A dioptre or diopter is a unit of measurement of the optical power of a lens or curved mirror, equal to the reciprocal of the focal length measured in metres. It is thus a unit of reciprocal length. For example, a 3-dioptre lens brings parallel rays of light to focus at 1⁄3 metre. A flat window has an optical power of zero dioptres, does not cause light to converge or diverge. Dioptres are sometimes used for other reciprocals of distance radii of curvature and the vergence of optical beams; the main benefit of using optical power rather than focal length is that the lensmaker's equation has the object distance, image distance, focal length all as reciprocals. A further benefit is that when thin lenses are placed close together their powers add. Thus, a thin 2.0-dioptre lens placed close to a thin 0.5-dioptre lens yields the same focal length as a single 2.5-dioptre lens. Though the dioptre is based on the SI-metric system it has not been included in the standard so that there is no international name or symbol for this unit of measurement—within the international system of units, this unit for optical power would need to be specified explicitly as the inverse metre.
However most languages have borrowed the original name and some national standardization bodies like DIN specify a unit name and unit symbol dpt. In vision care the symbol D is used; the idea of numbering lenses based on the reciprocal of their focal length in metres was first suggested by Albrecht Nagel in 1866. The term dioptre was proposed by French ophthalmologist Ferdinand Monoyer in 1872, based on earlier use of the term dioptrice by Johannes Kepler; the fact that optical powers are additive enables an eye care professional to prescribe corrective lenses as a simple correction to the eye's optical power, rather than doing a detailed analysis of the entire optical system. Optical power can be used to adjust a basic prescription for reading, thus an eye care professional, having determined that a myopic person requires a basic correction of, say, −2 dioptres to restore normal distance vision, might make a further prescription of'add 1' for reading, to make up for lack of accommodation. This is the same as saying.
In humans, the total optical power of the relaxed eye is 60 dioptres. The cornea accounts for two-thirds of this refractive power and the crystalline lens contributes the remaining one-third. In focusing, the ciliary muscle contracts to reduce the tension or stress transferred to the lens by the suspensory ligaments; this results in increased convexity of the lens which in turn increases the optical power of the eye. The amplitude of accommodation is about 11 to 16 dioptres at age 15, decreasing to about 10 dioptres at age 25, to around 1 dioptre above age 60. Convex lenses have positive dioptric value and are used to correct hyperopia or to allow people with presbyopia to read at close range. Concave lenses have negative dioptric value and correct myopia. Typical glasses for mild myopia will have a power of −0.50 to −3.00 dioptres, while over the counter reading glasses will be rated at +1.00 to +4.00 dioptres. Optometrists measure refractive error using lenses graded in steps of 0.25 dioptres.
The dioptre can be used as a measurement of curvature equal to the reciprocal of the radius measured in metres. For example, a circle with a radius of 1/2 metre has a curvature of 2 dioptres. If the curvature of a surface of a lens is C and the index of refraction is n, the optical power is φ = C. If both surfaces of the lens are curved, consider their curvatures as positive toward the lens and add them; this will give the right result, as long as the thickness of the lens is much less than the radius of curvature of one of the surfaces. For a mirror the optical power is φ = 2C; the magnifying power V of a simple magnifying glass is related to its optical power φ by V = 0.25 m × φ + 1. This is the magnification observed when a person with normal vision holds the magnifying glass close to his or her eye. Dioptrics Astigmatism Lens clock Lensmeter Optics Optometry Prism correction#Prism dioptres Vertometer
Spectral Mornings is the third studio album by English guitarist and songwriter Steve Hackett, released in May 1979 on Charisma Records. It is his first to feature members of his touring band, which many Hackett fans consider as the "classic line-up"; the musicians are his brother John Hackett, Nick Magnus, Dik Cadbury, John Shearer, Pete Hicks. In 2005, Spectral Mornings was re-released on Virgin Records; the new edition features bonus tracks. A new 5.1 surround mix of the album by Steven Wilson is included in Hackett's 2015 compilation box set Premonitions: The Charisma Recordings 1975–1983. In 2015, Hackett appeared on a re-recorded version, "Spectral Mornings 2015", with new lyrics written by David Longdon of Big Big Train, sung by Longdon and Christina Booth of Magenta. Proceeds from the track on release went to Parkinson's Society UK. After the release of his previous album, Please Don't Touch!, in 1978, Hackett wished to tour the material from the album along with material from his previous solo album, Voyage of the Acolyte.
