Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia with free content and no ads, based on open collaboration through a model of content edit by web-based applications like web browsers, called wiki. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, is one of the most popular websites by Alexa rank as of April 2019, it is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization that operates on money it receives from donors to remain ad free. Wikipedia was launched on January 2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Sanger coined its name, as a portmanteau of wiki and "encyclopedia". An English-language encyclopedia, versions in other languages were developed. With 5,838,942 articles, the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias. Overall, Wikipedia comprises more than 40 million articles in 301 different languages and by February 2014 it had reached 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors per month.
In 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 hard science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia and found that Wikipedia's level of accuracy approached that of Britannica, although critics suggested that it might not have fared so well in a similar study of a random sampling of all articles or one focused on social science or contentious social issues. The following year, Time magazine stated that the open-door policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the biggest and the best encyclopedia in the world, was a testament to the vision of Jimmy Wales. Wikipedia has been criticized for exhibiting systemic bias, for presenting a mixture of "truths, half truths, some falsehoods", for being subject to manipulation and spin in controversial topics. In 2017, Facebook announced that it would help readers detect fake news by suitable links to Wikipedia articles. YouTube announced a similar plan in 2018. Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.
Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. It was founded on March 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company, its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman. Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia; the domains wikipedia.com and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001 and January 13, 2001 and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com, announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.
Wikipedia's policy of "neutral point-of-view" was codified in its first months. Otherwise, there were few rules and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit. Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, web search engine indexing. Language editions were created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, its text was incorporated into Wikipedia; the English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia assembled, surpassing the 1408 Yongle Encyclopedia, which had held the record for 600 years. Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002; these moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, to change Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.
Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of contributors, appears to have peaked around early 2007. Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006. A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. Others suggest that the growth is flattening because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that merit an article—have been created and built up extensively. In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; the Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend. Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study. Two years in 2011, Wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011.
In the same interview, Wales claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable". A 2013 article titled; the article revealed
Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. In most systems of academic ranks the word "Professor" only refers to the most senior academic position, sometimes informally known as "full professor". In some countries or institutions, the word professor is used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor; this colloquial usage would be considered incorrect among most other academic communities. However, the unqualified title Professor designated with a capital letter refers to a full professor in English language usage. Professors conduct original research and teach undergraduate and postgraduate courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation.
In many universities,'full professors' take on senior managerial roles, leading departments, research teams and institutes, filling roles such as president, principal or vice-chancellor. The role of professor may be more public facing than that of more junior staff, professors are expected to be national or international leaders in their field of expertise; the term "professor" was first used in the late 14th century to mean "one who teaches a branch of knowledge". The word comes "...from Old French professeur and directly from Latin professor'person who professes to be an expert in some art or science. As a title, "prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706"; the "hort form prof is recorded from 1838". The term "professor" is used with a different meaning: "ne professing religion; this canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, but is obsolete in England." A professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the title professor is the highest academic rank at a university.
In the United States and Canada, the title of professor applies to most post-doctoral academics, so a larger percentage are thus designated. In these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities. An emeritus professor is a title given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature and ongoing research. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are given office or lab space, use of libraries, so on; the term professor is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions in all European countries. In Australia, the title associate professor is used in place of the term reader as used in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries. Beyond holding the proper academic title, universities in many countries give notable artists and foreign dignitaries the title honorary professor if these persons do not have the academic qualifications necessary for professorship and they do not take up professorial duties.
However, such "professors" do not undertake academic work for the granting institution. In general, the title of professor is used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis. Professors are qualified experts in their field who perform some or all the following tasks: Managing teaching and publications in their departments. Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, protocols and time. For example, professors at research-oriented universities in North America and at European universities, are promoted on the basis of research achievements and external grant-raising success. Many colleges and universities and other institutions of higher learning throughout the world follow a similar hierarchical ranking structure amongst scholars in academia. A professor earns a base salary and a range of benefits. In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in their institution earns additional income; some professors earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as consulting, publishing academic or popular press books, giving speeches, or coaching executives.
