Martyn Minns is an English-born American bishop, serving in the Anglican Church of Nigeria. He was the founding missionary bishop of the Convocation of Anglicans in North America, under the patronage of the Anglica Church of Nigeria, until his retirement in January 2014. Prior to becoming a bishop, he served as rector of Truro Church in Fairfax, Virginia, in the United States. Minns was raised in England. In 1964, he received a Bachelor of Science with honours in mathematics and statistics from Birmingham University in Birmingham, England. From 1967 until 1975, Minns was an executive for the Mobil Corporation in New York City. Minns received a Master of Divinity in 1978 from Virginia Theological Seminary in Alexandria, Virginia, he was ordained to the diaconate in June, 1978, ordained to the priesthood in June, 1979. From 1978 until 1982, he served as the associate rector of St. Paul's Church, Connecticut. From 1983 until 1988, he served as rector of the Church of the Holy Spirit in Louisiana. From 1988 until 1991, he served as rector of New York City.
In 1991, Minns was installed as rector of Truro Church in Virginia. In reaction to the Episcopal Church appointing Gene Robinson, a homosexual priest, as the Bishop of New Hampshire, Minns led eleven Virginia Churches, including Truro, in leaving the denomination in 2006; the next year, he was named the head of the Convocation of Anglicans in North America, an association of conservative churches under the patronage of the Anglican Church of Nigeria. This decision led to the Episcopal Diocese of Virginia bringing a lawsuit against Truro, which lasted until 2012 and resulted in property rights being granted to the Diocese. Minns was excluded from the invitation list to the 2008 Lambeth Conference. Minns was made an Honorary Canon of All Saints Cathedral, Tanzania. Minns was succeeded by the Rt.. Rev. Julian Dobbs, he and his wife, the former Angela Rose Carlisle, are the parents of five children and have twelve grandchildren. Martyn Minns was elected to serve as the founding Missionary Bishop of CANA on June 28, 2006.
He was consecrated a bishop on August 2006 in Nigeria. He was installed on May 2007 in Virginia. Church of Nigeria Convocation of Anglicans in North America Truro Church
Truro Parish, Virginia
Truro Parish was the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Anglican church in colonial Virginia with jurisdiction over all of Fairfax County. The parish had its central church at the Truro Church and the parish was named for the parish in Truro in Cornwall; the parish was created on November 1732 from Hamilton Parish. It was divided twice: in 1748, Cameron Parish was formed and in 1764 Fairfax Parish was created. After 1765, Truro Parish covered southern Fairfax County until disestablishment ended the parish system by 1786; the Anglican church was the established religion of the Colony of Virginia from 1619 - 1776. Each parish in the colony was ministered to by a single minister and governed by a vestry composed of 12 local men of wealth and standing in the community. Parishes were created by acts of the House of Burgesses and the upper house of the legislature, the Governor's Council. Truro Parish was created by the General Assembly of Virginia on November 1, 1732 when Hamilton Parish was divided along the Occoquan River and Bull Run.
It included what is, at present, Arlington and Loudoun counties, the independent cities of Alexandria and Falls Church. The parish was named after Truro in England. Truro Parish covered all of the land north of those rivers up to the Potomac, westward all the way to the Blue Ridge Mountains at Ashby's Gap; the parish contained three churches: Occoquan, William Gunnell's, a chapel "above Goose Creek". The exact locations of the second two are unknown, but the Occoquan church was known as Pohick Church, which still stands. In 1733, work was started on a new church "near Michael Reagan's". In 1742, Fairfax County was created out of Prince William and the boundaries of Truro Parish were adjusted to conform to the boundary between the civil counties. On June 11, 1749, the parish was divided in two, with the newly formed Cameron Parish constituting the portion north and west of Difficult Run and Popes Head Run. George Mason, author of the Virginia Articles that presaged the Bill of Rights, was elected to the vestry that year.
In 1753, the first church service at the new town of Alexandria was recorded. George Washington was appointed to the Truro Parish vestry on October 25, 1762, his father, Augustine Washington, had served on the vestry for a few years, starting in 1735. Truro Parish was further split on February 1, 1765; the new boundary was just south of Washington's estate, the northern portion became Fairfax Parish, with The Falls Church as its seat. Parishioners of Truro, complained that the division was far more favorable to Fairfax Parish, succeeded in having a new border drawn through Washington's estate, such that Washington was deemed to reside in Truro and he was elected to that vestry. Drawn over today's civil boundaries, Truro Parish's final incarnation would include the Southern and Southwestern part of Fairfax County. Within the parish, at formation, there were three churches: Occoquan, William Gunnells, a chapel "above Goose Creek." The Goose Creek chapel would become part of Cameron Parish. In 1766, a new church was established "on the middle ridge near Ox Road", the present site of Jerusalem Baptist Church off Virginia State Route 123.
