Hanging Rock, Victoria
Hanging Rock is a distinctive geological formation in central Victoria, Australia. A former volcano, it lies 718m above sea level on the plain between the two small townships of Newham and Hesket 70 km north-west of Melbourne and a few kilometres north of Mount Macedon. In the middle of the 19th century, the traditional occupants of the place – tribes of the Dja Dja Wurrung, Woi Wurrung and Taungurung – were forced from it, they had been its occupants for thousands of years and, colonisation notwithstanding, have continued to maintain cultural and spiritual connections with the place. To the settler colonialist society, Hanging Rock became a place for tourism, it came alternately under private and mixed public-private control. In the late 20th century, the area became widely known as the setting of Joan Lindsay's novel Picnic at Hanging Rock. Hanging Rock is a mamelon, created 6.25 million years ago by stiff magma pouring from a vent and congealing in place. Thought to be a volcanic plug, it is not.
Two other mamelons exist nearby, created in the same period: Camels Hump, to the south on Mount Macedon and, to the east, Crozier's Rocks. Alternative names for Crozier's Rocks are Alexander's Head and Mount Crystal. All three mamelons are composed of soda trachyte; as Hanging Rock's magma cooled and contracted it split into rough columns. These weathered over time into the many pinnacles; the significance of these three mamelons demonstrates the mechanism of plate tectonics. As the Australian Plate moved northwards towards East Asia, over a period of 27 million years it passed over a volcanic hotspot; this resulted in a chain of volcanoes stretching from Hillsborough in Northern Queensland to Hanging Rock, part of the southernmost end of this volcanic activity. This chain includes the Warrumbungles and the Glass House Mountains; these volcanoes all have the same chemical composition. Hanging Rock contains numerous distinctive rock formations, including the "Hanging Rock" itself, the Colonnade, the Eagle and the UFO.
The highest point on Hanging Rock is 718 metres above sea level and 105 metres above the plain below. At the time of colonisation, the traditional occupants had lived around Hanging Rock for more than 26,000 years; the Rock was woven into the fabric of the culture of the traditional owners. However, they were forcibly displaced from the area. Jason Tamiru has expressed a Yung Balug perspective on this history:The truth is my people were hit hard during the frontier wars; the Western region is known to us as the Killing Fields. The naming of the Rock is with all those. Australia is starting to learn that there is a black history in this country that needs to be acknowledged and celebrated. Long before the 1967 novel, 1975 film and the naming of Hanging Rock, Tribes of the Dja Dja Wurrung, Woi Wurrung and Taungurung would gather at that location for important Men’s Ceremony; this is a place where big business was held: Corrobborees, Initiation Ceremonies, Songline Ceremonies and relationship building and a place where laws were made and passed.
According to Tamiru, Ngannelong continues to play a role in Yung Balug culture:The mystique and spiritual essence of the rock has contributed to the story of our Dreaming which binds my people to our creator spirits and country. We Sing and Paint our Country forever. Settler colonialists forced them out of the area. "One of the last initiation ceremonies may have been held there in November 1851 by a Wurundjeri elder from the Templestowe area" in the Yarra Valley. This ceremony was attended by two young settlers' children, Willie Chivers, 11, his younger brother Tom, 7, who were being cared for on a daily basis by the tribe after their mother had died, their father went missing after looking for their mother. An engraving made by William Blandowski in 1855/56 shows a group of Aboriginal people camped on the hillside. Another engraving by Robert Bruce published in an 1865 edition of The Illustrated Melbourne Post shows three Aboriginal figures in the foreground with Hanging Rock rising up in the background.
