Merck & Co.
Merck & Co. Inc. d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme outside the United States and Canada, is an American multinational pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world; the company was established in 1891 as the United States subsidiary of the German company Merck, founded in 1668 by the Merck family. Merck & Co. was expropriated by the US government during World War I and subsequently established as an independent American company in 1917. While it operates as Merck & Co. in North America, the original Merck based in Darmstadt holds the rights to the Merck name everywhere else. Merck & Co. is the world's seventh largest pharmaceutical company by market capitalization and revenue. Its headquarters is located in New Jersey; the company ranked No. 78 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Merck & Co. publishes The Merck Manuals, a series of medical reference books for physicians, nurses and veterinarians. These include Therapy, the world's best-selling medical reference.
The Merck Index, a compendium of chemical compounds, was published by Merck & Co. before being acquired by the Royal Society of Chemistry in 2012. Merck & Co. traces its origins to its original German parent company Merck, established by the Merck family in 1668 when Friedrich Jacob Merck purchased a drug store in Darmstadt. In the 19th century, the Merck company in Darmstadt evolved from a pharmacy to a major pharmaceutical company which pioneered the commercial manufacture of morphine. In 1891, family member George Merck emigrated to the United States and set up Merck & Co. in New York as the US subsidiary of the family company. Merck & Co. operated from 1891 to 1917 as the US subsidiary of the Merck Group. After the U. S entered World War I, the Merck Group's US subsidiary Merck & Co. was confiscated under the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917. Company head George W. Merck purchased back the stock in 1919, but U. S. Merck remained a separate company from its former German parent. Merck & Co. hold the trademark rights to the "Merck" name in North America, while its former parent company retains the rights in the rest of the world.
In 1929, H. K. Mulford Company merged with Dohme, Inc.. This company brought to the future Merck & Co. Inc. vaccine technology, including immunization of cavalry horses in World War I and delivery of a diphtheria antitoxin in 1925. In 1953, Merck & Co. merged with Philadelphia-based Sharp & Dohme, Inc. founded by Alpheus Phineas Sharp and Carl Friedrich Louis Dohme in 1845, becoming the largest US drugmaker. The merger combined Merck & Co.'s strength in scientific research and chemical manufacturing with Sharp & Dohme's sales and distribution system and its marketing expertise. The combined company kept the trade name Merck in the United States and Canada, as Merck Sharp & Dohme outside North America. In 1965 Merck & Co. acquired Charles E. Frosst Ltd. of Montreal, Quebec and created Merck-Frosst Canada, Inc. as its Canadian subsidiary and pharmaceutical research facility. Merck & Co. closed this facility in July 2010, the company was renamed Merck Canada in 2011. The company was incorporated in New Jersey in 1970.
It has an operating subsidiary, KBI Inc., formed as a joint venture with AstraZeneca. In November 1993, Merck & Co. completed a $6 billion purchase of Medco Containment Services Inc. one of the largest mail-order pharmacy and managed-care drug companies. Merck & Co. spun Medco off ten years and on August 20, 2003, Medco Health Solutions began trading on the New York Stock Exchange. In November 2009, Merck & Co. announced that it would merge with competitor Schering-Plough in a US$41 billion deal. Although Merck & Co. was in reality acquiring Schering-Plough, the purchase was structured on paper as a "reverse merger", in which "Old" Merck & Co. was renamed Merck Sharp & Dohme, Schering-Plough renamed as "Merck & Co. Inc." so that it could, continue as the surviving public corporation. The maneuver was an attempt to preserve Schering-Plough's rights to market Remicade, decided by arbitration; the merger was completed on November 4, 2009. As of 2015, Merck Sharp & Dohme remains a subsidiary of the Co. parent.