The Truro Parish vestry contracted Edward Payne to build this new church and it became known as "Payne's Church". Other church buildings were constructed including replacements for The Falls Church and the current Pohick Church in 1767. Episcopal Diocese of Virginia:History
Fairfax, colloquially known as Fairfax Courthouse, Downtown Fairfax, or Fairfax City, named the City of Fairfax, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 22,565, which had risen to an estimated 24,013 as of 2015; the city of Fairfax is an enclave surrounded by the separate political entity Fairfax County. Fairfax City contains an exclave of Fairfax County, as detailed below; the city of Fairfax and the area surrounding the historical border of the city of Fairfax, collectively designated by Fairfax County as "Fairfax", comprise the county seat of Fairfax County. The city is part of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as a part of Northern Virginia; the city is 17 miles west of Washington, D. C; the Washington Metro's Orange Line serves Fairfax through its Vienna station, a mile northeast of the city limits. CUE Bus and Metrobus operate in Fairfax. Virginia Railway Express's Burke Centre station is situated three miles southeast of the city's boundaries.
Virginia's largest public educational institution with 35,189 students in 2017 is George Mason University, located in unincorporated Fairfax County, along the city's southern border. The city derives its name from Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, awarded 5,000,000 acres of land in northern Virginia by King Charles; the area that the city now encompasses was settled in the early 18th century by farmers from Virginia's Tidewater region. The town of "Providence" was established on the site by an act of the state legislature in 1805; the scene of the first land battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Fairfax Court House took place here on June 1, 1861, after a Union scouting party clashed with the local militia with neither side gaining advantage. A second battle took place here two years on June 27, 1863, where Union troops were defeated; this battle delayed the movements of Confederate cavalry chief Jeb Stuart with disastrous consequences for Lee at Gettysburg a few days later. Fairfax was renamed the "Town of Fairfax" in 1859.
It was incorporated as a town in 1874. It was incorporated as a city in 1961 by court order. Under Virginia law the city remains the county seat. In 1904 a trolley line connected Fairfax with Washington, D. C; the former Fairfax County Courthouse is the oldest historic building in Fairfax. The first Fairfax courthouse was established in 1742 near present-day Tyson's Corner, is the namesake for Old Courthouse Road, it intersects with Gallows Road, which today is a major commuter route, but at the time was the road where condemned prisoners were led to the gallows at the old courthouse. In 1752, the courthouse was moved to Alexandria, which offered to build the new courthouse at their own expense; the reason the courthouse was moved from the Tyson's Corner location was because of "Indian hostilities", as noted on the stone marker at the northwest corner of Gallows Road and Route 123. The courthouse operated there until 1790, when Virginia ceded the land where the courthouse was located for the creation of Washington, DC.
The General Assembly specified that the new courthouse should be located in the center of the county, was established at the corner of what was Old Little River Turnpike and is now Main Street and what was Ox Road and is now Chain Bridge Road on land donated by town founder Richard Ratcliffe. The courthouse changed hands during the Civil War, the first officer casualty, John Quincy Marr, occurred on its grounds; the first meeting of the Fairfax Court was held April 21, 1800. The oldest two-story building in the city, built in 1873, the Fairfax Public School for $2,750. In addition to elementary school use the building has housed special education, adult education, police academy training. On July 4, 1992, the building became the Fairfax Visitor Center. Joseph Edward Willard built the town hall building in 1900 gifted it to the town in 1902; the Old Town Hall now houses the Fairfax Art League. The city of Fairfax is located close to the geographic center of Fairfax County, at 38°51′9″N 77°18′15″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.3 square miles, of which all but 0.04 square miles is land. While the city is the county seat, a small portion of the county comprising the courthouse complex, the jail and a small area nearby is itself an exclave of the county within the city. Fairfax County's Government Center is west of the City of Fairfax; as of the census of 2010, there were 22,565 people, 8,347 households, 5,545 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,581.7 people per square mile. There were 8,680 housing units at an average density of 1,377.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.6% White, 15.2% Asian, 4.7% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.9% from other races, 4.0% from two or more races. 15.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2000 there were 8,347 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families.
