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Diphthong

A diphthong known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: that is, the tongue moves during the pronunciation of the vowel. In most varieties of English, the phrase no highway cowboys has five distinct diphthongs, one in every syllable. Diphthongs contrast with monophthongs, where the tongue or other speech organs do not move and the syllable contains only a single vowel sound. For instance, in English, the word ah is spoken as a monophthong, while the word ow is spoken as a diphthong in most varieties. Where two adjacent vowel sounds occur in different syllables—for example, in the English word re-elect—the result is described as hiatus, not as a diphthong. Diphthongs form when separate vowels are run together in rapid speech during a conversation. However, there are unitary diphthongs, as in the English examples above, which are heard by listeners as single-vowel sounds. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, monophthongs are transcribed with one symbol, as in English sun, in which ⟨ʌ⟩ represents a monophthong.

Diphthongs are transcribed with two symbols, as in English high or cow, in which ⟨aɪ⟩ and ⟨aʊ⟩ represent diphthongs. Diphthongs may be transcribed with a vowel symbol and a semivowel symbol. In the words above, the less prominent member of the diphthong can be represented with the symbols for the palatal approximant and the labiovelar approximant, with the symbols for the close vowels and, or the symbols for the near-close vowels and: Some transcriptions are broader or narrower than others. Transcribing the English diphthongs in high and cow as ⟨aj aw⟩ or ⟨ai̯ au̯⟩ is a less precise or broader transcription, since these diphthongs end in a vowel sound, more open than the semivowels or the close vowels. Transcribing the diphthongs as ⟨aɪ̯ aʊ̯⟩ is a more precise or narrower transcription, since the English diphthongs end in the near-close vowels; the non-syllabic diacritic, the inverted breve below ⟨◌̯⟩, is placed under the less prominent part of a diphthong to show that it is part of a diphthong rather than a vowel in a separate syllable:.

When there is no contrastive vowel sequence in the language, the diacritic may be omitted. Other common indications that the two sounds are not separate vowels are a superscript, ⟨aᶦ aᶷ⟩, or a tie bar, ⟨a͡ɪ a͡ʊ⟩ or ⟨a͜ɪ a͜ʊ⟩; the tie bar can be useful when it is not clear which symbol represents the syllable nucleus, or when they have equal weight. Superscripts are used when an on- or off-glide is fleeting; the period ⟨.⟩ is the opposite of the non-syllabic diacritic: it represents a syllable break. If two vowels next to each other belong to two different syllables, meaning that they do not form a diphthong, they can be transcribed with two vowel symbols with a period in between. Thus, lower can be transcribed ⟨ˈloʊ.ər⟩, with a period separating the first syllable, from the second syllable. The non-syllabic diacritic is used only when necessary, it is omitted when there is no ambiguity, as in ⟨haɪ kaʊ⟩. No words in English have the vowel sequences *, so the non-syllabic diacritic is unnecessary.

Falling diphthongs start with a vowel quality of higher prominence and end in a semivowel with less prominence, like in eye, while rising diphthongs begin with a less prominent semivowel and end with a more prominent full vowel, similar to the in yard. The less prominent component in the diphthong may be transcribed as an approximant, thus in eye and in yard. However, when the diphthong is analysed as a single phoneme, both elements are transcribed with vowel symbols. Semivowels and approximants are not equivalent in all treatments, in the English and Italian languages, among others, many phoneticians do not consider rising combinations to be diphthongs, but rather sequences of approximant and vowel. There are many languages that contrast one or more rising diphthongs with similar sequences of a glide and a vowel in their phonetic inventory. In closing diphthongs, the second element is more close than the first. Closing diphthongs tend to be falling, opening diphthongs are rising, as open vowels are more sonorous and therefore tend to be more prominent.

However, exceptions to this rule are not rare in the world's languages. In Finnish, for instance, the opening diphthongs /ie̯/ and /uo̯/ are true falling diphthongs, since they begin louder and with higher pitch and fall in prominence during the diphthong. A third, rare type of diphthong, neither opening nor closing is height-harmonic diphthongs, with both elements at the same vowel height; these occurred in Old English: beon "be" ceald "cold"A centering diphthong is one that begins with a more peripheral vowel and ends with a more central one, such as, in Received Pronunciation or and in Irish. Many centering diphthongs are opening diphthongs. Diphthongs may contrast in how far they close. For example, Samoan

Xi Puppis

Xi Puppis is a multiple star system in the southern constellation of Puppis. With an apparent visual magnitude of 3.35, it is one of the brighter members of this constellation. Based on parallax measurements made during the Hipparcos mission, it is located 1,200 light-years from the Sun, with a 7.5% margin of error. The system consists of a spectroscopic binary, designated Xi Puppis A, together with a third companion star, Xi Puppis B. A's two components are themselves designated Ab. Ξ Puppis is the system's Bayer designation. The designations of the two constituents as Xi Puppis A and B, those of A's components - Xi Puppis Aa and Ab - derive from the convention used by the Washington Multiplicity Catalog for multiple star systems, adopted by the International Astronomical Union; the system was sometimes known as Asmidiske, a misspelling and misplacement of Aspidiske, the traditional name of Iota Carinae. In 2016, the IAU organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalog and standardize proper names for stars.