Attempts to uncover Hanging Rock's Aboriginal name have proven difficult. Some think it is "Anneyelong" because of an inscription underneath an engraving of the rock made by German naturalist, William Blandowski, during an expedition in 1855-56. Historian and toponymist Ian D. Clark believes Blandowski misheard the name, the word was "Ngannelong" or something similar; the name "Diogenes Mount" was bestowed on the rock by the surveyor Robert Hoddle in 1843 in keeping with the spirit of several ancient Macedonian names given by Major Thomas Mitchell during his expedition through Victoria in 1836, which passed close to Hanging Rock. Others include Mount Alexander and the Campaspe River. Six other European names have been recorded for the site. Horse races have been held at Hanging Rock for over one hundred years; the Friends of Hanging Rock, established in 1987, is a community group which holds events open to the public, such as planting days and wildlife tours. In 2013, the Hanging Rock Action Group was formed by local residents to call for adequate community cons
Diogenes of Athens (sculptor)
Diogenes of Athens was a sculptor who worked at Rome during the reign of Augustus. According to Pliny, Diogenes was commissioned by Marcus Agrippa to embellish the exterior of the Pantheon, his caryatids were considered exceptionally fine, were visible in the pronaos of the temple. Given Roman taste in the Augustan period, the caryatids could have been copied from the graceful female figures familiar to Diogenes at Athens. Plaster casts of the caryatids of the Erechtheion existed in Rome at the time, were conceivably by Diogenes. Agrippa's temple was demolished after suffering two fires, was rebuilt under Hadrian. In the 7th century, the Pantheon was converted for use as a Christian house of worship, Diogenes' sculptures have either not survived or not been identified as such. Nothing is known for certain about his work beyond Pliny's remark, but it may have resembled fragmentary caryatids recovered from the Forum of Augustus and Hadrian's Villa; some art historians of the 18th and 19th centuries, including Winckelmann, tentatively attributed fragments to him.
Winckelmann conjectured that an atlantid at the Palazzo Farnese, was the work of Diogenes. Diogenes created sculpture for the Pantheon's pediment, of fine quality, but lesser known, Pliny remarks, because the structure's great height made this work difficult to see
Digenes Akrites, known in folksongs as Digenes Akritas and transliterated as Digenis Akritis, is the most famous of the Acritic Songs. The epic details the life of the hero, whose epithet Digenes Akritas refers to his mixed Byzantine-Cappadocian Greek and Arab blood; the first part of the epic details the lives of his parents, how they met, how his father, an Emir, converted to Christianity after abducting and marrying Digenes' mother. The remainder of the epic discusses from a first-person point of view, Basil's acts of heroism on the Byzantine border; the Digenes Akrites is an extensive narrative text. No fewer than six manuscripts have been found dedicated to stories about him; the oldest two are the Escorial and Grottaferrata versions, from the names of the libraries in which the respective manuscripts are held. While the form in which it has survived is not the product of oral composition, it has retained a considerable number of features of its oral origins; the common core of the two versions preserved in the E and G manuscripts goes back to the twelfth century.
The text of E appears to be closer to the original composition while G represents a version, marked by learned reworking. Both texts give enchanting descriptions of the life of the martial societies of the border regions of the empire, while in the figure of Digenes are concentrated the legends that had accumulated around local heroes; the Escorial version is the superior of the two in respect of the power and immediacy of the battle scenes and austerity of style. The epic descriptions of the mounted knights and battles are marked by drama, a swift pace and lively visual detail; the Byzantine-Arab conflicts that lasted from the 7th century to the early 11th century provide the context for Byzantine heroic poetry written in the vernacular Greek language. The Akritai of the Byzantine Empire of this period were a military class responsible for safeguarding the frontier regions of the imperial territory from external enemies and freebooting adventurers who operated on the fringes of the empire.
The work comprises two parts. In the first, the "Lay of the Emir", which bears more the characteristics of epic poetry, an Arab emir invades Cappadocia and carries off the daughter of a Byzantine general; the emir agrees to convert to Christianity for the sake of the daughter and resettle in Romania together with his people. The issue of their union is Digenes Akritas; the second part of the work relates the development of the young hero and his superhuman feats of bravery and strength. As a boy, he goes hunting with his father and kills two bears unarmed, strangling the first to death and breaking the second one's spine, he tears a hind in half with his bare hands, slays a lion in the same manner. Like his father, he carries off the daughter of another Byzantine general and marries her. No one, not the amazingly strong female warrior Maximu, with whom he commits the sin of adultery, can match him. Having defeated all his enemies Digenes builds a luxurious palace by the Euphrates, where he ends his days peacefully.