This meant that he needed to assemble a touring band since the personnel on Please Don't Touch! had consisted of guest musicians. The band that he created for this purpose became the band that he used in the studio for Spectral Mornings and the following album, 1980's Defector. "Clocks - The Angel of Mons" and the title track were both written and performed live on the Please Don't Touch tour prior to the album's recording. Elements of the intro performed going into "Please Don't Touch" became parts of "Tigermoth"; the album was recorded at Phonogram Studios in Hilversum in the Netherlands between January and February 1979. Hackett remarked "It was 15 degrees below zero and all the lakes and canals were frozen... The weather was so bad; the studio was at Phonogram Records' headquarters and it felt as though it was in its own world. We combined this activity with partying like crazy; the sessions were intense and the album was recorded with little sleep. We all got a tremendous buzz from recording it.
I was confident when I played the final masters to Tony Stratton-Smith at Charisma as I thought we'd done a great job."This is the second album for which Hackett used a Roland GR-500 Guitar Synthesizer. It can be heard on two tracks: "The Virgin and the Gypsy" and "Tigermoth". Lead vocals on most of the album were provided by Pete Hicks, which were often backed with harmonies by Steve Hackett and Dik Cadbury. Cadbury arranged the harmony vocals. Hackett himself sings lead on "The Ballad of the Decomposing Man"; the album starts with "Everyday", an anti-drug song about Steve's own experiences of the drug culture when his first girlfriend fell victim to "Cleopatra's Needle", it would become his signature song from his solo career with a guitar solo at the track's coda. "The Virgin and the Gypsy" was inspired by the novella of the same name. It has an acoustic folk sound with vocal harmonies, twelve tracks of 12-string guitars mixed together, a guitar synthesizer solo and double-tracking flutes solos.
Parts of the song were recorded in sessions for Please Don't Touch in an instrumental called "Seven of Cups". "The Red Flower of Tachai Blooms Everywhere" was inspired by east-Asian culture. Hackett plays a Cantonese koto on the track, accompanied by a Mellotron imitating a Japanese singer and gong percussion. "Clocks - The Angel of Mons" was considered for a horror movie soundtrack. Drummer John Shearer plays a long drum solo at the climax of the track, the power of which Hackett compared to sounding like "being trampled by elephants". John Hackett plays a Moog Taurus bass pedal synthesizer on this track using his hands as opposed to his feet. "The Ballad of the Decomposing Man" is sung by Hackett in a tongue-in-cheek George Formby-style, in which Hackett displays a sense of humour like songs on the previous Genesis albums with Peter Gabriel such as "Harold the Barrel". Hackett plays the harmonica for the first time on his albums in this track; the second half of the song, "The Office Party" was played in a calypso style with a lot of percussion, violin from bassist Dik Cadbury and comical speaking.
Side 2, opens with "Lost Time in Cordoba", a classical guitar and flute duet, in a style similar to Hackett's future classical guitar albums such as Bay of Kings. "Tigermoth" is a ghost story told from the perspectives of several pilots from the First World War, shot down whilst flying planes of the same name. The first half of the track has a dramatic feel with jarring Mellotron chords, bass pedals and guitar synthesizer; the acoustic second half contains a lullaby ending. The album finishes with the title track. However, after Hackett played the vocal melody to his band on the guitar, Pete Hicks decided that the track sounded "great as it is", telling Hackett to "keep the piece as an instrumental", leading Hackett to joke on that Hicks talked himself out of a job on the track, it has become his signature instrumental from his solo career. Many progressive rock guitarists, such as Steve Rothery, consider this track to be an inspiration. All songs written except where indicated. Side 1 "Every Day" – 6:14 "The Virgin and the Gypsy" – 4:27 "The Red Flower of Tachai Blooms Everywhere" – 2:05 "Clocks – The Angel of Mons" – 4:17 "The Ballad of the Decomposing Man" – 3:49Side 2 "Lost Time in Córdoba" – 4:03 "Tigermoth" – 7:35 "Spectral Mornings" – 6:33 "Every Day" – 7:08 "The Virgin and the Gypsy" – 4:29 "Tige
Whitney Keyes has served as a speaker sponsored by U. S. State Department on issues related to social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and women in leadership, is the author of Propel: Five Ways to Amp Up Marketing and Accelerate Business. With filmmaker Wyatt Bardouille, she co-hosted and produced WhitneyandWyatt.com, one of the first independent, online television talk shows for women. Keyes has been an adjunct professor of Global Reputation Management at Seattle University and a fellow of the Center for Strategic Communications, she is an American speaker and has been a television host. Keyes grew up in Tacoma, where she attended Pacific Lutheran University, she studied theater and communication arts and received a B. F. A. in journalism and public relations in 1989. After managing Keyes Minas Contemporary Craft Gallery until its closure in 1994, she worked for the City of Tacoma's Economic Development Division. In 1997, she joined Microsoft, where she helped create the company's first corporate social responsibility report, participated in the launches of Windows CE and Office 2000, led some of Microsoft's first online and social marketing initiatives.