Some fields give professors more opportun
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p
Computer data storage
Computer data storage called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers; the central processing unit of a computer is. In practice all computers use a storage hierarchy, which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away; the fast volatile technologies are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit; the former controls the flow of data between the CPU and memory, while the latter performs arithmetic and logical operations on data. Without a significant amount of memory, a computer would be able to perform fixed operations and output the result, it would have to be reconfigured to change its behavior. This is acceptable for devices such as desk calculators, digital signal processors, other specialized devices.
Von Neumann machines differ in having a memory in which they store their operating instructions and data. Such computers are more versatile in that they do not need to have their hardware reconfigured for each new program, but can be reprogrammed with new in-memory instructions. Most modern computers are von Neumann machines. A modern digital computer represents data using the binary numeral system. Text, pictures and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a string of bits, or binary digits, each of which has a value of 1 or 0; the most common unit of storage is the byte, equal to 8 bits. A piece of information can be handled by any computer or device whose storage space is large enough to accommodate the binary representation of the piece of information, or data. For example, the complete works of Shakespeare, about 1250 pages in print, can be stored in about five megabytes with one byte per character. Data are encoded by assigning a bit pattern to digit, or multimedia object.
Many standards exist for encoding. By adding bits to each encoded unit, redundancy allows the computer to both detect errors in coded data and correct them based on mathematical algorithms. Errors occur in low probabilities due to random bit value flipping, or "physical bit fatigue", loss of the physical bit in storage of its ability to maintain a distinguishable value, or due to errors in inter or intra-computer communication. A random bit flip is corrected upon detection. A bit, or a group of malfunctioning physical bits is automatically fenced-out, taken out of use by the device, replaced with another functioning equivalent group in the device, where the corrected bit values are restored; the cyclic redundancy check method is used in communications and storage for error detection. A detected error is retried. Data compression methods allow in many cases to represent a string of bits by a shorter bit string and reconstruct the original string when needed; this utilizes less storage for many types of data at the cost of more computation.
Analysis of trade-off between storage cost saving and costs of related computations and possible delays in data availability is done before deciding whether to keep certain data compressed or not. For security reasons certain types of data may be kept encrypted in storage to prevent the possibility of unauthorized information reconstruction from chunks of storage snapshots; the lower a storage is in the hierarchy, the lesser its bandwidth and the greater its access latency is from the CPU. This traditional division of storage to primary, secondary and off-line storage is guided by cost per bit. In contemporary usage, "memory" is semiconductor storage read-write random-access memory DRAM or other forms of fast but temporary storage. "Storage" consists of storage devices and their media not directly accessible by the CPU hard disk drives, optical disc drives, other devices slower than RAM but non-volatile. Memory has been called core memory, main memory, real storage or internal memory. Meanwhile, non-volatile storage devices have been referred to as secondary storage, external memory or auxiliary/peripheral storage.
Primary storage referred to as memory, is the only one directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads instructions executes them as required. Any data operated on is stored there in uniform manner. Early computers used delay lines, Williams tubes, or rotating magnetic drums as primary storage. By 1954, those unreliable methods were replaced by magnetic core memory. Core memory remained dominant until the 1970s, when advances in integrated circuit technology allowed semiconductor memory to become economically competitive; this led to modern random-access memo
Logical Volume Manager (Linux)
In Linux, Logical Volume Manager is a device mapper target that provides logical volume management for the Linux kernel. Most modern Linux distributions are LVM-aware to the point of being able to have their root file systems on a logical volume. Heinz Mauelshagen wrote the original LVM code in 1998, taking its primary design guidelines from the HP-UX's volume manager. LVM is used for the following purposes: Creating single logical volumes of multiple physical volumes or entire hard disks, allowing for dynamic volume resizing. Managing large hard disk farms by allowing disks to be added and replaced without downtime or service disruption, in combination with hot swapping. On small systems, instead of having to estimate at installation time how big a partition might need to be, LVM allows filesystems to be resized as needed. Performing consistent backups by taking snapshots of the logical volumes. Encrypting multiple physical partitions with one password. LVM can be considered as a thin software layer on top of the hard disks and partitions, which creates an abstraction of continuity and ease-of-use for managing hard drive replacement and backup.
