The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Princeton Theological Seminary
Princeton Theological Seminary is a private and independent graduate school of theology in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1812 under the auspices of Archibald Alexander, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, the College of New Jersey, it is the second-oldest seminary in the United States, it is the largest of ten seminaries associated with the Presbyterian Church. Princeton Seminary has long been influential in theological studies, with many leading biblical scholars and clergy among its faculty and alumni. In addition, it operates one of the largest theological libraries in the world and maintains a number of special collections, including the Karl Barth Research Collection in the Center for Barth Studies; the Seminary manages an endowment of $986 million, making it the third-wealthiest institution of higher learning in the state of New Jersey—after Princeton University and Rutgers University. Today, Princeton Seminary enrolls 500 students. While around 40% of them are candidates for ministry in the Presbyterian Church, the majority are completing such candidature in other denominations, pursuing careers in academia across a number of different disciplines, or receiving training for other, non-theological fields altogether.
Seminarians hold academic reciprocity with Princeton University as well as the Westminster Choir College of Rider University, New Brunswick Theological Seminary, Jewish Theological Seminary, the School of Social Work at Rutgers University. The institution has an ongoing relationship with the Center of Theological Inquiry; the plan to establish a theological seminary in Princeton was in the interests of advancing and extending the theological curriculum. The educational intention was to go beyond the liberal arts course by setting up a postgraduate, professional school in theology; the plan met with enthusiastic approval on the part of authorities at the College of New Jersey to become Princeton University, for they were coming to see that specialized training in theology required more attention than they could give. The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church established The Theological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey in 1812, with the support of the directors of the nearby College of New Jersey, as the second graduate theological school in the United States.
The Seminary remains an institution of the Presbyterian Church, being the largest of the ten theological seminaries affiliated with the 1.6-million-member denomination. In 1812, the seminary boasted Archibald Alexander as its first professor. By 1815 the number of students had increased and work began on a building: Alexander Hall was designed by John McComb Jr. a New York architect, opened in 1817. The original cupola was added in 1827, but it burned in 1913 and was replaced in 1926; the building was called "Seminary" until 1893, when it was named Alexander Hall. Since its founding, Princeton Seminary has graduated 14,000 men and women who have served the church in many capacities, from pastoral ministry and pastoral care to missionary work, Christian education and leadership in the academy and business; the seminary was made famous during the 19th and early 20th centuries for its defense of Calvinistic Presbyterianism, a tradition that became known as Princeton Theology and influenced Evangelicalism during the period.
Some of the institution's figures active in this movement included Charles Hodge, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Geerhardus Vos. In response to the increasing influence of theological liberalism in the 1920s and the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy at the institution, several theologians left to form the Westminster Theological Seminary under the leadership of J. Gresham Machen; the college was the center of the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy of the 1920s and 1930s. In 1929, the seminary was reorganized along modernist lines, in response, along with three of his colleagues: Oswald T. Allis, Robert Dick Wilson and Cornelius Van Til, with Machen and Wilson founding Westminster Theological Seminary in Glenside, Pennsylvania. In 1958, Princeton became a seminary of the United Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. following a merger between the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. and the United Presbyterian Church of North America, in 1983, it would become a seminary of the Presbyterian Church after the merger between the UPCUSA and the Presbyterian Church in the U.
S. Princeton Theological Seminary has been accredited by the Commission on Accrediting of the Association of Theological Schools since 1938 and by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education since 1968. Master of Divinity Masters of Arts Master of Arts in Theological Studies Master of Theology Doctor of Philosophy, although the Doctor of Theology was awarded Dual MDiv/MA in Christian Education with foci in Youth & Young Adults, Teaching Ministry, or Spiritual Development Dual MDiv/MSW in partnership with Rutgers School of Social work The Princeton Seminary Library is a destination for visiting scholars from around the world; the library has over 1,252,503 bound volumes and microfilms. It receives about 2,100 journals, annual reports of church bodies and learned societies, bulletins and periodically issued indices and bibliographies; the Libraries are: Princeton Theological Seminary Library was opened in 2013 and holds the bulk of the seminary's collection. The library is home to the Center for Barth Studies, the Reigner Reading Room, special collections including the Abraham Kuyper collection of Dutch Reformed
Yale Divinity School
The School of Divinity at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut, is one of twelve graduate or professional schools within Yale University. Congregationalist theological education was the motivation at the founding of Yale, the professional school has its roots in a Theological Department established in 1822; the school had maintained its own campus and degree program since 1869, it has become more ecumenical beginning in the mid-19th century. Since the 1970s, it has been affiliated with the Episcopal Berkeley Divinity School and has housed the Institute of Sacred Music, which offers separate degree programs. In July 2017, a two-year process of formal affiliation was completed, with the addition of Andover Newton Seminary joining the school. Theological education was the earliest academic purpose of Yale University; when Yale College was founded in 1701, it was as a college of religious training for Congregationalist ministers in Connecticut Colony, designated in its charter as a school "wherein Youth may be instructed in the Arts & Sciences who through the blessing of Almighty God may be fitted for Publick employment both in Church & Civil State."