As of December 2013, the US company had 76,000 employees in 120 countries with 31 factories worldwide. It is one of the world's seven largest pharmaceutical companies; the Merck Company Foundation has distributed more than $480 million to educational and non-profit organizations since it was founded in 1957. On December 7, 2012, the foundation announced that it was ending its donations to the Boy Scouts of America because of "its policy that excludes members on the basis of sexual orientation", which "directly conflicts with the Merck Foundation's giving guidelines". In October 2013, Merck & Co. announced it would cut 8,500 jobs in an attempt to cut $2.5bn from its costs by 2015. The company's shares rose 2.35 % to US$48.73 in New York trading. The new losses, combined with 7,500 job cuts announced in 2011 and 2012, amount in total to 20% of its workforce. In June 2014 Merck & Co. announced its acquisition of Idenix Pharmaceuticals for $3.85 billion. In December 2014 Merck & Co. announced they would be spending $8.4 billion to buy Cubist Pharmaceuticals.
In the same month the company acquired the Swiss biotechnology company OncoEthix for up to $375 million dependent upon certain milestone achievements. In July 2015 Merck & Co. and Ablynx expanded their 18 month old
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Fujifilm Holdings Corporation, trading as Fujifilm, or Fuji, is a Japanese multinational photography and imaging company headquartered in Tokyo. Fujifilm's principal activities are the development, production and servicing of business document solutions, medical imaging and diagnostics equipment, regenerative medicine, stem cells, biologics manufacturing, optical films for flat panel displays, optical devices and printers, digital cameras, color film, color paper, photofinishing equipment, photofinishing chemicals, graphic arts equipment and materials. Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd. was established in 1934 with the aim of being the first Japanese producer of photographic films. Over the following 10 years, the company produced photographic films, motion-picture films and X-ray films. In the 1940s, Fuji Photo entered the optical glasses and equipment markets. After the Second World War, Fuji Photo diversified, penetrating the medical, electronic imaging and magnetic materials fields. In 1962, Fuji Photo and U.
K.-based Rank Xerox Limited launched Fuji Xerox Co. Ltd. through a joint venture. From the mid-1950s, Fuji Photo accelerated the establishment of overseas sales bases. In the 1980s, Fuji Photo expanded its production and other bases overseas, stepping up the pace of its business globalization. Meanwhile, Fuji Photo developed digital technologies for its photo-related and printing businesses. Like its rival Eastman Kodak which dominated in the US, Fuji Photo enjoyed a longtime near-monopoly on camera film in Japan. By becoming one of the title sponsors of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, offering cheaper camera film, establishing a film factory in the US, Fuji gained considerable market share there, while Kodak had little success in penetrating Japan. In May 1995, Kodak filed a petition with the US Commerce Department under section 301 of the Commerce Act arguing that its poor performance in the Japanese market was a direct result of unfair practices adopted by Fuji; the complaint was lodged by the US with the World Trade Organization.
On January 30, 1998, the WTO announced a "sweeping rejection of Kodak's complaints" about the film market in Japan. The new millennium witnessed the rapid spread of digital technology, demand for photographic films plunged in line with the growing popularity of digital cameras. In response, Fuji Photo implemented management reforms aimed at drastic transformation of its business structures; as early as the 1980s, the company had foreseen the switch from film to digital, so "it developed a three-pronged strategy: to squeeze as much money out of the film business as possible, to prepare for the switch to digital and to develop new business lines." While both film manufacturers recognized this fundamental change, Fuji Photo adapted to this shift much more than Eastman Kodak. Fuji Photo's diversification efforts succeeded while Kodak's had failed. In September 19, 2006, Fujifilm announced plans to establish a holding company, Fujifilm Holdings Corp. Fujifilm and Fuji Xerox would become subsidiaries of the holding company.
A representative of the company reconfirmed its commitment to film. On January 31, 2018, Fujifilm announced that it would acquire a 50.1% controlling stake in Xerox for US$6.1 billion, which will be amalgamated into its existing Fuji Xerox business. The deal was subsequently dropped after intervention by activist investors Carl Icahn and Darwin Deason. Fuji Xerox is Xerox Corporation of North America. Fujifilm bought Sericol Ltd. a UK-based printing ink company specializing in screen, narrow web, digital print technologies in March 2005. Fujifilm de México is a Fujifilm subsidiary in Mexico that sells Fujifilm products since 1934 and has been recognized as one of The Best Mexican Companies from 2012 to 2015, a recognition promoted by Banamex, Deloitte México and Tecnológico de Monterrey. Fujifilm Holdings Fujifilm Fujifilm Imaging Systems Fujifilm Medical Fujifilm Pharma Fujifilm RI Pharma Fujifilm Photo Manufacturing Fujifilm Fine Chemicals Fujifilm Electronics Materials Fujifilm Engineering Fujifilm Optics Fujifilm Opto Materials Fujifilm Global Graphic Systems Fujifilm Computer Systems Fujifilm Software Fujifilm Techno Services Fujifilm Techno Products Fujifilm Business Supply Fujifilm Digital Press Fujifilm Media Crest Fujifilm Sonosite, Inc.