The WGSN decided to attribute proper names to individual stars rather than entire multiple systems. It approved the name Azmidi for the component Xi Puppis Aa on 1 June 2018 and it is now so included in the List of IAU-approved Star Names; because of the distance of this system from the Earth, its visual magnitude is reduced by 0.73 as a result of extinction from the intervening gas and dust. Xi Puppis A presents as a yellow supergiant of spectral class G6 with a luminosity 8,300 times that of the Sun; the 13th-magnitude companion, Xi Puppis B, is about 5 arcseconds distant and is a Sun-like star that orbits at least 2000 AU away with an orbital period of at least 26,000 years. Asmidiske

Juan González (baseball)

Juan Alberto González Vázquez is a former Major League Baseball outfielder. During his 16 years in the league, González played for four teams, but is most identified with the Texas Rangers baseball club. One of the premier run producers and most feared hitters of the 1990s and early 2000s, González hit over 40 home runs five times and amassed at least 100 runs batted in eight times, he had a batting average of.310 or higher in five seasons. In his career as a whole, González averaged an impressive 42 home runs, 135 RBI, 81 extra-base hits per 162 games, placing him well within the top ten all-time in these season-adjusted statistics. González was known as a line drive hitter, not a fly-ball home-run hitter as were many power hitters of the 1990s, he was a full-time player at a two-time MVP before his 30th birthday. González explained his propensity for bringing runners home by saying, "I concentrate more when I see men on base." González grew up in a rough area of Puerto Rico, where as a young boy he learned to hit bottlecaps and corks with a broomstick handle in the Alto de Cuba barrio.

In the Puerto Rico youth league, González batted cleanup behind future Yankee center fielder Bernie Williams, where both competed against González's future teammate Iván Rodríguez. When the Yankees scouted the teenage Williams, he requested that they bring his friend González to their scouting camp on the east coast; the Texas Rangers signed González as an amateur free agent on May 30, 1986, at the age of 16. González has always wanted to serve as a role model for the kids of Puerto Rico, as they are faced with the downfalls of drugs and prostitution frequently. González avoided such temptations growing up, his father, a math teacher, mother, a housewife, made sure González and his two sisters behaved properly and stayed away from negative influences. González moved his family out of the barrio early in his MLB career, he paid utility bills for down-on-their-luck friends and plans on working to construct recreation facilities and a baseball diamond in his home town. One of Juan's managers, Johnny Oates, believed that until you've walked where Juan González has walked, you just won't understand.

Speaking from experience, as Oates has walked the streets of Vega Baja, Puerto Rico, during visits multiple times, he had this to say: "I don't think you can appreciate how far he's come until you've been there", Oates said. "We might be making choices between going to the skating rink. But look at the choices the kids there were faced with growing up – do you want to do drugs or get beaten up? I think, he had enough intelligence to say,'I don't want to do that.'"In Puerto Rico he is known as "Igor", the nickname he has carried since he was a nine-year-old fascinated by the professional wrestler "Igor the Magnificent." "I watched wrestling all the time and I still like it", González said. "One day when I was nine, I told another guy,'I'm Igor.' And he said,'Okay, your name is Igor from now on.' And I've been Igor since then." González debuted with the 1986 GCL Rangers and finished with.240 batting average.303 on-base percentage, a.266 slugging percentage in 60 games. He only struck out 57 times.

He tied Harvey Pulliam by grounding into a Gulf Coast League-leading 9 double plays. In 1987, González showed some improvement with the Gastonia Rangers, though Mark Whiten and Junior Felix were deemed better outfield prospects in the South Atlantic League. In ratings by Baseball America, González tied Ryan Bowen for 10th place on the prospect listing, he finished with.265 AVG.306 OBP, and.401 slugging percentage with 14 home runs and 74 RBI. González spent 1988 with the Charlotte Rangers and batted.256/~.327/.415 with 8 home runs in 277 AB. One of his outfield teammates that year was Sammy Sosa; the next year, he showed more improvement with the Tulsa Drillers hitting.293/~.322/.506 with 21 home runs and led the Texas League with 254 total bases. He outhomered Sosa by 14 and was third in the League in home runs, behind teammate Dean Palmer and Chris Cron. González was rated the league's No. 4 prospect by Baseball America, behind Ray Lankford, Andy Benes and José Offerman. Lankford and Warren Newson joined him in the TL All-Star outfield.

He was called up by the Texas Rangers in September of that year, but only hit.150/.227/.250. During his time with the Rangers that year, González only hit 1 HR; that HR was the first HR hit by a teenager for the Rangers. In 1990, González – playing with the Oklahoma City 89ers – led the American Association in home runs, RBI and total bases, he made the AA All-Star outfield alongside Lankford and Bernard Gilkey and was named the league MVP. Baseball America named him the top prospect in the league in a poll of managers, he finished with.258/~.343/.508 for the 89ers. In the AAA All-Star Game, González played as a designated hitter, he went 2 for 5 with a double, one of the game's two homers, two runs and two RBI in the AL's 8–5 loss. González was again called up by the Rangers and did far better this time, batting.289/.316/.522. In 1991, Texas gave González a chance to be an everyday player, he batted.264 while recording 102 runs batted in. González came up as a center fielder. González split his time in the OF between CF and LF.

González thrilled the club in his first full season at the young age of 21, as his 27 HR's led the Ranger