Volume groups can be resized online by ejecting existing ones. Logical volumes can be resized online by concatenating extents onto them or truncating extents from them. LVs can be moved between PVs. Creation of read-only snapshots of logical volumes, or read-write snapshots. VGs can be merged in situ as long as no LVs span the split; this can be useful. LVM objects can be tagged for administrative convenience. VGs and LVs can be made active as the underlying devices become available through use of the lvmetad daemon. Hybrid volumes can be created using the dm-cache target, which allows one or more fast storage devices, such as flash-based SSDs, to act as a cache for one or more slower hard disk drives. Thinly provisioned LVs can be allocated from a pool. On newer versions of device mapper, LVM is integrated with the rest of device mapper enough to ignore the individual paths that back a dm-multipath device if devices/multipath_component_detection=1 is set in lvm.conf. This prevents LVM from activating volumes on an individual path instead of the multipath device.
LVs can be created to include RAID functionality, including RAID 1, 5 and 6. Entire LVs or their parts can be striped across multiple PVs to RAID 0. A RAID 1 backend device can be configured as "write-mostly", resulting in reads being avoided to such devices unless necessary. Recovery rate can be limited using lvchange --raidmaxrecoveryrate and lvchange --raidminrecoveryrate to maintain acceptable I/O performance while rebuilding a LV that includes RAID functionality; the LVM works in a shared-storage cluster in which disks holding the PVs are shared between multiple host computers, but can require an additional daemon to mediate metadata access via a form of locking. CLVM A distributed. Whenever a cluster node needs to modify the LVM metadata, it must secure permission from its local clvmd, in constant contact with other clvmd daemons in the cluster and can communicate a desire to get a lock on a particular set of objects. HA-LVM Cluster-awareness is left to the application providing the high availability function.
For the LVM's part, HA-LVM can use CLVM as a locking mechanism, or can continue to use the default file locking and reduce "collisions" by restricting access to only those LVM objects that have appropriate tags. Since this simpler solution avoids contention rather than mitigating it, no concurrent accesses are allowed; as such, HA-LVM is considered useful only in active-passive configurations. Lvmlockd As of 2017, a stable LVM component, designed to replace clvmd by making the locking of LVM objects transparent to the rest of LVM, without relying on a distributed lock manager, it saw massive development during 2016. The above described; the file system selected to be on top of such LVs must either support clustering by itself or it must only be mounted by a single cluster node at any time. LVM VGs must contain a default allocation policy for new volumes created from it; this can be changed for each LV using the lvconvert -A command, or on the VG itself via vgchange --alloc. To minimize fragmentation, LVM will attempt the strictest policy first and progress toward the most liberal policy defined for the LVM object until allocation succeeds.
In RAID configurations all policies are applied to each leg in isolation. For example if a LV has a policy of cling, expanding the file system will not result in LVM using a PV if it is used by one of the other legs in the RAID setup. LVs with RAID functionality will put each leg on different PVs, making the other PVs unavailable to any other given leg. If this was the only option available, expansion of the LV would fail. In this sense, the logic behind cling will only apply to expanding each of the individual legs of the array. Available allocation policies are: Contiguous - forces all LEs in a given LV to be adjacent and ordered; this eliminates fragmentation but reduces a LV expandability. Cling - forces new LEs to be allocated only on PVs used by an LV; this can help mitigate fragmentation as well as reduce vulnerability of particular LVs should a device go down, by reducing the likelihood that other LVs have extents on that PV. Normal - implies near-indiscriminate selection of PEs, but it will attempt t
Imperial College London
Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, England. In 1851, Prince Albert built his vision for a cultural area composed of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum, Royal Albert Hall, Royal Colleges, the Imperial Institute. In 1907, Imperial College was established by Royal Charter, bringing together the Royal College of Science, Royal School of Mines, City and Guilds College. In 1988, the Imperial College School of Medicine was formed through a merger with St Mary's Hospital Medical School. In 2004, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Imperial College Business School; the main campus is located with a new innovation campus in White City. The college has a research centre at Silwood Park, teaching hospitals throughout London. Imperial is organised through faculties of natural science, engineering and business, its emphasis is on the practical application of technology. With more than 140 countries represented on campus and 59% of students from outside the UK, the university has a international community.