24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.11. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 36.2% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Episcopal Church (United States)
The Episcopal Church is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces; the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position. In 2017, the Episcopal Church had 1,871,581 baptized members, of whom 1,712,563 were in the United States. In 2011, it was the nation's 14th largest denomination. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians. The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England; the Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic". The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders.
The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship. The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course, it has supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr; the church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions; the Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first gay person ordained as a bishop.'The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America and "The Episcopal Church" are both official names specified in the church's constitution.
The latter is much more used. In other languages, an equivalent is used. For example, in Spanish, the church is called La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América or La Iglesia Episcopal. and in French L'Église protestante épiscopale dans les États Unis d'Amérique or L'Église épiscopale. Until 1964, "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" was the only official name in use. In the 19th century, High Church members advocated changing the name, which they felt did not acknowledge the church's Catholic heritage, they were opposed by the church's evangelical wing, which felt that the "Protestant Episcopal" label reflected the Reformed character of Anglicanism. After 1877, alternative names were proposed and rejected by the General Convention. One proposed alternative was "the American Catholic Church". By the 1960s, opposition to dropping the word "Protestant" had subsided. In a 1964 General Convention compromise and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name.
The 66th General Convention voted in 1979 to use the name "The Episcopal Church" in the Oath of Conformity of the Declaration for Ordination. The evolution of the name can be seen in the church's Book of Common Prayer. In the 1928 BCP, the title page read, "According to the use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", whereas on the title page of the 1979 BCP it states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church"; the Episcopal Church in the United States of America has never been an official name of the church but is an alternative seen in English. Since several other churches in the Anglican Communion use the name "Episcopal", including Scotland and the Philippines, for example Anglicans Online, add the phrase "in the United States of America"; the full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", incorporated by the legislature of New York and established in 1821.
The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church". This should not be confused with the name of the church itself, as it is a distinct body relating to church governance; the Episcopal Church has its origins in the Church of England in the American colonies, it stresses continuity with the early universal Western Church and claims to maintain apostolic succession. The first parish was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, under the charter of the Virginia Company of London; the tower of Jamestown Church is one of the oldest surviving Anglican church structures in the United States. The Jamestown church building itself is a modern reconstruction. Although no American Anglican bishops existed in the colonial era, the Church of England had an official status in several colonies, which meant that local governments paid tax money to local parishes, the parishes handled some civic functions; the Church of England was designated the established church in Virginia in 1609, in New York in 1693, in Maryland in 1702, in South Carolina in 1706, in North Carolina in 1730, in Georgia in 1758.
From 1635 the vestries and the clergy came loosely under the diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. After 1702, the Society for the Propagation of the Gos
Episcopal Diocese of Southern Virginia
Episcopal Diocese of Southern Virginia is the diocese of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America located in the southeast area of Virginia. It is in Province III; the diocese includes the Hampton Roads area. The Diocese of Southern Virginia was created as a split from the Diocese of Virginia in 1892; the Diocese of Southwestern Virginia split off from the Diocese of Southern Virginia in 1919. The diocese elected Herman Hollerith IV as bishop on September 27, 2008, consecrated as the tenth Bishop of the Diocese of Southern Virginia on February 10, 2009; the diocese does not contain a cathedral church. Camp Chanco, the diocesan retreat center, is located in Surry; when English colonists established Jamestown, Virginia on May 14, 1607, those settlers built one of the first churches in the New World, in what would become the Diocese of Southern Virginia. The Jamestown church became the meeting place of the first New World legislative assembly on July 30, 1619, but was burned down in Bacon's Rebellion.
On Sunday June 24, 2007, Katharine Jefferts Schori, presiding bishop of ECUSA led the 400th anniversary celebration of the first Anglican service of Holy Communion in the new World at Jamestown. After the statehouse burned in 1698, the capital of the Colony of Virginia moved to the City of Williamsburg, now located in the Diocese of Southern Virginia and most famous after restoration as Colonial Williamsburg. Williamsburg's historic church, Bruton Parish, located on Duke of Gloucester Street, remains active today; as the colonial era ended, when the House of Burgesses gathered for sessions in Williamsburg, American patriots George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, among others, worshipped at Bruton Parish. The Diocese includes St. John's Episcopal Church, Elizabeth City Parish, in Hampton, Virginia. Established in 1610, St. John's is the oldest English-speaking Parish in continuous existence in the United States; the parish uses Communion silver crafted in 1618. This communion silver has the longest history of continuous use in the United States of any English church silver.