As a corporate spokesperson and strategic media relations manager, Keyes represented Microsoft and worked directly with Bill Gates, helping him prepare for interviews and photo shoots with publications. As a speaker hired by the U. S. State Department, Keyes served in three countries over the course of six months in 2010, helping to develop a human rights and economic leadership program, where she consulted with Muslim women about social entrepreneurship in Malaysia, shared perspectives on corporate social responsibility with political and community leaders in Namibia, helped non-profit organizations in Kibera, the world's largest slum, she returned to Malaysia in 2013 for a series of workshops on Empowering Women Through Entrepreneurship. Keyes has presented to groups including the Federal Communications Bar Association and Small Business Administration, she has been called a "PR guru" by the Arc Magazine. Keyes writes articles and produces videos for The Biz Bite, a business blog for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, contributed to the P-I indie production blog The Producer's Life.
She has done reporting for ABC News. In 2013, Keyes received the Washington State Women in Business Champion of the Year award from the U. S. Small Business Administration. Keyes has written three books: Propel: Five Ways to Amp Up Marketing and Accelerate Business, Media Tips for Authors: How to Get Free Publicity for Your Book and Publicity Tips for Small Businesses: How to Get Publicity — For Free! She is the sister of the eco-surrealist artist Josh Keyes. Whitney Keyes lives in Seattle, WA, U. S. A. Official site — Whitney Keyes Productions WhitneyandWyatt.com The Rick and Whitney Show Seattle P-I Blog: The Producer's Life Seattle P-I Blog: The Biz Bite
George Washington Carver High School of Arts and Sciences is a public charter school in Rancho Cordova, California. It is one of only three public Waldorf High Schools in the United States. Carver was founded in 2008, it is part of the Sacramento City Unified School District. It uses the Waldorf holistic system of education, one of only three public high schools in the United States to do so. Waldorf Education is a three tiered system consisting of using the head for critical thinking, the heart for creative expression, the hands for wholesome action, it replaced America's Choice High School, funded by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. In 2014 the school had a 100% graduation rate for high school and low income groups; the principal is Allegra Alessandri. In 2018 U. S. News & World Report ranked Carver 516th in 2,630 th nationwide; the math proficiency rating was 30th percentile, reading proficiency was 68th percentile. In 2014 the Sacramento Gun Club opened a shooting range 250 feet from the school
Mazapil is a municipality in the Mexican state of Zacatecas and the state's largest municipality by area. The Peñasquito mine, Mexico's largest gold mine, is located in this sparsely populated municipality; the municipality of Mazapil is located in northern Zacatecas where it borders three other Mexican states. The Zacatecan municipalities it borders are Melchor Ocampo to the north, General Francisco R. Murguía to the west, Villa de Cos to the south and Concepción del Oro to the east. Mazapil borders the municipalities of Catorce, Santo Domingo and Vanegas, to the east, all part of San Luis Potosí. Mazapil is Zacatecas's largest and Mexico's twelfth largest municipality, covering an area of 12,143.256 square kilometres and comprising 16.1% of the state's area. Mazapil is situated in the Chihuahuan Desert and has an elevation range between 1,300 and 3,200 metres. Matorral vegetation predominates in the arid and semi-arid climate, although open pinyon-juniper woodlands occur in the more elevated regions with their more temperate and sub-humid climates.
Average annual precipitation in the municipality varies between 600 millimetres. Mazapil's name derives from the Nahuatl place name Mazatlpilli, itself derived from mazatl "deer" and pilli "small"; the original inhabitants of the Mazapil valley were nomadic Chichimeca peoples known to the Spaniards as Guachichiles. Francisco de Ibarra reached the area in 1554. In 1562, Pedro de Ahumada y Samano reported finding the valley inhabited by 6000 native warriors armed with bows and arrows. Silver mines were first established in the valley in the late 1560s. Mazapil was one of Zacatecas's eleven original subdivisions when the state's constitution was enacted in 1825. In 1885 the fall of a meteorite in the area during the Andromedids meteor shower attracted scientific attention, although a cometary origin for the meteorite is now considered unlikely and the timing of its fall has been ascribed to coincidence. In 1907 Gustavo A. Madero set up four factories in the municipality for the extraction of guayule rubber.