In 2018–19, Imperial is ranked 8th globally in the QS World University Rankings, 9th in the THE World University Rankings, 24th in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 8th in Reuters Top 100: World's Most Innovative Universities. Student and researcher affiliations include 14 Nobel laureates, 3 Fields Medalists, 1 Turing Award winner, 74 Fellows of the Royal Society, 87 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering, 85 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences; the college's origins can be traced back as far as the founding of the Royal College of Chemistry on Hanover Square in 1845, with the support of Prince Albert and parliament. Following some financial trouble, this was absorbed in 1853 into the newly formed Government School of Mines and Science Applied to the Arts, located on Jermyn Street; the school was renamed the Royal School of Mines a decade later. The medical school has roots in many different school across London, the oldest of which dates back to 1823, with the foundation of the teaching facilities at the West London Infirmary at Villiers Street.
Known as Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, it was designed to provide medical education for the needs of a university. This was followed in 1834 when Westminster Hospital surgeons started taking students under their care. Established on Dean Street, the school was forced to close in 1847, but was reopened in 1849 with a new specimen museum; the first teaching at St Mary's Hospital hospital in Paddington began in 1851, with St Mary's Hospital Medical School established in 1854. Proceeds from the Great Exhibition of 1851 were designated by Prince Albert to be used to develop a cultural area in South Kensington for the use and education of the public. Within the next 6 years the Victoria and Albert and Science museums had opened, joined by the Natural History Museum in 1881, in 1888 the Imperial Institute; as well as museums, new facilities for the royal colleges were constructed, with the Royal College of Chemistry and the Royal School of Mines moving to South Kensington between 1871 and 1872.
In 1881 the Normal School of Science was established in South Kensington under the leadership of Thomas Huxley, taking over responsibility for the teaching of the natural sciences and agriculture from the Royal School of Mines. The school was granted the name Royal College of Science by royal consent in 1890; as these institutions were not part of universities, they were unable to grant degrees to students, instead bestowed associateships such as the Associateship of the Royal College of Science. The Central Institution of the City and Guilds of London Institute, formed by the City of London's livery companies, was opened on Exhibition Road by the Prince of Wales, founded to focus on providing technical education, with courses starting in early 1885; the institution was renamed the Central Technical College in 1893, becoming a school of the University of London in 1900. At the start of the 20th century there was a concern that Britain was falling behind its key rivals – Germany – in scientific and technical education.
A departmental committee was set up at the Board of Education in 1904, to look into the future of the Royal College of Science. A report released in 1906 called for the establishment of an institution unifying the Royal College of Science and the Royal School of Mines, as well as – if agreement could be reached with the City and Guilds of London Institute – their Central Technical CollegeOn 8 July 1907, King Edward VII granted a Royal Charter establishing the Imperial College of Science and Technology; this incorporated the Royal College of Science. It made provisions for the Central Technical College to join once conditions regarding its governance were met, as well as for Imperial to become a college of the University of London; the college joined the University of London on 22 July 1908, with the Central Technical College joining Imperial in 1910 as the City and Guilds College. The main campus of Imperial College was constructed beside the buildings of the Imperial Institute, the new building for the Royal College of Science having opened across from it in 1906, the foundation stone for the Royal School of Mines building being laid by King Edward VII in July 1909.