The Diocese of Southern Virginia has had 10 diocesan bishops: Alfred M. Randolph Beverley D. Tucker Coadjutor Beverly D. Tucker Arthur C. Thompson Suffragan. Bane, Jr. Coadjutor David C. Bane, Jr. Donald P. Hart Assisting Bishop Carol Joy W. T. Gallagher Suffragan Robert H. Johnson Assisting Bishop John C. Buchanan Assisting Bishop Herman Hollerith IV The Episcopal Diocese of Southern Virginia The Episcopal Diocese of Southern Virginia Bishop Search Journal of the Annual Council, Diocese of Southern Virginia
Chesapeake is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 222,209. Chesapeake is included in the Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News, VA–NC MSA. One of the cities in the South Hampton Roads, Chesapeake was organized in 1963 by voter referendums approving the political consolidation of the city of South Norfolk with the remnants of the former Norfolk County, which dated to 1691. Chesapeake is the second-largest city by land area in the Commonwealth of Virginia, the 17th-largest in the United States. Chesapeake is a diverse city. Extending from the rural border with North Carolina to the harbor area of Hampton Roads adjacent to the cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth and Virginia Beach, Chesapeake is located on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, it has miles of waterfront industrial and residential property. In 2011, Chesapeake was named the 21st best city in the United States by Bloomberg Businessweek. Chesapeake is home to the international Headquarters for Dollar Tree.
In 1963, the new independent city of Chesapeake was created when the former independent city of South Norfolk consolidated with Norfolk County. The consolidation was approved and the new name selected by the voters of each community by referendum, authorized by the Virginia General Assembly. Formed in 1691 in the Virginia Colony, Norfolk County had included all the area which became the towns and cities of Norfolk and South Norfolk, its area was reduced after 1871. Becoming an independent city was a method for the former county to stabilize borders with neighbors, as cities could not annex territory from each other; the small city of South Norfolk had become an incorporated town within Norfolk County in 1919, became an independent city in 1922. Its residents wanted to make a change to put their jurisdiction on a more equal footing in other aspects with the much larger cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth. In addition, by the late 1950s, although immune from annexation by the bigger cities, South Norfolk was close to losing all the county land adjoining it to the city of Norfolk in another annexation suit.
The consolidation that resulted in the city of Chesapeake was part of a wave of changes in the structure of local government in southeastern Virginia which took place between 1952 and 1975. The Chesapeake region was among the first areas settled in the state's colonial era, when settlement started from the coast. Along Chesapeake's segment of the Intracoastal Waterway, where the Great Bridge locks marks the transition between the Southern Branch Elizabeth River and the Chesapeake and Albemarle Canal, lies the site of the Battle of Great Bridge. Fought on December 9, 1775, in the early days of the American Revolutionary War, the battle resulted in the removal of Lord Dunmore and all vestiges of English Government from the Colony and Dominion of Virginia; until the late 1980s and early 1990s, much of Chesapeake was either suburban or rural, serving as a bedroom community of the adjacent cities of Norfolk and Virginia Beach with residents commuting to these locations. Beginning in the late 1980s and accelerating in the 1990s, Chesapeake saw significant growth, attracting numerous and significant industries and businesses of its own.
This explosive growth led to strains on the municipal infrastructure, ranging from intrusion of saltwater into the city's water supply to congested roads and schools. Chesapeake made national headlines in 2003 when, under a court-ordered change of venue, the community hosted the first trial of alleged Beltway sniper Lee Boyd Malvo for shootings in 2002. A jury spared him a potential death sentence. A jury in neighboring Virginia Beach convicted his older partner John Allen Muhammad and sentenced him to death for another of the attacks. Chesapeake is located at 36°46′2″N 76°17′14″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 351 square miles, of which 341 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water; the northeastern part of the Great Dismal Swamp is located in Chesapeake. Chesapeake is one of the nation in terms of land area; this poses challenges to city leaders in supporting infrastructure to serve this area. In addition, the city has many and geographically distinct communities.
City leaders are faced with conflicts between development of residential and industrial areas and preservation of virgin forest and wetlands. Within the city limits in the southwestern section is a large portion of the Great Dismal Swamp. Portsmouth, Virginia Norfolk, Virginia Virginia Beach, Virginia Currituck County, North Carolina Camden County, North Carolina Suffolk, Virginia Chesapeake consists of eight informal boroughs: South Norfolk, Hickory, Deep Creek, Great Bridge, Indian River, Western Branch. One of the boroughs, South Norfolk, used to be its own independent city; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Chesapeake has a humid subtropical climate, a