Cypriot legend has it that he grabbed hold of the Pentadaktylos mountain range north of Nicosia in order to leap to Asia Minor. The mountain range, as the name suggests, resembles five knuckles sprouting from the ground; the tale of Digenes continued to be read and enjoyed in centuries, as the text survives in various versions dating to as late as the 17th century. The epic tale of Digenes Akritas corresponds in many ways to a cycle of much shorter Acritic songs from Asia Minor and Crete, some of which survive until the present day. In the tradition Digenes is defeated only by Death, in the figure of Thanatos/Charon, after fierce single combat on "the marble threshing floors". Thanatos had already wrestled with Heracles; the Greek-Canadian composer Christos Hatzis has used this text as the basis for a portion of his "Constantinople". The story of Digenes Akritas, defeated by Death was used as a basis of a Russian bylina about Anika the Warrior; the Digenes Akritas is written in Early Demotic Greek and is composed in fifteen syllable blank verse.
Rhyming occurs rarely. The poem does not diverge from the standard political verse of popular Byzantine literature; each line holds its own and every hemistich is balanced. The poem flows, is cadential, with no cacophonies with scarce sound repetitions. Below is an excerpt from the translation of the Escorial manuscript, lines 32-55, by E. M. Jeffreys: Delhemma, the Arab analogue to the Akritic songs Cappadocian Greeks Karbeas Umar al-Aqta Daredevils of Sassoun Jeffreys, Elizabeth. Digenis Akritis: the Grottaferrata and Escorial Versions. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39472-7. Mavrogordato, John. Digenes Akrites. Oxford, 1956; the Grottaferrata version with parallel English translation. Beaton and David Ricks. Digenes Akrites: New Approaches to Byzantine Heroic Poetry. Aldershot: King's College London, 1993. ISBN 0-86078-395-2. Articles by Magdalino, Jeffreys and others. Beaton, Roderick; the Medieval Greek Romance. London: CUP, 1996. ISBN 0-415-12032-2, 0415120330. Much improved 2nd ed. Good discussion of the Di
Diogenes is a genus of hermit crabs
Mountains of the Moon (Africa)
Mountains of the Moon is an ancient term referring to a legendary mountain or mountain range in east Africa at the source of the Nile River. Various identifications have been made in modern times, the Rwenzori Mountains of Uganda being the most celebrated. People of the ancient world were long curious about the source of the Nile Ancient Greek geographers. A number of expeditions up the Nile failed to find the source. A merchant named Diogenes reported that he had traveled inland from Rhapta in East Africa for twenty-five days and had found the source of the Nile, he reported. He reported the natives called this range the Mountains of the Moon because of their snowcapped whiteness; these reports were accepted as true by Ptolemy and other Greek and Roman geographers, maps he produced indicated the reported location of the mountains. Late Arab geographers, despite having far more knowledge of Africa took the report at face value, included the mountains in the same location given by Ptolemy, it was not until modern times.
The Scottish explorer, James Bruce, who travelled to Gojjam, Ethiopia, in 1770, investigated the source of the Blue Nile there. He identified the "Mountains of the Moon" with Mount Amedamit, which he described surrounded the source of the Lesser Abay "in two semi-circles like a new moon... and seem, by their shape, to deserve the name of mountains of the moon, such as was given by antiquity to mountains in the neighborhood of which the Nile was supposed to rise."James Grant and John Speke in 1862 sought the source of the White Nile in the Great Lakes region. Henry Morton Stanley found glacier-capped mountains fitting Diogenes's description in 1889. Today known as the Rwenzori Mountains, the peaks are the source of some of the Nile's waters, but only a small fraction, Diogenes would have crossed the Victoria Nile to reach them. Many modern scholars doubt that these were the Mountains of the Moon described by Diogenes, some holding that his reports were wholly fabricated. G. W. B. Huntingford suggested in 1940 that the Mountain of the Moon should be identified with Mount Kilimanjaro, "was subsequently ridiculed in J. Oliver Thompson's History of Ancient Geography published in 1948".