Fujifilm Shizuoka Fujifilm Kyushu Fujifilm Logistics Fuji Xerox Fuji Xerox Printing Systems Sales Fuji Xerox Information Systems Fuji Xerox System Service Fuji Xerox Interfield Fuji Xerox Advanced Technologies Fuji Xerox Manufacturing Fuji Xerox Service Creative Fuji Xerox Service Link Fuji Xerox Learning Institute Toyama Chemical Taisho Toyama Pharmaceutical Fujifilm Business Expert Fuji Color Photo Center Fujifilm photographic films Motion picture film stock. Fujichrome color reversal films. Velvia: one of the most saturated and fine-grained slide films, valued by nature and landscape photographers. Provia: a slide film giving more natural colors than Velvia Astia: a fined grained, low contrast slide film used for studio or portrait applications Sensia: a low-contrast consumer slide film. Fortia: consumer slide film, featuring vivid color rendering suitable for flower photography and other high-saturation applications. Fujicolor color negative (pr
Gedeon Richter plc
Richter Gedeon Nyrt. is a Hungarian multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company headquartered in Budapest, Hungary. It is one of the largest companies of the industry in the Central and Eastern European region and has operations in over 40 countries; the company sells products for gynecology, the central nervous system, cardiology areas among other therapeutic areas. The company was established in Budapest by Gedeon Richter, a pharmacist, in 1901; the establishment of his firm marked the beginning of the development of the Hungarian pharmaceutical industry. Gedeon Richter plc has a primary listing on the Budapest Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the BUX Index, it had a market capitalisation of $4 billion as of November 2015, the third largest of any company with a primary listing on the Budapest Stock Exchange. It has secondary listings on Euronext. Small-scale pharmaceutical production took place in the Arany Sas Pharmacy, which still operates today. Independent pharmaceutical research and production activities were launched in Hungary in those days.
However, pharmaceutical production at an industrial scale necessitated heavy investments, large-scale pharmaceutical manufacturing activities were considered to be capital-intensive operations by the established standards in Western countries. The laboratory that operated on the premises of the pharmacy processed extracts from organs of animals and produced organotherapeutic drugs; the plant was built in 1907 in the Kőbánya suburb of Budapest. In compliance with the established international trends of the pharmaceutical industry in those days, the company produced herbal drugs, processed extracts from plants and manufactured synthetic products at a date; the company became a recognized manufacturer of lecithin products and febrifuge products, as well as painkillers. In 1934, Constant Janssen, of the future Janssen Pharmaceuticals, acquired the distribution rights for Gedeon Richter's products. In the 1970s, chemists at the Gedeon Richter Chemical Works in Budapest discovered the brain enhancing drug Vinpocetine.
In October 2010, Gedeon Richter plc acquired 100% of a private Swiss drug company, for CHF 445 million. Gedeon Richter has various subsidiaries in different countries: Gedeon Richter Polska, Gedeon Richter Romania and Gedeon Richter RUS are regional production subsidiaries. Richter-Themis Medicare, Richter-Helm BioLogics and BioTec, Mediplus N. V. Gedeon Richter Mexico, S. A. P. I. de C. V. Gedeon Richter Do Brasil Importadora, Exportadora E Distribuidora S. A. and Gedeon Richter Columbia S. A. S. are international subsidiaries in distribution. The corporation has two plants today: the headquarters in Budapest, a subsidiary in Dorog, operating since 1967; the company has joint ventures in India with Themis Medicare, in Germany, with Helm AG.2012. Biotechnology plant in Debrecen. In 2017, Gedeon Richter was recognized by the Hungarian Innovation Foundation with the Innovation Grand Prize for the development of Cariprazine, an antipsychotic drug, used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.
