was known as the site of the death of Agesilaus II; the inhabitants of Marmarica were known generically as Marmaridae, but they are given the special names of Adyrmachidae and Giligammae in the coastal districts, of Nasamones and Augilae in the interior. The Adyrmachidae are said to have differed from the nomadic tribes of the country resembling the Egyptians; the territory south of the Libyan Nomos was inhabited by the Ammonii, centered on the celebrated and fertile oasis of Ammon Both Cyrenaica and Marmarica were included in the diocese of Egypt in the 4th century, within the larger Praetorian prefecture of the East.
Ancient episcopal sees of the Roman province of Marmarica or Libya Inferior listed in the Annuario Pontificio as titular sees: For the sees of Libya Superior see Cyrenaica. North Africa during Antiquity Butnan District Matrouh Governorate Libyan Desert Charles Anthon, A system of ancient and mediæval geography for the use of schools and colleges, Harper & brothers, 1855, 722-224. George Kish, A Source book in geography, Harvard University Press, 1978, ISBN 978-0-674-82270-2, p. 24. Leonhard Schmitz, A manual of ancient geography and Lea, 1857, 383-384
Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of different extent at different periods, but covering what is now the district of Bozkır and its surroundings in the Konya Province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. In its coastal extension it bordered on Cilicia, it derives its name from the contentious Isaurian tribe and twin settlements Isaura Palaea and Isaura Nea. Isaurian marauders were fiercely independent mountain people who created havoc in neighboring districts under Macedonian and Roman occupations; the permanent nucleus of Isauria was north of the Taurus range which lies directly to south of Iconium and Lystra. Lycaonia had all the Iconian plain, its two original towns, Isaura Nea and Isaura Palaea, one among these foothills and the other on the watershed. Approx N37° 29′ E32° 12′ near Bozkir. In the 4th century BC, Isauria was the wild district about Isaura Palaea and the heads of the Calycadnus; when the capital, Isaura, a fortified city at the foot of Mt. Taurus, was besieged by Perdiccas, the Macedonian regent after Alexander the Great's death, the Isaurians set the place alight and let it perish in flames rather than submit to capture.
When the Romans first encountered the Isaurians, they regarded Cilicia Trachea as part of Isauria, which thus extended to the Mediterranean Sea. The whole basin of the Calycadnus was reckoned Isaurian, the cities in the valley of its southern branch formed what was known as the Isaurian Decapolis; the Isaurians were brought under control by the Romans. During the war of the Cilician and other pirates against Rome, the Isaurians took so active a part that the proconsul P. Servilius deemed it necessary to follow them into their rugged strongholds, compel the whole people to submission, an exploit for which he received the title of Isauricus; the Isaurians were afterwards placed for a time under the rule of king of Galatia. In the 3rd century they sheltered the rebel emperor Trebellianus. In the early 4th century, all Cilicia was detached by order of Diocletian for administrative purposes from the northern slope of Taurus, we find a province called at first Isauria-Lycaonia, Isauria alone, extending up to the limits of Galatia, but not passing Taurus on the south.
Pisidia, part of which had hitherto been included in one province with Isauria, was detached, made to include Iconium. The coastal Metropolis of Seleucia was designated as Isauria's provincial capital. In the 4th century they were still described by Ammianus Marcellinus as the scourge of the neighbouring provinces of Asia Minor, with a major series of raids occurring from AD 404 to 409, including one campaign to eradicate them led by the Eastern Roman general Arbazacius, but they were said to have been effectually subdued in the reign of Justinian I. Several Byzantine emperors were οf Isaurian descent: Zeno, whose native name was Tarasicodissa Rousoumbladadiotes, Leontios who reigned from 695 to 698, Leo III, who ascended the throne of Constantinople in 718, reigned until 741, his son Constantine V; the empire used Isaurians as soldiers, generals and at one point they formed part of the emperor's personal guard, the Excubitores. However, the population of Constantinople considered the Isaurians as barbarians, emperor Anastasius I had to fight a long war against Isaurian rebels.
The site contains ruins of its fortifications. The ruins of Isaura Palaea are remarkable for their fine situation and tombs; those of Isaura Nea have disappeared, but numerous inscriptions and many sculpture stelae, built into the houses of Dorla, prove the site. It was the latter, not the former town, that Servilius reduced by cutting off the water supply. J. R. S. Sterrett explored in the highland of Isauria in 1885 but it was not exhaustive; the site was identified by W. M. Ramsay in 1901. Ramsay discovered there more than fifty Greek inscriptions, the greater number Christian, as well as magnificent tombs; these monuments date from the third and fifth centuries. The Isaurian church was under the authority of the Patriarch of Antioch, but was attached to the Patriarch of Constantinople in the late 7th or early 8th century; because Aetius, fl 451. is called in inscriptions bishop of Isauropolis and Isaura Palaea and as no Notitia episcopatuum makes mention of Isaura, or Isauropolis, Ramsay supposes that the Diocese of Isaura Nova was early joined with that of Leontopolis, the more recent name of Isaura Palaea, mentioned in all the "Notitiae".
Ancient regions of Anatolia Isaurians Olba — Hellenistic period city in Isauria
Euphratensis Augusta Euphratensis, was a late Roman and Byzantine province in Syrian region, part of the Byzantine Diocese of the East. Sometime between 330 and 350, the Roman province of Euphratensis was created out of the territory of Syria Coele along the western bank of the Euphrates, it included the territories of Cyrrhestice. Its capital was Cyrrus or Hierapolis Bambyce, it remained within the Byzantine Empire following the 395 division of the empire by Theodosius I