Huntingford noted that he was not alone in this theory, citing Sir Harry Johnston in 1911 and Dr. Gervase Mathew in 1963 having made the same identification. O. G. S. Crawford identified this range with the Mount Abuna Yosef area in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. Henry David Thoreau's 1849 book A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers compares the Mountains of the Moon, the Rocky Mountains, the Himalayas as having "a kind of personal importance in the annals of the world." Edgar Allan Poe's 1849 poem "Eldorado" references the Mountains of the Moon. Vachel Lindsay's 1914 poem "Congo" contains the lines "From the mouth of the Congo to the Mountains of the Moon". Adventure!, a 1931 travelogue by Carveth Wells, details a trip over the Scott Elliot Pass, noting the tropical glaciers and their "prehistoric vegetation," including lobelias 10' tall, groundsel 30', enormous patches of green or yellow mosses. In another chapter he tells the story of the great explorer Henry Morton Stanley and why his discovery of the Mountains of the Moon in 1889 was refuted for decades and caused them to be removed from maps for many years.
A 1937 Bengali adventure novel by Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay has the name of Chander Pahar, meaning the "mountains of the moon". The novel chronicles the adventures of an Indian boy in the forests of Africa. In a 1964 children's book by Willard Price called Elephant Adventure, the story takes place in the Mountains of the Moon, where the wildlife, including the elephants, the trees and other vegetation are supposed to be of sizes at least one third larger than in the rest of Africa. Price cites a March 1962 article in National Geographic Magazine as the basis for his premise. Expedition to the Mountains of the Moon is the third novel in the steampunk alternate history series "Burton & Swinburne" by Mark Hodder. Pygmy Kitabu by Jean-Pierre Hallet cites the Mountains of the Moon as the source of the White Nile. According to J. K. Rowling and Pottermore, it is the location of Uagadou, the African School of Witchcraft and Wizardry; the feature film Mountains of the Moon relates the story of Sir Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke seeking the source of the Nile in the 1850s.
The Mountains of the Moon were featured in the television documentary series Africa by David Attenborough on BBC 1, shown in January 2013. A film based on the novel Chander Pahar, directed by Kamaleshwar Mukherjee, was scheduled to begin shooting in February 2013; the film was shot on locations in Africa. The film was released on 20 December 2013. Mountains of the Moon Mountains of Kong
Diogenes Laërtius was a biographer of the Greek philosophers. Nothing is definitively known about his life, but his surviving Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is a principal source for the history of ancient Greek philosophy, his reputation is controversial among scholars because he repeats information from his sources without critically evaluating it. He frequently focuses on trivial or insignificant details of his subjects' lives while ignoring important details of their philosophical teachings and he sometimes fails to distinguish between earlier and teachings of specific philosophical schools. However, unlike many other ancient secondary sources, Diogenes Laërtius reports philosophical teachings without attempting to reinterpret or expand on them, which means his accounts are closer to the primary sources. Due to the loss of so many of the primary sources on which Diogenes relied, his work has become the foremost surviving source on the history of Greek philosophy. Laërtius must have lived after Sextus Empiricus, whom he mentions, before Stephanus of Byzantium and Sopater of Apamea, who quote him.