In 2006, Gedeon Richter gifted a large sum to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, thereby establishing the IUPAC–Richter Prize in Medicinal Chemistry. The $10,000 prize is awarded every second year to an internationally recognized scientist, whose research or publications have made a significant contribution to the practice of medicinal chemistry; the prize was initiated to honor and highlight the central role of medicinal chemistry in improving human health. Economy of Budapest Economy of Hungary Science and technology in Hungary Official website Company headquarters' location in Budapest, Hungary: 47°28′6.90″N 19°8′55.17″E
Oss is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands, in the province of North Brabant. Dutch Topographic map of Oss, June 2015 Oss has a shopping center with outlets including The Sting and C&A, but not much more; the center has many squares. The only real shopping streets are the Heuvelstraat and the Peperstraat; the squares are connected with these shopping passages that contain shops. One of the passages had an overhauling renovation in 2014, it now resembles an old Dutch street. There is archaeological evidence that humans have lived around Oss for 4,000 years. Major archaeological finds were the Vorstengraf burial sites and the indigenous-Roman burial fields of Oss-Ussen. Oss was first mentioned in a letter by Pope Alexander II on 6 May 1069. Oss was granted city rights in 1399 by Hertogin Johanna van Brabant. Present-day Oss has several chemical and pharmaceutical industries like Merck & Co.. Oss is host to the professional football team FC Oss, is the birthplace of former Manchester United and Real Madrid star Ruud van Nistelrooy, although he did not play for the local side, but for rivals FC Den Bosch.
The gothic metal/alternative rock band The Gathering, formed in 1989 hails from Oss. Berghem is a small town east of Oss. Berghem is being expanded with many new houses in the Piekenhoef. Megen is a small city close to the river Maas. Megen used to be the'capital' of the county Megen, founded around 1145. City rights were obtained in 1357. In 1810, the County Megen became a municipality to which Haren and Macharen belonged, it became part of the municipality of Oss in 1994. There are two monasteries in Megen. One is inhabited by followers of St. Clare of Assisi; the other is occupied by followers of St. Francis of Assisi. Of the two castles Megen used to have, only one tower remains. Ravenstein was a municipality until 2003, when it was added to the Oss municipality; the municipality covered an area of 42.68 km² and included villages: Demen, Deursen, Herpen, Keent, Neerlangel, Overlangel. Ravenstein received city rights in 1380. Railway stations: Oss, Oss West, Ravenstein Michel van der Aa, composer Chris Berens, visionary painter working in Amsterdam Samuel van den Bergh, one of the main European margarine and soap manufacturers in the early 20th century John van den Berk, motocross world champion Frank Boeijen songwriter and keyboardist with Dutch metal band The Gathering C. C.
Catch, pop singer Rens van Eijden, footballer Bas van de Goor, volleyball player Mike van de Goor, volleyball player Arno den Hartog, field hockey international Jacques de Kadt, political thinker and writer Marjolein Kooijman bass player with Dutch metal band The Gathering since 2004 Joop Falke Goldsmith and Sculptor Albert Kraus, K-1 World MAX Champion Marc Lammers, field hockey player and coach Jan Marijnissen politician, belonging to the Socialist Party Loek van Mil, professional baseball player Ruud van Nistelrooy, Netherlands international football player Pieter Nooten and composer best known for his work with Clan of Xymox. Rick van der Ven, 2012 Olympic Games archery contestant Gino Vos, darter Haren en Macharen Media related to Oss at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications to be administered to patients to cure them, vaccinate them, or alleviate a symptom. Pharmaceutical companies may deal in medical devices, they are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that govern the patenting, safety and marketing of drugs. The modern pharmaceutical industry traces its roots to two sources; the first of these were local apothecaries that expanded from their traditional role distributing botanical drugs such as morphine and quinine to wholesale manufacture in the mid 1800s. Rational drug discovery from plants started with the isolation of morphine and sleep-inducing agent from opium, by the German apothecary assistant Friedrich Sertürner who named the compound after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus. By the late 1880s, German dye manufacturers had perfected the purification of individual organic compounds from tar and other mineral sources and had established rudimentary methods in organic chemical synthesis.