Guayule from the Mazapil region was exported to the US for rubber production during World War II. Mazapil's municipal government comprises a president, secretary and six trustees; the current president of the municipality is Gregorio Macías Zúñiga. In the 2010 Mexican Census, the municipality of Mazapil recorded a population of 17,813 inhabitants living in 4275 households, it recorded a population of 17,457 inhabitants in the 2015 Intercensal Survey. There are 175 localities in the municipality, of which only the municipal seat called Mazapil, is classified as urban. Located in the northeast corner of the municipality, it recorded a population of 794 inhabitants in the 2010 Census; the main economic activities in Mazapil are agriculture. In 2015, the municipality produced 28,543 kilograms of gold, 942,002 kilograms of silver, 15,563 tonnes of copper, 85,334 tonnes of lead and 207,844 tonnes of zinc. Goldcorp's Peñasquito gold mine, Mexico's largest, is located in Mazapil. Local communities have protested the mine's activities, citing water overuse and contamination, creation of health problems for locals, inadequate compensation for workers and landowners.
Fred Faour is an American author and sports radio talk show host, in Houston, Texas. Faour is a co-host on KFNC's flagship show "The Blitz" from Monday through Friday. Fred is the editor of SportsMap Houston, he was a sports editor at the Houston Chronicle. Faour was introduced into sports journalism by his parents, his late father worked on the Houston Chronicle sports desk for 29 years, his mother, Pat Monych, was the first female sports editor in Texas in the early 1970s at the Texas City Sun. He began his career by answering phones in the Chronicle sports department at age 16 in 1981, he worked the agate desk five nights a week while going to college at the University of Houston. After graduating in 1987, Faour was hired as a full-time copy editor, promoted to Sunday sports editor in 1989, he left the Chronicle in the early 1990s and returned as a part-timer in 1995, "covering horse racing, working desk and trying all sorts of other careers on the side." Faour was hired as Assistant Sports Editor in 1997, before being promoted to Sports Editor in 2005.
Faour was named the Houston Chronicle's Editor of the Year in 2002. The Chronicle's sports section was recognized as one of the best in the country under his guidance; as a horse racing writer, he won three major awards for his stories. After the Houston Chronicle, Faour went on to expand his career into sports radio, he hosted The Front Page with co-host Matt Dean until mid-2009 when they were moved to a daily time slot and renamed The Blitz. In May 2010, A. J. Hoffman replaced Dean on The Blitz, on ESPN 97.5 FM in the Houston areas from 12:00 noon to 2:00 p.m. every weekday. Faour and Hoffman were No. 2 in the time slot for most of their tenure at midday. The duo was suspended in 2011 for an incident. In October, 2012, Faour and Hoffman moved to Drive Time from 4–7:00 p.m. Central; the show is still called The Blitz. At the same time, Faour began hosting a Saturday night show on Yahoo Sports Network from 8-10 p.m. Eastern; the show ended in April 2014. Besides radio, he writes fiction and does a sports column on Examiner.com.
He taught journalism at San Jacinto College in Pasadena, Texas until May 2012. He has hosted and produced television sports shows and produced his own magazine, The Racing Star. Faour is an avid gambler, his book bio states he has picked long shot Breeders' Cup winners Anees, Unbridled Elaine and Street Sense. He qualified for the 2006 World Series of Poker Main Event online for only $9. In 2017, Faour became editor of part of the Gow Media family. Faour is the author of Acing Racing: An introductory guide to horse wagering for poker players, sports bettors and action junkies, his first published book. Acing Racing is available in print and electronic formats. Faour is the author of the released novel Jesus Just Left Chicago. 2018 Jesus Just Left Chicago ISBN 0578440733 Independent 2011 Acing Racing: An introductory guide to horse gambling for poker players, sports bettors and online action junkies, ISBN 978-1432781743. 2015 An Introduction to Sports Betting: Blitz Style, w/ AJ Hoffman and produced by Michael Carrell Throughout his career, Faour has picked up the following nickhames: "The Great Hipster", Faour Power, Uncle Freddy, The Falcon, The Gargoyle, The Horseman, King Faour, President Faour, Prime Minister Faour, "Fred "Quick Weight Loss" Faour", Big Daddy Faour, The Smart One, Not My Nickname Faour, Lord Falcon Targaryen, Dr. Fonzy Faour, Savior Faour, Flogging Freddy, Dragon Tail, "Derf", Ferd, "Fred the Quick Weight Loss sponsored Deflator", Frank Faour, Fred The Meatloaf Faour, Fred the Canadian Wombat Faour, Fred Gygaxion Faour, SportsMap Faour, Fred Shinedown Faour, The Little Red Pocket Rocket, Fred sultan, Freddy The Virus Faour..
Most of these nicknames have not been verified and are made up. Official Blog Twitter Profile