His work makes no mention of Neoplatonism though it is addressed to a woman, "an enthusiastic Platonist". Hence he is assumed to have flourished in the first half of the 3rd century, during the reign of Alexander Severus and his successors; the precise form of his name is uncertain. The ancient manuscripts invariably refer to a "Laertius Diogenes", this form of the name is repeated by Sopater and the Suda; the modern form "Diogenes Laertius" is much rarer, used by Stephanus of Byzantium, in a lemma to the Greek Anthology. He is referred to as "Laertes" or "Diogenes"; the origin of the name "Laertius" is uncertain. Stephanus of Byzantium refers to him as "Διογένης ὁ Λαερτιεύς", implying that he was the native of some town the Laerte in Caria. Another suggestion is that one of his ancestors had for a patron a member of the Roman family of the Laërtii; the prevailing modern theory is that "Laertius" is a nickname used to distinguish him from the many other people called Diogenes in the ancient world.
His home town is unknown. A disputed passage in his writings has been used to suggest, it has been suggested that Diogenes was a Pyrrhonist. He passionately defends Epicurus in Book 10, of high quality and contains three long letters attributed to Epicurus explaining Epicurean doctrines, he is impartial to all schools, in the manner of the Pyrrhonists, he carries the succession of Pyrrhonism further than that of the other schools. At one point, he seems to refer to the Pyrrhonists as "our school." On the other hand, most of these points can be explained by the way he uncritically copies from his sources. It is by no means certain that he adhered to any school, he is more attentive to biographical details. In addition to the Lives, Diogenes was the author of a work in verse on famous men, in various metres, which he called Epigrammata or Pammetros; the work by which he is known and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, was written in Greek and professes to give an account of the lives and sayings of the Greek philosophers.
Diogenes divides his subjects into two "schools" which he describes as the Ionian/Ionic and the Italian/Italic. The biographies of the "Ionian school" begin with Anaximander and end with Clitomachus and Chrysippus; the Socratic school, with its various branches, is classed with the Ionic, while the Eleatics and Pyrrhonists are treated under the Italic. Henricus Aristippus, the archdeacon of Catania, produced a Latin translation of Diogenes Laertius's book in southern Italy in the late 1150s, which has since been lost or destroyed. Geremia da Montagnone used this translation as a source for his Compedium moralium notabilium and an anonymous Italian author used it as a source for work entitled Liber de vita et moribus philosophorum, which reached international popularity in the Late Middle Ages; the monk Ambrogio Traversari produced another Latin translation in Florence between 1424 and 1433, for which far better records have survived. The Italian Renaissance scholar, painter and architect Leon Battista Alberti borrowed from Traversari's translation of the Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers in Book 2 of his Libri della famiglia and modeled his own autobiography on Diogenes Laërtius's Life of Thales.
Diogenes Laërtius's work has had a complicated reception in modern times. The value of his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers as an insight into the private lives of the Greek sages led the French Renaissance philosopher Michel de Montaigne to exclaim that he wished that, instead of one Laërtius, there had been a dozen. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel criticized Diogenes Laërtius for his lack of philosophical talent and categorized his work as nothing more than a compilation of previous writers' opinions. Nonetheless, he admitted that Diogenes Laërtius's compilation was an important one given the information that it contained. Hermann Usener deplored Diogenes Laërtius as a "complete ass" in his Epicurea. Werner Jaeger damned him as "that great ignoramus". In the late twentieth
Romanos IV Diogenes
Romanos IV Diogenes known as Romanus IV, was a member of the Byzantine military aristocracy who, after his marriage to the widowed empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, was crowned Byzantine emperor and reigned from 1068 to 1071. During his reign he was determined to halt the decline of the Byzantine military and to stop Turkish incursions into the Byzantine Empire, but in 1071 he was captured and his army routed at the Battle of Manzikert. While still captive he was overthrown in a palace coup, when released he was defeated and detained by members of the Doukas family. In 1072, he was sent to a monastery, where he died of his wounds. Romanos Diogenes was the son of Constantine Diogenes and a member of a prominent and powerful Byzantine Greek family from Cappadocia, connected by birth to most of the great aristocratic nobles in Asia Minor, his mother was a daughter of Basil Argyros, brother of the emperor Romanos III. Courageous and generous, but impetuous, Romanos rose with distinction in the army due to his military talents, he served on the Danubian frontier.