A professorship of divinity was established in 1746. In 1817, the occupant of the divinity chair, Eleazar Thompson Fitch, supported a student request to endow a theological curriculum, five years a separate Yale Theological Seminary was founded by the Yale Corporation. In the same motion, Second Great Awakening theologian Nathaniel William Taylor was appointed to become the first Dwight Professor of Didactic Theology. Taylor was considered the "central figure" in the school's founding, he was joined in 1826 by Josiah Willard Gibbs, Sr. a scholar of sacred languages and lexicographer Chauncey A. Goodrich in 1839. A dedicated student dormitory, Divinity College, was completed on the college's Old Campus in 1836, but the department had no permanent classrooms or offices until several years after the end of the American Civil War. After a significant period of enrollment decline, the school began fundraising from alumni for new faculty and facilities. Divinity Hall was constructed on the present-day site of Grace Hopper College between 1869 and 1871, featuring two classroom wings and a chapel.
Around the time of the new campus' construction came the arrival of new faculty, including James M. Hoppin, George Edward Day, George Park Fisher, Leonard Bacon; the first Bachelor of Divinity was conferred in 1867, the department became a separate School of Divinity in 1869. The school remained across from Old Campus until 1929, when a new campus was constructed on the northern edge of the university campus, at the top of Prospect Hill. Berkeley Divinity School affiliated with Yale Divinity School in 1971, in the same year the university replaced the B. D. with a Master of Divinity program. While Berkeley retains its Episcopal Church connection, its students are admitted by and enrolled as members of Yale Divinity School; the Jonathan Edwards Center at Yale University, a division of the Divinity School, maintains a large collection of primary source materials about Jonathan Edwards, a 1720 Yale alumnus. The Yale Institute of Sacred Music is jointly-affiliated with the Divinity School and School of Music.
It offers programs in choral conducting, organ performance and church music studies, in liturgical studies and religion and the arts. In May 2016, Andover Newton Theological School president Martin Copenhaver announced that Andover Newton would begin a process of formal affiliation with the Divinity School over the next two years. In the 2016–17 academic year, a cohort of faculty relocated to New Haven teaching students and launching pilot initiatives focused on congregational ministry education, while Andover Newton continued to operate in Massachusetts over the next two years. In July 2017, a formal affiliation was signed, resulting in smaller Andover Newton functioning as a unit within Yale Divinity School, similar to its arrangement with Berkeley; when the department was organized as a school in 1869, it was moved to a campus across from the northwest corner of the New Haven Green composed of East Divinity Hall, Marquand Chapel, West Divinity Hall, the Trowbridge Library. The buildings, designed by Richard Morris Hunt, were demolished under the residential college plan and replaced by Calhoun College, now known as Grace Hopper College.
In 1929, the trustees of the estate of lawyer John William Sterling agreed that a portion of his bequest to Yale would be used to build a new campus for the Divinity School. The Sterling Divinity Quadrangle, completed in 1932, is a Georgian-style complex built at the top of Prospect Hill, it was modeled in part on the University of Virginia. A $49-million renovation of Sterling Divinity Quadrangle was completed in 2003. Diogenes Allen Ian Barbour Gregory A. Boyd Frederick Buechner Will D. Campbell Orishatukeh Faduma William Ragsdale Cannon and Dean, Candler School of Theology, Emory University.