The development of synthetic chemical methods allowed scientists to systematically vary the structure of chemical substances, growth in the emerging science of pharmacology expanded their ability to evaluate the biological effects of these structural changes. By the 1890s, the profound effect of adrenal extracts on many different tissue types had been discovered, setting off a search both for the mechanism of chemical signalling and efforts to exploit these observations for the development of new drugs; the blood pressure raising and vasoconstrictive effects of adrenal extracts were of particular interest to surgeons as hemostatic agents and as treatment for shock, a number of companies developed products based on adrenal extracts containing varying purities of the active substance. In 1897, John Abel of Johns Hopkins University identified the active principle as epinephrine, which he isolated in an impure state as the sulfate salt. Industrial chemist Jokichi Takamine developed a method for obtaining epinephrine in a pure state, licensed the technology to Parke-Davis.
Parke-Davis marketed epinephrine under the trade name Adrenalin. Injected epinephrine proved to be efficacious for the acute treatment of asthma attacks, an inhaled version was sold in the United States until 2011. By 1929 epinephrine had been formulated into an inhaler for use in the treatment of nasal congestion. While effective, the requirement for injection limited the use of epinephrine and orally active derivatives were sought. A structurally similar compound, was identified by Japanese chemists in the Ma Huang plant and marketed by Eli Lilly as an oral treatment for asthma. Following the work of Henry Dale and George Barger at Burroughs-Wellcome, academic chemist Gordon Alles synthesized amphetamine and tested it in asthma patients in 1929; the drug proved to have only modest anti-asthma effects, but produced sensations of exhilaration and palpitations. Amphetamine was developed by Smith and French as a nasal decongestant under the trade name Benzedrine Inhaler. Amphetamine was developed for the treatment of narcolepsy, post-encephalitic parkinsonism, mood elevation in depression and other psychiatric indications.
It received approval as a New and Nonofficial Remedy from the American Medical Association for these uses in 1937 and remained in common use for depression until the development of tricyclic antidepressants in the 1960s. In 1903, Hermann Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering disclosed their discovery that diethylbarbituric acid, formed from the reaction of diethylmalonic acid, phosphorus oxychloride and urea, induces sleep in dogs; the discovery was patented and licensed to Bayer pharmaceuticals, which marketed the compound under the trade name Veronal as a sleep aid beginning in 1904. Systematic investigations of the effect of structural changes on potency and duration of action led to the discovery of phenobarbital at Bayer in 1911 and the discovery of its potent anti-epileptic activity in 1912. Phenobarbital was among the most used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy through the 1970s, as of 2014, remains on the World Health Organizations list of essential medications; the 1950s and 1960s saw increased awareness of the addictive properties and abuse potential of barbiturates and amphetamines and led to increasing restrictions on their use and growing government oversight of prescribers.
Today, amphetamine is restricted to use in the treatment of attention deficit disorder and phenobarbital in the treatment of epilepsy. A series of experiments performed from the late 1800s to the early 1900s revealed that diabetes is caused by the absence of a substance produced by the pancreas. In 1869, Oskar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering found that diabetes could be induced in dogs by surgical removal of the pancreas. In 1921, Canadian professor Frederick Banting and his student Charles Best repeated this study, found that injections of pancreatic extract reversed the symptoms produced by pancreas removal. Soon, the extract was demonstrated to work in people, but development of insulin therapy as a routine medical procedure was delayed by difficulties in producing the material in sufficient quantity and with reproducible purity; the researchers sought assistance from industrial collaborators at Eli Lilly and Co. based on the company's experience with large scale purification of biological materials.
Chemist George B. Walden of Eli Lilly and Company found that careful adjustment of the pH of the extract allowed a pure grade of insulin to be produced. Under pressure from Toronto Un