However, he was convicted of attempting to usurp the throne of the sons of Constantine X Doukas in 1067. While waiting to receive his sentence from the regent Eudokia Makrembolitissa, he was summoned into her presence and advised that she had pardoned him and that she had furthermore chosen him to be her husband and the guardian of her sons as emperor, she took this course of action due to her concern that unless she managed to find a powerful husband, she could lose the regency to any unscrupulous noble, because she was infatuated with the popular Romanos. Her decision was met with little protest as the Seljuk Turks had overrun much of Cappadocia and had taken the important city of Caesarea, meaning that the army needed to be placed under the command of an able and energetic general. After a written oath promising never to remarry, extracted from Eudokia by Constantine X, had been set aside by the Patriarch of Constantinople, John Xiphilinos, the approval of the senate obtained, on January 1, 1068 Romanos married the empress and was crowned Emperor of the Romans.
Romanos IV was now the senior emperor and guardian of his stepsons and junior co-emperors, Michael VII, Andronikos Doukas. However, his elevation had antagonised not only the Doukas family, in particular the Caesar, John Doukas who led the opposition of the palace officials to Romanos' authority, but the Varangian Guard, who expressed their discontent at the marriage of Eudokia. Romanos therefore decided that he could only exercise his authority by placing himself at the head of the army in the field, thereby focusing the whole government's attention on the war against the Turks. By 1067, the Turks had been making incursions at will into Mesopotamia, Syria and Cappadocia, culminating with the sack of Caesarea and the plundering of the Church of St Basil; that winter they camped on the frontiers of the empire and waited for the next year's campaigning season. Romanos was confident of Byzantine superiority on the field of battle, looking on the Turks as little more than hordes of robbers who would melt away at the first encounter.
He did not take into account the degraded state of the Byzantine forces, which had suffered years of neglect from his predecessors, in particular Constantine X Doukas. His forces composed of Sclavonian, Armenian and Frankish mercenaries, were ill-disciplined and uncoordinated, he was not prepared to spend time in upgrading the arms, armour, or tactics of the once-feared Byzantine army, it was soon evident that while Romanos possessed military talent, his impetuosity was a serious flaw. The first military operations of Romanos did achieve a measure of success, reinforcing his opinions about the outcome of the war. Antioch was exposed to the Saracens of Aleppo who, with help from Turkish troops, began an attempt to reconquer the Byzantine province of Syria. Romanos began marching to the southeastern frontier of the empire to deal with this threat, but as he was advancing towards Lykandos, he received word that a Seljuk army had made an incursion into Pontus and had plundered Neocaesarea, he selected a small mobile force and raced through Sebaste and the mountains of Tephrike to encounter the Turks on the road, forcing them to abandon their plunder and release their prisoners, though a large number of the Turkish troops managed to escape.
Returning south, Romanos rejoined the main army, they continued their advance through the passes of Mount Taurus to the north of Germanicia and proceeded to invade the Emirate of Aleppo. Romanos captured Hierapolis, which he fortified to provide protection against further incursions into the south-eastern provinces of the empire, he engaged in further fighting against the Saracens of Aleppo, but neither side managed a decisive victory. With the campaigning season reaching its end, Romanos returned north via Alexandretta and the Cilician Gates to Podandos. Here he was advised of another Seljuk raid into Asia Minor in which they sacked Amorium but returned to their base so fast that Romanos was in no position to give chase, he reached Constantinople by January 1069. Plans for the following year's campaigning were thrown into chaos by a rebellion by one of Romanos' Norman mercenaries, Robert Crispin, who led a contingent of Frankish troops in the pay of the empire. Due to Romanos not paying them on time, they began plundering the countryside near where they were stationed at Edessa, attacking the imperial tax collectors.
Although Crispin was captured and exiled to Abydos, the Franks continued to ravage the Armeniac Theme fo