Archibald Alexander was an American Presbyterian theologian and professor at the Princeton Theological Seminary. He served for 9 years as the President of Hampden–Sydney College in Virginia and for 39 years as Princeton Theological Seminary's first professor from 1812 to 1851. Archibald Alexander was born at Rockbridge County, Virginia, he was raised under the tuition and ministry of Presbyterian minister William Graham, a man, trained in theology by John Witherspoon. His grandfather, of Scottish descent, came from Ireland to Pennsylvania in 1736, after a residence of two years removed to Virginia. William, father of Archibald, was a trader, his nephew was the American novelist William Alexander Caruthers. At the age of ten Archibald was sent to the academy of William Graham at Timber Ridge meetinghouse, at Lexington. At the age of seventeen he became a tutor in the family of General John Posey, of The Wilderness, twelve miles west of Fredericksburg, but after a few months resumed his studies with his former teacher.
At this time a remarkable movement, still spoken of as "the great revival," influenced his mind and he turned his attention to the study of divinity. On October 1, 1791, he was licensed to preach, ordained by the presbytery of Hanover on June 9, 1794, for seven years was an itinerant pastor in Charlotte and Prince Edward counties. By the time he was 21, Alexander was a preacher of the Presbyterian Church, he was appointed the president of Hampden–Sydney College, where he served from 1797 to 1806 and from there he was called to the Third Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia. The Princeton Theological Seminary was established at Princeton, New Jersey in 1812 and Alexander was appointed its first professor, inaugurated on August 12, 1812. In 1824, he helped to found the Chi Phi Society along with Charles Hodge. In 1843, he returned to Washington College to deliver an alumni address, one of his many publications. Samuel Miller became the second professor at the seminary and for 37 years Alexander and Miller were considered together as pillars of the Presbyterian Church in maintaining its doctrines.
Charles Hodge, a famous student and successor of Alexander, named his son Archibald Alexander Hodge after his mentor. The Presbyterian Historical Society in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania has a collection of Archibald Alexander’s personal papers dating from 1819 to 1851 including outgoing correspondence, manuscript articles and lecture notes. On April 5, 1802, Alexander married Janetta Waddel, the daughter of a Presbyterian preacher, James Waddel, whose eloquence was described in William Wirt's Letters of a British Spy. Together, they were the parents of: James Waddel Alexander, a Princeton graduate and Presbyterian minister, he wrote the life of his father, edited his posthumous works. William Cowper Alexander, who served as president of the New Jersey State Senate and as the first president of the Equitable Life Assurance Society. Joseph Addison Alexander, a biblical scholar. Alexander died on October 22, 1851, his grandson, William C. Alexander, was an executive with the Equitable Life Assurance Society and founder of Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity.
His great-grandson, James Waddell Alexander II, was a noted mathematician and topologist. Christ's gracious invitation Biographical sketches of the founder, principal alumni of the Log college: together with an account of the revivals of religion, under their ministry Outlines of moral science Love to an unseen saviour A history of the Israelitish nation, from their origin to their dispersion at the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans A history of colonization on the western coast of Africa An address to candidates for the ministry: on the importance of aiming at eminent piety in making their preparation for the sacred office Suggestions in vindication of Sunday-schools, but more for the improvement of Sunday-school books, the enlargement of the plan of instruction The evidences of Christianity Thoughts on the education of pious and indigent candidates for the ministry Thoughts on religious experience Thoughts on religious experience' To, added an appendix, containing "Letters to the aged," &c.
&c A discourse occasioned by the burning of the theatre in the city of Richmond, Virginia, on the twenty-sixth of December, 1811. By which lawful calamity a large number of lives were lost. Delivered in the Third Presbyterian church, Philadelphia, on the eighth day of January, 1812, at the request of the Virginia students attached to the medical class in the University of Pennsylvania The canon of the Old and New Testaments ascertained The canon of the Old and New Testaments ascertained. Doctor Davidson's History of the Presbyterian Church in Kentucky: in reference to the character of the late Mr. John Lyle, ruling elder in the Timberridge Church, Virginia The way of salvation familiarly explained: in a conversation between a father and his children A pocket dictionary of the Ho
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
Charles Hodge was a Presbyterian theologian and principal of Princeton Theological Seminary between 1851 and 1878. He was a leading exponent of the Princeton Theology, an orthodox Calvinist theological tradition in America during the 19th century, he argued for the authority of the Bible as the Word of God. Many of his ideas were adopted in the 20th century by Evangelicals. Charles Hodge's father, was the son of a Scotsman who emigrated from Northern Ireland early in the eighteenth century. Hugh graduated from Princeton College in 1773 and served as a military surgeon in the Revolutionary War, after which he practiced medicine in Philadelphia, he married well-born Bostonian orphan Mary Blanchard in 1790. The Hodge's first three sons died in the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 and another yellow fever epidemic in 1795, their first son to survive childhood, Hugh Lenox, was born in 1796. Hugh Lenox would become an authority in obstetrics, he would remain close with Charles assisting him financially.