As students at Imperial had to study separately for London degrees, in January 1919, students and alumni voted for a petition to make Imperial a university with its own degree awarding powers, independent of the University of London. In response, the University of London changed its regulations in 1925 so that the courses taught only at Imperial would be examined by the university, enabling students to ga
Athens University of Economics and Business
Athens University of Economics and Business was founded in 1920 in Athens, Greece. Its buildings are housed on Patision Street. Before 1989, the university was known in Greek as the Supreme School of Business. Though the university of business's official name has changed, it is still known popularly in Greek by this former acronym; the Athens University of Economics and Business was founded in 1920 under the name of Athens School of Commercial Studies. It was renamed in 1926 as the Athens School of Economics and Business, a name, retained until 1989 when it assumed its present name, the Athens University of Economics and Business, it is the oldest university in Greece in the fields of Economics and Business, its roots tracing to the establishment of a Merchant Academy in Athens. Up to 1955 the school offered only one degree in the general area of economics and commerce. In 1955 the duration of study at the School is increased from three to four years and two cycles of study leading to two separate degrees: one in economics and the other in business administration.
In 1984 the school was divided into three departments, namely the Department of Economics, the Department of Business Administration and the Department of Statistics and Business Informatics, the latter renamed to the Informatics Department in 1995. In 1989, the university expanded to six departments. From 1999 onwards, the university developed further and nowadays it includes eight academic departments, offering eight undergraduate degrees, 28 master's degrees and an equivalent number of doctoral programs; the Athens University of Economics and Business today comprises three Schools and eight academic Departments. Each Department accepts students at the undergraduate level, after passing the pan-Hellenic exams, offers a 4-year undergraduate program of studies; each academic department offers one or more graduate programs of studies, leading to a master's degree, as well as a Doctoral Program, leading to a PhD Degree. Each department of the Athens University of Economics and Business awards an undergraduate degree equivalent to a four-year B.
A. or B. Sc. in their respective fields. To be able to graduate and get his/her degree, a student has to attend and complete 8 semesters of study, corresponding to a total of 240 ECTS credit hours. Foreign language courses in English, French or German are offered in all semesters and count towards degree requirements. Depending on their choice of electives, students acquire a major concentration on particular subjects. In addition to the above, there are many courses offered in English for international students who come to AUEB under the Erasmus program. A total of 60 courses are offered in English, each one counting towards 6 ECTS credits. There are thirty-six different Masters Programmes that are offered at AUEB, they include full-time programmes, part-time programmes, joint programmes. The duration of graduate studies at the Master's level is between 15–27 months. Students are admitted to these programs after satisfying certain admission criteria such as results at the GMAT or GRE tests, proficiency of English, academic performance at the undergraduate level, work experience.
Graduate students may receive assistantships. M. B. A International MSc in Marketing & Communication, Specialization in International Marketing MSc in Accounting and Finance MSc in International Shipping and Management M. A. in Heritage Management Athens M. B. A. M. Sc. in Business Mathematics Interdisciplinary Program of Graduate Studies in Basic and Applied Cognitive Science Doctorates are awarded by each Department upon the completion of courses, a successful qualifying exam, a dissertation and its successful defence in public. Holding a master's degree is a necessary requirement in order to be accepted to the Ph. D. program. The university offers additional training to the students of the university, as well as executive training programs. A number of non-degree courses are offered to the students who are interested to expand their knowledge and skills; these include foreign language courses and courses on computer skills. In addition, a large number of executive seminars are offered, either in-house to companies, or open.
In 2015 the external evaluation committee gave Athens University of Economics and Business a Positive evaluation. An external evaluation of all academic departments in Greek universities was conducted by the Hellenic Quality Assurance and Accreditation Agency; the Athens University of Economics and Business is ranked 501st-600th in The Times Higher Education annual list and 151st-200th in the QS World University Rankings in Business and Management Studies. In the field of econometrics, AUEB comes internationally in 48th place according to the Journal of Econometric Theory; the economics department ranks in the 76th place worldwide. The MBA International Program, is offered in English; the Program is accredited by the Association of MBAs, ranked among the top 20 MBA prograin Europe and the top 50 in the world. The academic staff of the university consists of resident faculty, adjunct faculty, visiting faculty. In addition and research assistants, foreign language and athletics instructors, teac