Charles was born on December 27, 1797. His father died seven months of complications from the yellow fever he had contracted in the epidemic of 1795, they were brought up by relatives, many of whom were influential. Mary Hodge took in boarders in order to put the boys through school. She, with the help of the family's minister Ashbel Green provided the customary Presbyterian religious education using the Westminster Shorter Catechism, they moved to Somerville, New Jersey in 1810 in order to attend a classical academy, again to Princeton in 1812 in order to enter Princeton College, a school organized to train Presbyterian ministers. As Charles prepared to enter the college, Princeton Theological Seminary was being established by the Presbyterian Church as a separate institution for training ministers in response to a perceived inadequacy in the training ministers were receiving at the University as well as the perception that the college was drifting from orthodoxy. In 1812, Ashbel Green, the Hodge's old minister, became president of the college.
At Princeton, the first president of the new seminary, Archibald Alexander, took a special interest in Hodge, assisting him in Greek and taking him with him on itinerant preaching trips. Hodge would name his first son after Alexander. Hodge became close friends with future Episcopalian bishops John Johns and Charles McIlvaine, future Princeton College president John Mclean. In 1815, during a time of intense religious fervor among the students encouraged by Green and Alexander, Hodge joined the local Presbyterian church and decided to enter the ministry. Shortly after completing his undergraduate studies he entered the seminary in 1816; the course of study was rigorous, requiring students to recite scripture in the original languages and to use the dogmatics written in Latin in the 17th century by Reformed scholastic Francis Turretin as a theological textbook. Professors Alexander and Samuel Miller inculcated an intense piety in their students. Following graduation from Princeton Seminary in 1819, Hodge received additional instruction from Hebrew scholar Rev. Joseph Bates in Philadelphia.
He was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Philadelphia in 1820, he preached as a missionary in vacant pulpits in the East Falls neighborhood of Philadelphia, the Frankford Arsenal in Philadelphia, Woodbury, New Jersey over the subsequent months. In 1820 he accepted a one-year appointment as assistant professor at Princeton Seminary to teach biblical languages. In October of that year he traveled throughout New England to speak with professors and ministers including Moses Stuart at Andover Seminary and Nathaniel W. Taylor at Yale Divinity School. In 1821 he was ordained a minister by the Presbytery of New Brunswick, in 1822 he published his first pamphlet, which allowed Alexander to convince the General Assembly to appoint him full Professor of Oriental and Biblical Literature. Financially stable, Hodge married Sarah Bache, Benjamin Franklin's great-granddaughter in the same year. In 1824, Hodge helped to found the Chi Phi Society along with Archibald Alexander, he founded the quarterly Biblical Repertory in 1825 to translate the current scholarly literature on the Bible from Europe.
Hodge's study of European scholarship lead him to question the adequacy of his training. The seminary agreed to continue to pay him for two years while he traveled in Europe to "round out" his education, he supplied John Nevin on his own expense. From 1826 to 1828 he traveled to Paris, where he studied French and Syriac. There he became acquainted with Friedrich Schleiermacher, the leading modern theologian, he admired the deep scholarship he witnessed in Germany, but thought that the attention given philosophy clouded common sense, led to speculative and subjective theology. Unlike other American theologians who spent time in Europe, Hodge's experience did not cause any change in his commitment to the principles of the faith he had learned from childhood. Starting in the 1830s Hodge suffered from an immobilizing pain in his leg, was forced to conduct his classes from his study from 1833–1836, he continued to write articles for Biblical Repertory, now renamed the Princeton Review. During the 1830s he wrote a major commentary on Romans and a history of the Presbyterian church in America.
He supported the Old School in the Old School–New School Controversy, which resulted in a split in 1837. In 1840 he became Professor of Didact